Food Powders: Applications and Reconstitution-Properties

A special issue of Foods (ISSN 2304-8158). This special issue belongs to the section "Food Physics and (Bio)Chemistry".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (1 July 2023) | Viewed by 18198

Special Issue Editors


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Guest Editor
Food Investigation and Innovation Group, Food Technology Department, Universitat Politècnica de València, Camino de Vera s/n, 46022 Valencia, Spain
Interests: food processing; dehydration; extrusion; physicochemical properties; nutritional and functional value; bioactive compounds; in vitro digestion; natural ingredients; antioxidant capacity
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Food Investigation and Innovation Group, Food Technology Department, Universitat Politècnica de València, Camino de Vera s/n, 46022 Valencia, Spain
Interests: development of new food products; 3D printing; extrusion; sensorial analysis; nutrition; gastronomy
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Food Investigation and Innovation Group, Food Technology Department, Universitat Politècnica de València, Camino de Vera s/n, 46022 Valencia, Spain
Interests: food engineering; development of new food products; food processing; 3D printing; extrusion; nutrition; gastronomy
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

The commercialization of powder products can offer solutions to problems related to the short shelf life of foods and their seasonality in case of vegetables and fruits, and a means of providing microbiologically stable products as a consequence of their low water activity. Furthermore, food powder both facilitates the shipping operations and makes them more profitable due to its lower volume and weight and easier handling.

There are different processes for obtaining powdered food. From conventional drying to freeze-drying or spray-drying are technologies used to obtain powdered foods. The properties of the powdered product are affected both by the technique used and the conditions used in each one of them, as well as by the carrier agents that are usually used to obtain powdered foods. The properties of the powder, such as density, porosity, hygroscopicity, humidity, water absorption capacity, solubility capacity, among others, determine the use of powdered foods.

Food powders could be used as rehydrated as a juice, smoothies or infusion, or to be added to desserts, dairy products, salads, ice cream, snacks among other things, and even for enriching almost any food in nutrients and bioactive compounds.

This Special Issue of Foods intends to present applications of food powders and study the link between properties of powders and its possible applications in food industry

Dr. Marta Igual Ramo
Dr. Purificación García-Segovia
Prof. Dr. Javier Martínez-Monzó
Guest Editors

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Keywords

  • food powder
  • rehydration properties
  • powder application
  • powder properties
  • solubility
  • encapsulation

Published Papers (9 papers)

