Microorganisms with Probiotic Properties

A special issue of Foods (ISSN 2304-8158). This special issue belongs to the section "Food Microbiology".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (30 September 2021) | Viewed by 39342

Special Issue Editors


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Guest Editor
Department of Food Science and Technology, University of Peloponnese, Antikalamos, Kalamata, Greece
Interests: lactic acid bacteria; probiotics; functional foods; dairy products; meat products; bacterial genetics; genomics; metagenomics; bacteriocins
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals
Department of Biology, University of Padova, Italy
Interests: genomics and metagenomics; lactic acid bacteria and yeasts; probiotics and bacteriocins; dairy products and beverages; molecular biology; bioinformatics; gene expression

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Guest Editor
Department of Biology, University of Padova, Italy
Interests: microbial genomics; metagenomics; bioinformatics; anaerobic digestion; food microbiology with focus on Saccharomyces cerevisiae; lactic acid bacteria

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Guest Editor
Department of Food Science and Technology, Faculty of Agriculture and Foods, University of Peloponnese, Greece
Interests: lactic acid bacteria; bacteriocins; probiotics; fermented foods microbiology; dairy products
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

The concept of probiotics is currently well established for consumers and the research community. Everybody understands that probiotics are microorganisms that, when consumed, confer some kind of health benefit to the host. The global probiotics market size reaches tens of billions of dollars each year, and numerous probiotic foods and supplements are sold around the world. The recent advent of omics approaches and the research concerning the human microbiome have revolutionized our understanding of probiotics. The focus of this Special Issue concerns all major aspects of probiotics research. Among others, this would include studies focusing on:

a. the description of novel probiotic strains and products,

b. new ways to screen for probiotics,

c. the molecular mode of action of probiotics,

d. genomics (including functional genomics) and proteomics applied to understand the properties of probiotics,

e. the development of animal models to test new probiotic properties, and

f. the physiological responses of the host to the administration of probiotics.

We are particularly interested in receiving studies concerning the identification of probiotics deriving from studies of the gut microbiome and the action of probiotic on distal to the gut regions (e.g., the urogenital tract, the brain), as well as clinical studies. Both review and research articles will be welcomed in this Special Issue.

Assistant Prof. Dr. Konstantinos Papadimitriou
Dr. Laura Treu
Associate Prof. Dr. Stefano Campanaro
Associate Prof. Dr. Marina Papadelli
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

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Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2900 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • Probiotics
  • Mode of action
  • Genomics
  • Proteomics
  • Metagenomics
  • Gut
  • Microbiome
  • Psychobiotics
  • Clinical studies
  • Functional foods

Published Papers (8 papers)

