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Article

Tiger Nut (Cyperus esculentus) as a Functional Ingredient in Gluten-Free Extruded Snacks

1
Western Regional Research Center, U.S. Department of Agriculture Research Service, 800 Buchanan Street, Albany, CA 94710-1105, USA
2
Food Science Department, Institute of Agrochemistry and Food Technology (IATA-CSIC), C/Agustin Escardino 7, 46980 Paterna, Spain
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Foods 2020, 9(12), 1770; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods9121770
Received: 30 October 2020 / Revised: 22 November 2020 / Accepted: 27 November 2020 / Published: 29 November 2020
Tiger nut (TN) is a nutritious source of gluten-free flour, used generally in healthy beverages, but its incorporation in gluten-free extruded snacks has not been explored. TN flour was blended at different concentrations (up to 70%) with rice flour and soluble fiber, for the development of gluten-free snacks on a twin-screw extruder. The effect of TN inclusion in the formulations was evaluated on relevant physiochemical characteristics of the snacks. Viscoamylograph of the raw formulations showed that TN addition increased (p < 0.01) onset temperature and delayed peak viscosity. In the extruded flours, TN contributed to limit the starch degradation during extrusion. Diameter, expansion ratio, true density, and total pore volume of the extrudates were reduced (pf < 0.01) by the increased TN content in the formulations, while bulk density rose. The surfaces of the extruded snacks were modified by the increasing inclusion of TN in substitution of rice in the formulations. Extrudates containing 10% TN showed the best overall texture profile. Moreover, TN addition enhanced the ash and protein content of the snacks and increased their total antioxidant activity. This study demonstrated that incorporation of 10% TN flour into rice-based formulation was suitable for making gluten-free snacks with acceptable physical properties. View Full-Text
Keywords: tiger nut; rice flour; gluten-free; snacks; extrusion tiger nut; rice flour; gluten-free; snacks; extrusion
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MDPI and ACS Style

Gasparre, N.; Pan, J.; da Silva Alves, P.L.; Rosell, C.M.; De J. Berrios, J. Tiger Nut (Cyperus esculentus) as a Functional Ingredient in Gluten-Free Extruded Snacks. Foods 2020, 9, 1770. https://doi.org/10.3390/foods9121770

AMA Style

Gasparre N, Pan J, da Silva Alves PL, Rosell CM, De J. Berrios J. Tiger Nut (Cyperus esculentus) as a Functional Ingredient in Gluten-Free Extruded Snacks. Foods. 2020; 9(12):1770. https://doi.org/10.3390/foods9121770

Chicago/Turabian Style

Gasparre, Nicola, James Pan, Priscila L. da Silva Alves, Cristina M. Rosell, and Jose De J. Berrios. 2020. "Tiger Nut (Cyperus esculentus) as a Functional Ingredient in Gluten-Free Extruded Snacks" Foods 9, no. 12: 1770. https://doi.org/10.3390/foods9121770

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