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Research

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15 pages, 4068 KiB  
Article
Unravelling the Influence of Composition and Heat Treatment on Key Characteristics of Dairy Protein Powders Using a Multifactorial Approach
by Jeehyun Lee, François Martin, Emeline Goussé, Anne Dolivet, Françoise Boissel, Arnaud Paul, Jennifer Burgain, Gaëlle Tanguy, Romain Jeantet and Cécile Le Floch-Fouéré
Foods 2023, 12(17), 3192; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods12173192 - 24 Aug 2023
Viewed by 700
Abstract
The purpose of this study was to improve understanding of the structural and functional property changes that milk-protein concentrates undergo during production, particularly how the manufacturing route (heat treatment position and intensity), standardization (in osmosed water or ultrafiltrate permeate) and formulation (casein:whey protein [...] Read more.
The purpose of this study was to improve understanding of the structural and functional property changes that milk-protein concentrates undergo during production, particularly how the manufacturing route (heat treatment position and intensity), standardization (in osmosed water or ultrafiltrate permeate) and formulation (casein:whey protein (Cas:WP) ratio) influence the physico-chemical characteristics—hygroscopicity, particle size, sphericity, density and evolution of browning during storage. To obtain a comprehensive understanding of the parameters responsible for the distinctive characteristics of different powders, a multifactorial approach was adopted. Hygroscopicity depended mainly on the standardizing solution and to a lesser extent the Cas:WP ratio. The particle size of the heat-treated casein-dominant powders was up to 5 μm higher than for those that had had no heat treatment regardless of the standardizing solution, which also had no influence on the sphericity of the powder particles. The density of the powders increased up to 800 kg·m−3 with a reduced proportion of casein, and lactose and whey proteins participated in browning reactions during storage at 13 °C. In increasing order, the modality of heat treatment, the standardizing solution and the Cas:WP protein ratio influenced the key characteristics. This work is relevant for industrial applications to increase control over the functionalities of powdered products. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Food Powders: Applications and Reconstitution-Properties)
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13 pages, 2401 KiB  
Article
Physicochemical, Structural, and Functional Properties of Snake Melon (Cucumis melo subsp. melo Var. flexuosus) Microencapsulated with Pea Protein and Pea Fibre by Freeze-Drying
by Marta Igual, Alejandro Flores-León, Belén Picó, Javier Martínez-Monzó and Purificación García-Segovia
Foods 2023, 12(14), 2679; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods12142679 - 11 Jul 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1027
Abstract
The purpose of this study was to obtain a functional, stable powder product from Cucumis melo subsp. melo Var. flexuosus (L.) to promote its consumption and reduce waste and production losses. The melons were ground and freeze-dried with or without biopolymers (pea protein [...] Read more.
The purpose of this study was to obtain a functional, stable powder product from Cucumis melo subsp. melo Var. flexuosus (L.) to promote its consumption and reduce waste and production losses. The melons were ground and freeze-dried with or without biopolymers (pea protein (PPSM) or pea fibre (PFSM)). The physicochemical, structural, and functional properties of the powder were studied. The water content, water activity, bulk density, porosity, Hausner ratio, Carr index, hygroscopicity, water solubility, water absorption index, particle size, colour, and microstructure of the powder were determined. In addition, vitamin C, folates, chlorophyll a, total phenols and carotenoids, antioxidant capacity, and powder encapsulation efficiency were analysed. Snake melon (SM) powders contained vitamin C, folates, carotenoids, chlorophyll a, and phenols, which contributed to their antioxidant capacity. The incorporation of PP or PF in the formulation before lyophilisation generated stable encapsulates that protected the bioactive compounds. PPSM and PFSM were less hygroscopic and more free-flowing and had lower water content and water activity compared to the SM. PFSM showed higher encapsulation efficiency and smaller particles with a smooth surface and oval shape. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Food Powders: Applications and Reconstitution-Properties)
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12 pages, 828 KiB  
Article
Composition of Powdered Freeze-Dried Orange Juice Co-Product as Related to Glucose Absorption In Vitro
by María del Mar Camacho, Juan José Martínez-Lahuerta, Isabel Ustero, Eva García-Martínez and Nuria Martínez-Navarrete
Foods 2023, 12(6), 1127; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods12061127 - 07 Mar 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1714
Abstract
The reuse of food by-products is crucial for the well-being of the planet. Considering the high content of nutrients and other bioactive compounds in many of them, investigating their suitability for use as human food ingredients is an interesting challenge. In this study, [...] Read more.