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Research

Jump to: Review

13 pages, 1074 KiB  
Article
Microbiological Quality and Resistance to an Artificial Gut Environment of Two Probiotic Formulations
by Diletta Mazzantini, Francesco Celandroni, Marco Calvigioni, Adelaide Panattoni, Roberto Labella and Emilia Ghelardi
Foods 2021, 10(11), 2781; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods10112781 - 12 Nov 2021
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 2478
Abstract
The quality control of probiotic products is the focus of numerous organizations worldwide. Several studies have highlighted the poor microbiological quality of many commercial probiotic formulations in terms of the identity of the contained microorganisms, viability, and purity, thus precluding the expected health [...] Read more.
The quality control of probiotic products is the focus of numerous organizations worldwide. Several studies have highlighted the poor microbiological quality of many commercial probiotic formulations in terms of the identity of the contained microorganisms, viability, and purity, thus precluding the expected health benefits and representing a potential health risk for consumers. In this paper, we analyzed the contents of two probiotic formulations, one composed of an encapsulated mixture of lactobacilli and bifidobacteria, and one by a lyophilized yeast. The microorganisms contained in the products were quantified and identified using up-to-date methodologies, such as MALDI-TOF MS and metagenomic analysis. Moreover, as acid and bile tolerance is included among the criteria used to select probiotic microorganisms, in vitro tests were performed to evaluate the behavior of the formulations in conditions mimicking the harsh gastric environment and the intestinal fluids. Our results indicate the high quality of the formulations in terms of the enumeration and identification of the contained organisms, as well as the absence of contaminants. Moreover, both products tolerated the acidic conditions well, with encapsulation providing further protection for the microorganisms. A good tolerance to the simulated artificial intestinal conditions was also evidenced for both preparations. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Microorganisms with Probiotic Properties)
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13 pages, 3119 KiB  
Article
Physiological, Morphological and Antioxidant Responses of Pediococcus pentosaceus R1 and Lactobacillus fermentum R6 Isolated from Harbin Dry Sausages to Oxidative Stress
by Huan Zhang, Jianhang Xu, Qian Chen, Hui Wang and Baohua Kong
Foods 2021, 10(6), 1203; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods10061203 - 26 May 2021
Cited by 12 | Viewed by 3351
Abstract
As functional starter cultures and potential probiotics, the ability of lactic acid bacteria to resist oxidative stress is essential to maintain viability and functional properties. This study investigates the effects of H2O2 at different concentrations (0, 1, 2, and 3 [...] Read more.
As functional starter cultures and potential probiotics, the ability of lactic acid bacteria to resist oxidative stress is essential to maintain viability and functional properties. This study investigates the effects of H2O2 at different concentrations (0, 1, 2, and 3 mM) on the physiological, morphological, and antioxidant properties of Pediococcus pentosaceus R1 and Lactobacillus fermentum R6 isolated from Harbin dry sausages. The increase in H2O2 concentration induced a significant increase in reactive oxygen species and a decrease in intracellular ATP levels (p < 0.05). Based on scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, and electric conductivity analysis, H2O2 stress caused cell deformation, the destruction of cell membrane integrity, partial loss of the cytoplasm, and an increase in the cell conductivity of both strains. H2O2 stress with 1 mM or 2 mM concentrations could effectively improve the scavenging rates of free radicals, the activities of superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxide, and the total antioxidant capacity of both strains (p < 0.05). In conclusion, an appropriate oxidative stress contributed to the activation of the antioxidant defense system of both strains, conferred strains a better effect in inhibiting the oxidation of fermented foods, and improved the health of the host. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Microorganisms with Probiotic Properties)
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16 pages, 745 KiB  
Article
Potential Application of Apilactobacillus kunkeei for Human Use: Evaluation of Probiotic and Functional Properties
by Franca Vergalito, Bruno Testa, Autilia Cozzolino, Francesco Letizia, Mariantonietta Succi, Silvia Jane Lombardi, Patrizio Tremonte, Gianfranco Pannella, Roberto Di Marco, Elena Sorrentino, Raffaele Coppola and Massimo Iorizzo
Foods 2020, 9(11), 1535; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods9111535 - 25 Oct 2020
Cited by 30 | Viewed by 4250
Abstract
Apilactobacillus kunkeei is an insect symbiont with documented beneficial effects on the health of honeybees. It belongs to fructophilic lactic acid bacteria (FLAB), a subgroup of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) notably recognized for their safe status. This fact, together with its recurrent isolation [...] Read more.
Apilactobacillus kunkeei is an insect symbiont with documented beneficial effects on the health of honeybees. It belongs to fructophilic lactic acid bacteria (FLAB), a subgroup of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) notably recognized for their safe status. This fact, together with its recurrent isolation from hive products that are traditionally part of the human diet, suggests its possible safe use as human probiotic. Our data concerning three strains of A. kunkeei isolated from bee bread and honeybee gut highlighted several interesting features, such as the presence of beneficial enzymes (β-glucosidase, β-galactosidase and leucine arylamidase), the low antibiotic resistance, the ability to inhibit P. aeruginosa and, for one tested strain, E. faecalis, and an excellent viability in presence of high sugar concentrations, especially for one strain tested in sugar syrup stored at 4 °C for 30 d. This datum is particularly stimulating, since it demonstrates that selected strains of A. kunkeei can be used for the probiotication of fruit preparations, which are often used in the diet of hospitalized and immunocompromised patients. Finally, we tested for the first time the survival of strains belonging to the species A. kunkeei during simulated gastrointestinal transit, detecting a similar if not a better performance than that showed by Lacticaseibacillus rhamnosus GG, used as probiotic control in each trial. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Microorganisms with Probiotic Properties)
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14 pages, 1738 KiB  
Article
Tannin-tolerant and Extracellular Tannase Producing Bacillus Isolated from Traditional Fermented Tea Leaves and Their Probiotic Functional Properties
