Occurrence and Control of Antibiotic Resistant Strains of Bacteria in Food Chain

A special issue of Foods (ISSN 2304-8158). This special issue belongs to the section "Food Microbiology".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (29 February 2024) | Viewed by 7485

Special Issue Editors


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Guest Editor
Department of Nutrition and Food Quality Assessment, Institute of Food Science and Nutrition, Faculty of Chemical and Food Technology, Slovak University of Technology in Bratislava, Radlinského 9, 812 37 Bratislava, Slovakia
Interests: antibiotic resistance in bacteria; gut microbiota; bacterial toxins; mutagenicity; biological activity of natural compounds; wastewater treatment

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Guest Editor
Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Institute of Microbiology and Gnotobiology, University of Veterinary Medicine and Pharmacy in Košice, Komenského 73, 041 81 Košice, Slovakia
Interests: antibiotic resistance; diagnostic bacteriology; gut microbiota; probiotic bacteria; natural compounds; bioactive substances

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

According to the WHO, about 600 million foodborne illnesses are reported annually. From this point of view, food safety is one of the most important tasks of many world organizations. The situation could be worse due to the antibiotic resistant foodborne strains. Bacteria can acquire antibiotic resistance genes by horizontal gene transfer or can develop mutations leading to antibiotic resistance. Both mechanisms are dependent upon surrounding conditions and viability of susceptible bacteria. In relation to this, we should monitor and control the food chain from farm to fork, however each stage can contribute to the development and dissemination of antibiotic resistant bacteria. Food chain monitoring and control should consider a singular health concept which includes the environment, animals, and humans. In the case of the environment, wastewater and its treatment play an important role in the development and dissemination of antibiotic resistance affecting agriculture, aquaculture, as well as humans and animals. Food processing, trends in nutrition, and consumer habits are another set of important points in the dissemination of antibiotic resistance in the food chain. At this point, it is important to focus on innovative technologies which help us to eliminate the problem of antibiotic resistance in the food chain from farm to fork. Therefore, the main subject of this Special Issue includes the monitoring, characterization, and control of antibiotic resistance in the environment (water, crops, agriculture), animals, and food. This Special Issue seeks manuscript submissions that further our understanding of antimicrobial resistance in the food chain and which design novel strategies to solve this problem.

Dr. Lucia Birošová
Dr. Jana Koščová
Guest Editors

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Keywords

  • antibiotic resistance
  • foodborne bacteria
  • food chain
  • one health
  • environment
  • animals
  • gut microbiota
  • wastewater treatment
  • food control
  • zoonoses
  • antibiotic residues

Published Papers (5 papers)