The reuse of food by-products is crucial for the well-being of the planet. Considering the high content of nutrients and other bioactive compounds in many of them, investigating their suitability for use as human food ingredients is an interesting challenge. In this study, in addition to the proximate composition, phenol content and antioxidant activity (AOA = 3.2 mmol Trolox equivalent (TE)/100 g, db) of orange juice powder by-product (CoP), different in vitro properties related to carbohydrate metabolism have been characterised. Specifically, the glycaemic index (GI), the glycaemic load (GL), the glucose dialysis retardation index (GDRI = 13.6%), the glucose adsorption capacity (GAC = 22.5 mM) and the inhibition capacity of α-amylase (α-A = 46.9%) and α-glucosidase (α-G = 93.3%) of powdered orange juice waste have been determined and related to fibre and phenolics composition. Taking advantage of the high fibre content of the by-product (36.67%), its GL was calculated for a CoP dose that allows labelling the food to which it is added as a source of fibre. The low GI value (24.4%) and the low GL (0.918 g available carbohydrates per serving) allowed us to conclude that the product studied could be an interesting opportunity for the food industry to offer it as a healthy food ingredient to be included in the diet, especially for those suffering from type 2 diabetes mellitus. Of the total phenolic compounds (TP = 509 mg equivalent of gallic acid (GAE)/100 g, db), 68% were found in free fraction (FP), and their contribution to the total AOA was 40.6%, while this was 54.9% for the 32% of phenols bound to plant tissues (BP). Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Food Powders: Applications and Reconstitution-Properties)
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14 pages, 2732 KiB  
Article
Techno-Functional Properties of Corn Flour with Cowpea (Vigna unguilata) Powders Obtained by Extrusion
by Luz Indira Sotelo-Díaz, Marta Igual, Javier Martínez-Monzó and Purificación García-Segovia
Foods 2023, 12(2), 298; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods12020298 - 08 Jan 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1999
Abstract
Legumes are a good source of vegetal protein that improves diets worldwide. Cowpea has been used as fortification agents in some traditional corn foods in developing countries such as Colombia. The work aimed to evaluate the physicochemical properties of extruded mixtures of corn [...] Read more.
Legumes are a good source of vegetal protein that improves diets worldwide. Cowpea has been used as fortification agents in some traditional corn foods in developing countries such as Colombia. The work aimed to evaluate the physicochemical properties of extruded mixtures of corn and cowpea flours to assess the use of these mixes as vegetable protein ingredients. Corn flour was mixed with 15, 30, and 50% of cowpea flour and extruded for this proposal. After extrusion, mixtures were ground to produce a powder. Techno-functional properties of powders as water content, hygroscopicity, water absorption, fat absorption, water solubility index, swelling index, bulk density, Hausner ratio, Carr index, and porosity were evaluated in the mixtures, extrudates, and obtained powders to assess the effect of the addition of cowpea on these properties. Results showed that processing powder obtained by extrusion and drying could be used as a powder to regenerate with water as a source of protein. Moreover, storing processing samples in sections (pellet format) is convenient to avoid wetting since this format is less hygroscopic and the same mass occupies less storage volume than powders. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Food Powders: Applications and Reconstitution-Properties)
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13 pages, 878 KiB  
Article
Characterization of the Orange Juice Powder Co-Product for Its Valorization as a Food Ingredient
by Nuria Martínez-Navarrete, Eva García-Martínez and María del Mar Camacho
Foods 2023, 12(1), 97; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods12010097 - 24 Dec 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2672
Abstract
The citrus juice industry produces a large amount of fiber-rich waste and other bioactive compounds of great interest for their potential health benefits. This study focuses on the valorization of the co-product resulting from the extraction of orange juice to offer it as [...] Read more.
The citrus juice industry produces a large amount of fiber-rich waste and other bioactive compounds of great interest for their potential health benefits. This study focuses on the valorization of the co-product resulting from the extraction of orange juice to offer it as a versatile, healthy, high-quality, and stable natural food ingredient in powder form. To this end, the vitamin C (VC) content (ascorbic and dehydroascorbic acid, AA and DHAA), major flavonoids (hesperidin and narirutin, HES and NAT), and techno-functional properties (angle of repose, AoR; hygroscopicity and wettability; density and porosity; mean particle size, MPS; water retention capacity, WRC; oil holding capacity, ORC; emulsifying and foaming capacity, EC and FC; and emulsion and foam stability, ES and FS) have been characterized. In addition, considering that dehydrated foods with high sugar content require the incorporation of high molecular weight biopolymers for their physical stabilization, the influence of starch modified with octenyl succinic acid (OSA) and gum Arabic (GA) on these properties has been studied. The results obtained confirm the high quality of this co-product to be offered as a powdered food ingredient with nutraceutical potential. The addition of the studied biopolymers is recommended as it does not modify the flowability of the powder and favors both the encapsulation of the bioactive compounds, especially in the presence of GA, and the rehydration capacity. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Food Powders: Applications and Reconstitution-Properties)
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15 pages, 2001 KiB  
Article
Evaluation of Chemical and Sensory Characteristics of Sauerkraut Juice Powder and its Application in Food
by Liene Jansone, Zanda Kruma and Evita Straumite
Foods 2023, 12(1), 19; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods12010019 - 21 Dec 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1874
Abstract
Sauerkraut juice is rich in bioactive compounds; however, it is considered a byproduct of the production process. An innovative solution was found through the process of spray-drying to obtain sauerkraut juice powder. The aim of this study was to evaluate chemical and sensory [...] Read more.