by Kridsada Unban, Pratthana Kodchasee, Kalidas Shetty and Chartchai Khanongnuch
Foods 2020, 9(4), 490; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods9040490 - 13 Apr 2020
Cited by 32 | Viewed by 3986
Abstract
A total of 117 Bacillus strains were isolated from Miang, a culture relevant fermented tea of northern Thailand. These strains were collected from 16 sampling sites in north Thailand. In this collection 95 isolates were tannin-tolerant Bacillus capable of growth on nutrient agar [...] Read more.
A total of 117 Bacillus strains were isolated from Miang, a culture relevant fermented tea of northern Thailand. These strains were collected from 16 sampling sites in north Thailand. In this collection 95 isolates were tannin-tolerant Bacillus capable of growth on nutrient agar supplemented with 0.5% (w/v) total tannins from tea leaves extract (TE). The strains were also positive for pectinase, xylanase and amylase activity, while 91 and 86 isolates were positive for cellulase and β-mannanase, respectively. Only 21 isolates producing extracellular tannase were selected for further characterization. Identification by 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis revealed that more than 50% (11 of 21 isolates) were Bacillus tequilensis, whereas the remaining were B. siamensis (3), B. megaterium (3), B. aryabhattai (3) and B. toyonensis (1). B. tequilensis K34.2 produced the highest extracellular tannase activity of 0.60 U/mL after cultivation at 37 °C for 48 h. In addition, all 21 isolates were resistant to 0.3% (w/v) bile salt, sensitive to gentamicin, erythromycin, vancomycin and kanamycin and also tolerant to acidic condition. Cell hydrophobicity varied from 9.4 to 80.4% and neutralized culture supernatants of some Bacillus isolates showed bacteriocin producing potentiality against Samonella enterica serovar Typhimurium TISTR 292. All tested probiotic properties indicated that B. tequilensis K19.3, B. tequilensis K34.2 and B. siamensis K19.1 had high probiotic potential. This is the first report describing tannin-tolerant Bacillus and their extracellular tannase producing capability in Miang, a traditional fermented tea of Thailand. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Microorganisms with Probiotic Properties)
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25 pages, 278 KiB  
Article
Potential Probiotic Yeasts Sourced from Natural Environmental and Spontaneous Processed Foods
by Alice Agarbati, Laura Canonico, Enrica Marini, Emanuele Zannini, Maurizio Ciani and Francesca Comitini
Foods 2020, 9(3), 287; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods9030287 - 4 Mar 2020
Cited by 43 | Viewed by 4717
Abstract
In the last decades, there has been a growing interest from consumers in their food choices. Organic, natural, less processed, functional, and pre-probiotic products were preferred. Although, Saccharomyces cerevisiae var. boulardii is the most well-characterized probiotic yeast available on the market, improvement in [...] Read more.
In the last decades, there has been a growing interest from consumers in their food choices. Organic, natural, less processed, functional, and pre-probiotic products were preferred. Although, Saccharomyces cerevisiae var. boulardii is the most well-characterized probiotic yeast available on the market, improvement in probiotic function using other yeast species is an attractive future direction. In the present study, un-anthropized natural environments and spontaneous processed foods were exploited for wild yeast isolation with the goal of amplifying the knowledge of probiotic aptitudes of different yeast species. For this purpose, 179 yeast species were isolated, identified as belonging to twelve different genera, and characterized for the most important probiotic features. Findings showed interesting probiotic characteristics for some yeast strains belonging to Lachancea thermotolerans, Metschnikowia ziziphicola, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, and Torulaspora delbrueckii species, although these probiotic aptitudes were strictly strain-dependent. These yeast strains could be proposed for different probiotic applications, such as a valid alternative to, or in combination with, the probiotic yeast S. cerevisiae var. boulardii. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Microorganisms with Probiotic Properties)
12 pages, 2120 KiB  
Article
Screening and Spontaneous Mutation of Pickle-Derived Lactobacillus plantarum with Overproduction of Riboflavin, Related Mechanism, and Food Application
by Ying-Ying Ge, Jia-Rong Zhang, Harold Corke and Ren-You Gan
Foods 2020, 9(1), 88; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods9010088 - 14 Jan 2020
Cited by 31 | Viewed by 5803
Abstract
Riboflavin, also known as vitamin B2, plays an important role in human cell metabolism and participates in various redox reactions and in energy utilization. In this study, 90 riboflavin-producing lactic acid bacteria (LAB) were screened out from pickle juices. The yields of riboflavin [...] Read more.
Riboflavin, also known as vitamin B2, plays an important role in human cell metabolism and participates in various redox reactions and in energy utilization. In this study, 90 riboflavin-producing lactic acid bacteria (LAB) were screened out from pickle juices. The yields of riboflavin in these LAB were about 0.096–0.700 mg/L, and one strain, Lactobacillus plantarum RYG-YYG-9049, was found to produce the highest riboflavin content. Next, roseoflavin was used to induce the spontaneous mutation of RYG-YYG-9049, and selected roseoflavin-resistant colonies generally produced higher riboflavin contents, ranging from 1.013 to 2.332 mg/L. The No. 10 mutant, L. plantarum RYG-YYG-9049-M10, had the highest riboflavin content. Next, the molecular mechanism of enhancing riboflavin production in RYG-YYG-9049-M10 was explored, leading to the finding that roseoflavin treatment did not change the rib operons including the ribA, ribB, ribC, ribH, and ribG genes. Unexpectedly, however, this mechanism did induce an insertion of a 1059-bp DNA fragment in the upstream regulatory region of the rib operon, as compared to the wild-type RYG-YYG-9049. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report that roseoflavin could induce an insertion of DNA fragment in LAB to increase riboflavin content, representing a new mutation type that is induced by roseoflavin. Finally, in order to fortify riboflavin content in soymilk, RYG-YYG-9049 and RYG-YYG-9049-M10 were used to ferment soymilk, and several fermentation parameters were optimized to obtain the fermented soymilk with riboflavin contents of up to 2.920 mg/L. In general, roseoflavin induction is an economical and feasible biotechnological strategy to induce riboflavin-overproducing LAB, and this strategy can be used to develop LAB-fermented functional foods that are rich in riboflavin. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Microorganisms with Probiotic Properties)
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Review