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Research

16 pages, 2636 KiB  
Article
Biocide Tolerance and Impact of Sanitizer Concentrations on the Antibiotic Resistance of Bacteria Originating from Cheese
by Éva György, Károly Arnold Unguran and Éva Laslo
Foods 2023, 12(21), 3937; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods12213937 - 27 Oct 2023
Viewed by 1144
Abstract
In this study, we determined and identified the bacterial diversity of different types of artisanal and industrially produced cheese. The antibiotic (erythromycin, chloramphenicol, kanamycin, ampicillin, clindamycin, streptomycin, tetracycline, and gentamicin) and biocide (peracetic acid, sodium hypochlorite, and benzalkonium chloride) resistance of clinically relevant [...] Read more.
In this study, we determined and identified the bacterial diversity of different types of artisanal and industrially produced cheese. The antibiotic (erythromycin, chloramphenicol, kanamycin, ampicillin, clindamycin, streptomycin, tetracycline, and gentamicin) and biocide (peracetic acid, sodium hypochlorite, and benzalkonium chloride) resistance of clinically relevant bacteria was determined as follows: Staphylococcus aureus, Macrococcus caseolyticus, Bacillus sp., Kocuria varians, Escherichia coli, Enterococcus faecalis, Citrobacter freundii, Citrobacter pasteurii, Klebsiella oxytoca, Klebsiella michiganensis, Enterobacter sp., Enterobacter cloacae, Enterobacter sichuanensis, Raoultella ornithinolytica, Shigella flexneri, and Salmonella enterica. Also, the effect of the sub-inhibitory concentration of three biocides on antibiotic resistance was determined. The microbiota of evaluated dairy products comprise diverse and heterogeneous groups of bacteria with respect to antibiotic and disinfectant tolerance. The results indicated that resistance was common in the case of ampicillin, chloramphenicol, erythromycin, and streptomycin. Bacillus sp. SCSSZT2/3, Enterococcus faecalis SRGT/1, E. coli SAT/1, Raoultella ornithinolytica MTT/5, and S. aureus SIJ/2 showed resistance to most antibiotics. The tested bacteria showed sensitivity to peracetic acid and a different level of tolerance to benzalkonium chloride and sodium hypochlorite. The inhibition zone diameter of antibiotics against Enterococcus faecalis SZT/2, S. aureus JS11, E. coli CSKO2, and Kocuria varians GRT/10 was affected only by the sub-inhibitory concentration of peracetic acid. Full article
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14 pages, 534 KiB  
Article
Occurrence of Antibiotic-Resistant Bacteria in Fish and Seafood from Slovak Market
by Monika Krahulcová, Klára Cverenkárová, Júlia Koreneková, Andrea Oravcová, Jana Koščová and Lucia Bírošová
Foods 2023, 12(21), 3912; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods12213912 - 25 Oct 2023
Viewed by 1342
Abstract
The consumption of sushi or poke has grown globally. However, this type of dish often contains raw fish or seafood; therefore, it can pose a microbial risk for consumers. This study deals with the occurrence of total and antibiotic-resistant coliform bacteria and enterococci [...] Read more.
The consumption of sushi or poke has grown globally. However, this type of dish often contains raw fish or seafood; therefore, it can pose a microbial risk for consumers. This study deals with the occurrence of total and antibiotic-resistant coliform bacteria and enterococci in fish and seafood as well as sushi and poke bought from Slovak retail (restaurants and fast food). Total coliforms have ranged in sushi, poke samples and samples of fish and seafood from cooling counters from 0.6 to 5.1 log CFU/g. Ampicillin resistance has been predominantly observed in all types of samples. Tetracycline resistance was detected in 16% of all tested samples and gentamicin resistance in 13%. Total enterococci has been detected in 74% of sushi samples, 100% of poke samples and 62% of samples obtained from supermarkets. The majority of enterococci were resistant to ampicillin. Vancomycin resistance was observed in five samples. Forty-eight resistant coliforms were identified mainly as Enterobacter spp. and Klebsiella spp. Antibiotic-resistant isolates were predominantly resistant to gentamicin, chloramphenicol and tetracycline. In 13% of resistant isolates was detected efflux pumps overproduction, and in four isolates was detected the tetA resistance gene. Our results point to poor hygiene in some establishments. The prevention of the antibiotic-resistant bacteria spread would be in better stewardship and improved monitoring of sanitation. Full article
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15 pages, 1634 KiB  
Article
High-Pressure Processing—Impacts on the Virulence and Antibiotic Resistance of Listeria monocytogenes Isolated from Food and Food Processing Environments
by Patryk Wiśniewski, Wioleta Chajęcka-Wierzchowska and Anna Zadernowska
Foods 2023, 12(21), 3899; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods12213899 - 24 Oct 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1437
Abstract
High-pressure processing (HPP) is one of the non-thermal methods of food preservation considered to be safe but may cause an increase/decrease in virulence potential and antibiotic resistance. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the survival of L. monocytogenes isolates after [...] Read more.