Sauerkraut juice is rich in bioactive compounds; however, it is considered a byproduct of the production process. An innovative solution was found through the process of spray-drying to obtain sauerkraut juice powder. The aim of this study was to evaluate chemical and sensory characteristics of sauerkraut juice powder (SJP) and its application in foodstuffs. For SJP, total phenol content, antiradical activity, and nutritional value were determined, and the results showed that SJP is rich in minerals, especially calcium and potassium, as well as organic acids and vitamin C. SJP contains 12% NaCl and a total phenol content of 359.54 mg GAE 100 g−1 dw. SJP has umami attributes, such as sweet, sour, and salty. Sensory tests—descriptive, rate-all-that-apply, overall liking, and volatile profile determination—were carried out separately in SJP experimental samples with olive oil and sour cream. Among the sweet, sour, and salty flavours, garlic, yogurt, and mayonnaise were also mentioned. In the detection of volatile compounds, leafy and grassy green aromas with light almond were identified in the samples with olive oil and butter and rancid cheese and fishy/amine odours were identified in samples with sour cream. There were significant differences in the overall likability of samples, but the experimental samples with SJP were more popular than control samples; therefore, SJP may be used as a salt alternative in food applications. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Food Powders: Applications and Reconstitution-Properties)
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24 pages, 3113 KiB  
Article
Freeze-Dried Powder of Fermented Chili Paste—New Approach to Cured Salami Production
by Adriana Păucean, Csaba Balázs Kádár, Elemér Simon, Dan Cristian Vodnar, Floricuța Ranga, Iulian Eugen Rusu, Vasile-Gheorghe Vișan, Sonia-Ancuța Socaci, Simona Man, Maria Simona Chiș, Anamaria Pop, Anda E. Tanislav and Vlad Mureșan
Foods 2022, 11(22), 3716; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods11223716 - 18 Nov 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2621
Abstract
Fermented chili powders were obtained through the freeze-drying of fermented chili pastes and used as a condiment, acidifier, antioxidant, colorant, and microbial starter carrier in fermented salami production. Fermented chili powders were examined regarding carbohydrates, organic acids, vitamin C, phenolic compounds, carotenoids, and [...] Read more.
Fermented chili powders were obtained through the freeze-drying of fermented chili pastes and used as a condiment, acidifier, antioxidant, colorant, and microbial starter carrier in fermented salami production. Fermented chili powders were examined regarding carbohydrates, organic acids, vitamin C, phenolic compounds, carotenoids, and aroma profile. High concentrations of lactic (10.57–12.20%) and acetic acids (3.39–4.10%) were recorded. Vitamin C content was identified in the range of 398–1107 mg/100 g, with maximum values for C. annuum cv. Cayenne chili powder. Phenolic compounds showed values between 302–771 mg/100 g. Total carotenoid content was identified between 544–2462 µg/g, with high concentrations of capsanthin esters. Aroma profile analysis evidenced specific compounds (1-hexanol, 2-hexanol, hexenal, E-2-hexenal) with sensory importance and a more complex spectrum for Capsicum chinense cultivar. Plant-specific lactic acid bacteria showed dominance both in fermented chili paste, chili powder, and salami. Lactic and acetic acids from the fermented chili powder reduced the pH of the filling immediately, having a stabilizing effect on the meat. Nor molds or pathogens were identified in outer limits. Based on these results, fermented chili powders could be used as starter carriers in the production of fermented meat products for exceptional sensory properties and food safety management. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Food Powders: Applications and Reconstitution-Properties)
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14 pages, 2416 KiB  
Article
Sorption Isotherms, Glass Transition and Bioactive Compounds of Ingredients Enriched with Soluble Fibre from Orange Pomace
by Claudia Perez-Pirotto, Gemma Moraga, Isabel Hernando, Sonia Cozzano and Patricia Arcia
Foods 2022, 11(22), 3615; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods11223615 - 12 Nov 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1228
Abstract
Citrus fruits are one of the main crops worldwide. Its industrialization, primarily juice production, produces large amounts of byproducts, composed of seeds and peels, that can be used to obtain new ingredients. In this study, sorption behaviour, glass transition, mechanical properties, colour and [...] Read more.
Citrus fruits are one of the main crops worldwide. Its industrialization, primarily juice production, produces large amounts of byproducts, composed of seeds and peels, that can be used to obtain new ingredients. In this study, sorption behaviour, glass transition, mechanical properties, colour and bioactives of four different soluble fibre-enriched powders obtained from orange pomace using green technologies were studied. Powders were equilibrated at water activities between 0.113 and 0.680 for fifteen weeks at 20 °C, and studies were performed to indicate the best storing conditions to ensure the glassy state of the amorphous matrix and higher bioactive stability. By combining the Gordon and Taylor model with the Henderson isotherm, the critical water activity and content for storage in a glassy state were determined. The ingredient obtained after extrusion + hot water is the most stable, which is also the one with the highest dietary fibre content. Powder obtained by jet cooking is the least stable, as it is not in a glassy state at any water activity at room temperature. To increase storage stability, these should be stored at refrigeration temperatures. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Food Powders: Applications and Reconstitution-Properties)
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Review