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20 pages, 1130 KiB  
Review
Latilactobacillus curvatus: A Candidate Probiotic with Excellent Fermentation Properties and Health Benefits
by Ying Chen, Leilei Yu, Nanzhen Qiao, Yue Xiao, Fengwei Tian, Jianxin Zhao, Hao Zhang, Wei Chen and Qixiao Zhai
Foods 2020, 9(10), 1366; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods9101366 - 25 Sep 2020
Cited by 25 | Viewed by 5498
Abstract
Latilactobacillus curvatus is a candidate probiotic that has been included in the list of recommended biological agents for certification by the European Food Safety Authority. According to the published genomic information, L. curvatus has several genes that encode metabolic pathways of carbohydrate utilization. [...] Read more.
Latilactobacillus curvatus is a candidate probiotic that has been included in the list of recommended biological agents for certification by the European Food Safety Authority. According to the published genomic information, L. curvatus has several genes that encode metabolic pathways of carbohydrate utilization. In addition, there are some differences in cell surface complex related genes of L. curvatus from different sources. L. curvatus also has several genes that encode bacteriocin production, which can produce Curvacin A and Sakacin P. Due to its ability to produce bacteriocin, it is often used as a bioprotective agent in fermented meat products, to inhibit the growth of a variety of pathogenic and spoilage bacteria. L. curvatus exerts some probiotic effects, such as mediating the production of IL-10 by dendritic cells through NF-κB and extracellular regulated protein kinases (ERK) signals to relieve colitis in mice. This review is the first summary of the genomic and biological characteristics of L. curvatus. Our knowledge on its role in the food industry and human health is also discussed, with the aim of providing a theoretical basis for the development of applications of L. curvatus. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Microorganisms with Probiotic Properties)
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24 pages, 1470 KiB  
Review
Dietary Components, Microbial Metabolites and Human Health: Reading between the Lines
by Yao Guo, Xiaohan Bian, Jiali Liu, Ming Zhu, Lin Li, Tingyu Yao, Congjia Tang, Vinothkannan Ravichandran, Peng Liao, Konstantinos Papadimitriou and Jia Yin
Foods 2020, 9(8), 1045; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods9081045 - 3 Aug 2020
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 7457
Abstract
Trillions of bacteria reside in the human gut and they metabolize dietary substances to obtain nutrients and energy while producing metabolites. Therefore, different dietary components could affect human health in various ways through microbial metabolism. Many such metabolites have been shown to affect [...] Read more.
Trillions of bacteria reside in the human gut and they metabolize dietary substances to obtain nutrients and energy while producing metabolites. Therefore, different dietary components could affect human health in various ways through microbial metabolism. Many such metabolites have been shown to affect human physiological activities, including short-chain fatty acids metabolized from carbohydrates; indole, kynurenic acid and para-cresol, metabolized from amino acids; conjugated linoleic acid and linoleic acid, metabolized from lipids. Here, we review the features of these metabolites and summarize the possible molecular mechanisms of their metabolisms by gut microbiota. We discuss the potential roles of these metabolites in health and diseases, and the interactions between host metabolism and the gut microbiota. We also show some of the major dietary patterns around the world and hope this review can provide insights into our eating habits and improve consumers’ health conditions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Microorganisms with Probiotic Properties)
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