High-pressure processing (HPP) is one of the non-thermal methods of food preservation considered to be safe but may cause an increase/decrease in virulence potential and antibiotic resistance. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the survival of L. monocytogenes isolates after high-pressure processing (200 and 400 MPa for 5 min) and to determine changes in phenotypic and genotypic antibiotic resistance and virulence after this treatment. The 400 MPa treatment was shown to be effective in reducing pathogens to safe levels; however, the potential for cell recovery during storage was observed. In addition, studies on changes in virulence indicated possibilities related to a decrease in actA gene expression, overexpression of the hly and osfX gene, and an increase in biofilm-forming ability. The studies on changes in antibiotic resistance of isolates showed that all isolates showing initial susceptibility to lincomycin, fosfomycin, trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole, and tetracycline became resistant to these antibiotics, which was associated with an increase in the values of minimum inhibitory concentrations. An increase in the expression of antibiotic resistance genes (mainly tetA_1, tetA_3, tetC) was also observed (mainly after the application of 200 MPa pressure), which was isolate dependent. However, it is noteworthy that the induced changes were permanent, i.e., they persisted even after the restoration of optimal environmental conditions. The results presented in our work indicate that the stress occurring during HPP can affect both phenotypic and genotypic changes in the virulence and antibiotic resistance potential of pathogens isolated from food and food processing environments. The potential associated with cell recovery and persistence of changes may influence the spread of virulent isolates of pathogens with increased antibiotic resistance in the food and food processing environment. Full article
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18 pages, 4700 KiB  
Article
Survey of Colistin Resistance in Commensal Bacteria from Penaeus vannamei Farms in China
by Yilin Zhang, Xinrui Lv, Weiwei Cao, Huang Zhang, Lei Shi, Weibin Bai and Lei Ye
Foods 2023, 12(11), 2143; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods12112143 - 26 May 2023
Viewed by 1524
Abstract
Aquatic environments are important reservoirs for drug resistance. Aquatic foods may act as carriers to lead antibiotic-resistant commensal bacteria into the human gastrointestinal system, then contacting gut microbiota and spreading antibiotic resistance. Here, several shrimp farms were investigated to identify colistin resistance among [...] Read more.
Aquatic environments are important reservoirs for drug resistance. Aquatic foods may act as carriers to lead antibiotic-resistant commensal bacteria into the human gastrointestinal system, then contacting gut microbiota and spreading antibiotic resistance. Here, several shrimp farms were investigated to identify colistin resistance among commensal bacteria of aquaculture. A total of 884 (41.6%) colistin-resistant isolates were identified among 2126 strains. Electroporation demonstrated that colistin-resistant fragments were present in some commensal bacteria that could be transferred to other bacteria. Most of the resistant bacteria were Bacillus spp., with 69.3% of the Bacillus species exhibiting multiple drug resistance. Bacillus licheniformis was prevalent, with 58 strains identified that comprised six sequence types (ST) based on multilocus sequence typing. Whole-genome sequencing and comparisons with previous B. licheniformis genomes revealed a high degree of genomic similarity among isolates from different regions. Thus, this species is widely distributed, and this study provides new insights into global antibiotic-resistant characteristics of B. licheniformis. Sequence analyses further revealed some of these strains are even pathogenic and virulent, suggesting the antibiotic resistance and hazards of commensal bacteria in aquaculture should be considered. Considering the “One Health” perspective, improved monitoring of aquatic food is needed to prevent the spread of drug-resistant commensal bacteria from food-associated bacteria to humans. Full article
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20 pages, 2583 KiB  
Article
Antibiotic Resistance Profiles and ARG Detection from Isolated Bacteria in a Culture-Dependent Study at the Codfish Industry Level
by Gianluigi Ferri, Carlotta Lauteri, Mauro Scattolini and Alberto Vergara
Foods 2023, 12(8), 1699; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods12081699 - 19 Apr 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1207
Abstract
The antibiotic resistance phenomenon horizontally involves numerous bacteria cultured from fresh or processed seafood matrix microbiomes. In this study, the identified bacteria from food-producing processes and industrial environments were screened for phenotypic and genotypic resistance determinants. A total of 684 bacterial strains [537 [...] Read more.
The antibiotic resistance phenomenon horizontally involves numerous bacteria cultured from fresh or processed seafood matrix microbiomes. In this study, the identified bacteria from food-producing processes and industrial environments were screened for phenotypic and genotypic resistance determinants. A total of 684 bacterial strains [537 from processed codfish (Gadus morhua and Gadus macrocephalus) products as salted and seasoned and soaked and 147 from environmental samples] were isolated. Antibiotic susceptibility tests showed resistance against tetracycline, oxacillin, and clindamycin in the Staphylococcus genus (both from food and environmental samples) and against beta-lactams (cefotaxime, carbapenems, etc.) and nitrofurans (nitrofurantoin) from E. coli and Salmonella enterica serovar. Enteritidis isolates. One-thousand and ten genetic determinants—tetracycline tetC (25.17%), tetK (21.06%), tetL (11.70%), clindamycin ermC (17.23%), ermB (7.60%), linezolid cfr (8.22%), optrA (3.62%), poxtA (2.05%), and oxacillin mecA (17.37%)—were amplified from Gram-positive resistant and phenotypically susceptible bacteria. Concerning Gram-negative bacteria, the beta-lactam-resistant genes (blaTEM, blaCIT, blaCTX-M, blaIMP, blaKPC, blaOXA-48-like) represented 57.30% of the amplified ARGs. This study found high antibiotic resistance genes in circulation in the fish food industry chain from the macro- to microenvironment. The obtained data confirmed the diffusion of the “antibiotic resistance phenomenon” and its repercussions on the One-health and food-producing systems. Full article
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