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27 pages, 2395 KiB  
Review
Recent Developments in the Microencapsulation of Fish Oil and Natural Extracts: Procedure, Quality Evaluation and Food Enrichment
by Trinidad Perez-Palacios, Jorge Ruiz-Carrascal, Juan Carlos Solomando, Francisco de-la-Haba, Abraham Pajuelo and Teresa Antequera
Foods 2022, 11(20), 3291; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods11203291 - 20 Oct 2022
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 2829
Abstract
Due to the beneficial health effects of omega-3 fatty acids and antioxidants and their limited stability in response to environmental and processing factors, there is an increasing interest in microencapsulating them to improve their stability. However, despite recent developments in the field, no [...] Read more.
Due to the beneficial health effects of omega-3 fatty acids and antioxidants and their limited stability in response to environmental and processing factors, there is an increasing interest in microencapsulating them to improve their stability. However, despite recent developments in the field, no specific review focusing on these topics has been published in the last few years. This work aimed to review the most recent developments in the microencapsulation of fish oil and natural antioxidant compounds. The impact of the wall material and the procedures on the quality of the microencapsulates were preferably evaluated, while their addition to foods has only been studied in a few works. The homogenization technique, the wall–material ratio and the microencapsulation technique were also extensively studied. Microcapsules were mainly analyzed for size, microencapsulation efficiency, morphology and moisture, while in vitro digestion, flowing properties, yield percentage and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) were used more sparingly. Findings highlighted the importance of optimizing the most influential variables of the microencapsulation procedure. Further studies should focus on extending the range of analytical techniques upon which the optimization of microcapsules is based and on addressing the consequences of the addition of microcapsules to food products. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Food Powders: Applications and Reconstitution-Properties)
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