Surface Properties of Dental Materials and Instruments

A special issue of Coatings (ISSN 2079-6412). This special issue belongs to the section "Surface Coatings for Biomedicine and Bioengineering".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 December 2022) | Viewed by 48159

Special Issue Editor

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Dental materials and instruments are constantly being improved. Additionally, every day, new products are being introduced into the market. This Special Issue will focus on evaluation of antimicrobial, chemical, tribological, and mechanical surface properties of commercially available/experimental dental materials and instruments.

These products undergo chemical and mechanical degradation during use. As a result, the properties of these products may change significantly, adversely affecting their clinical performance. Moreover, the influence of surface properties on clinical performance and durability, related to ion/molecules migration due to wear and corrosion into oral environment, are important topics of interest.

Dental materials and instruments are subjected to microbial biofilm. Therefore, evaluation and enhancement of antimicrobial properties of dental products set new trends in the development of material sciences. Additionally, research on the subsequent effect of microbial action on materials may contribute to further scientific development.

Dental materials such as adhesive systems, composite resins, ceramics, implants, alloys, and acrylic resins are exposed to oral environments and undergo chemical changes and mechanical factors. Moreover, instruments such as endodontic files and burs are subjected to varying conditions during use and sterilization processes.

Reviews and research on both experimental and commercially available products are welcome.

Prof. Monika Lukomska-Szymanska
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

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Keywords

  • surface properties
  • surface topography
  • surface wear
  • antimicrobial properties
  • dental materials
  • dental instruments

Published Papers (16 papers)

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12 pages, 4111 KiB  
Article
Surface Characterization of Current Dental Ceramics Using Scanning Electron Microscopic and Atomic Force Microscopic Techniques
by Katarzyna Kaczmarek, Bartlomiej Konieczny, Przemyslaw Siarkiewicz, Andrzej Leniart, Monika Lukomska-Szymanska, Slawomira Skrzypek and Barbara Lapinska
Coatings 2022, 12(8), 1122; https://doi.org/10.3390/coatings12081122 - 5 Aug 2022
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 2164
Abstract
Dental ceramics is a highly esthetic material and its surface properties can impact its roughness, bonding properties, as well as strength and wear. The aim of the study is to analyze the surface characteristics by the determination of the roughness parameters of three [...] Read more.
Dental ceramics is a highly esthetic material and its surface properties can impact its roughness, bonding properties, as well as strength and wear. The aim of the study is to analyze the surface characteristics by the determination of the roughness parameters of three dental ceramics used in computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacturing (CAD/CAM) technique: lithium disilicate (LS2), zirconium oxide-reinforced lithium silicate (ZLS), and zirconium oxide (ZrO2), prepared using two different processing techniques, polishing (self-glaze) and glazing with three different glazes. Both glass ceramics, pre-crystallized LS2 and crystallized ZLS, were cut into disks, and the surface was ground and polished. Crystallization was performed for LS2 samples, while ZrO2 samples were fabricated using CAD/CAM and sintered. Then, the glaze was applied and the samples were reheated as per the manufacturer’s instructions. The contact surface topographies of the tested ceramics were measured by atomic force microscopy (AFM) and the roughness parameters: average surface roughness (Ra), root-mean-square roughness (Rq), and surface area difference (SAD) were evaluated. Changes in the morphological characteristics of the tested ceramics were examined by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and the surface chemical composition was determined by attenuated total reflection Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FT—IR). In the spectroscopic analysis, a characteristic signal for ZrO2 was obtained for ZLS samples. A significant decrease in surface roughness was observed after glazing in all tested ceramics (p < 0.05). The abstract should be an objective representation of the article and it must not contain results that are not presented and substantiated in the main text and should not exaggerate the main conclusions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Surface Properties of Dental Materials and Instruments)
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14 pages, 1721 KiB  
Article
Assessment of the Susceptibility of Aesthetic Orthodontic Brackets to Discoloration
by Konrad Malkiewicz, Aleksandra Jastrzebska, Anna Janas-Naze, Wojciech Boryczko and Jakub Bartczak
Coatings 2022, 12(8), 1080; https://doi.org/10.3390/coatings12081080 - 30 Jul 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1358
Abstract
The high aesthetic value of orthodontic appliance elements during treatment constitutes an important factor for an increasing number of adult patients. The aim of this study was to determine whether food dyes could significantly affect the color of both plastic and ceramic orthodontic [...] Read more.
The high aesthetic value of orthodontic appliance elements during treatment constitutes an important factor for an increasing number of adult patients. The aim of this study was to determine whether food dyes could significantly affect the color of both plastic and ceramic orthodontic brackets. Four brands of orthodontic brackets were investigated in the present study. Twenty-five samples of each kind were prepared. Five brackets of each series were stored in pure water, coffee, black tea and red wine for 1 h, 24 h, 7 days and 14 days. Total color change ΔE* of the samples was analyzed after storage with the use of the SpectroShade dental spectrophotometer (MHT, Verona, Italy) according to the CIE L*a*b* color scale. Correlations between bracket brand, kind of food dye and intensity of color change at the significance level p = 0.05 were investigated. After 1 and 24 h of incubation, water had the least influence on the color change of aesthetic orthodontic brackets, and tea had the greatest effect (p = 0.05). After 7 and 14 days of incubation of the samples, water still remained the environment influencing ΔE* change to the smallest extent, whereas storage in red wine changed the color of brackets to the significantly (p = 0.05) highest degree. The degree of discoloration of the assessed brackets depended on the type of material and the storage time in the environment of the individual food dyes (p = 0.05). The results of the present study show that, in the event of contact with food dyes, aesthetic orthodontic brackets discolor, the intensity of which can be influenced by the materials they are made of, the kind of food dye and the time of samples’ storage. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Surface Properties of Dental Materials and Instruments)
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10 pages, 271 KiB  
Article
Effect of Intraoral Humidity on Dentin Bond Strength of Two Universal Adhesives: An In Vitro Preliminary Study
by Sarah Dabbagh, Louis Hardan, Cynthia Kassis, Rim Bourgi, Walter Devoto, Maciej Zarow, Natalia Jakubowicz, Maroun Ghaleb, Naji Kharouf, Mouhammad Dabbagh, Heber Isac Arbildo-Vega and Monika Lukomska-Szymanska
Coatings 2022, 12(5), 712; https://doi.org/10.3390/coatings12050712 - 23 May 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 3891
Abstract
This study investigated the effect of intraoral humidity on microtensile bond strength (μTBS) to dentin of two universal adhesives applied in self-etch (SE) mode. Forty extracted human molars were selected for this study. Dentin specimens were allocated into four groups, standardized and then [...] Read more.
This study investigated the effect of intraoral humidity on microtensile bond strength (μTBS) to dentin of two universal adhesives applied in self-etch (SE) mode. Forty extracted human molars were selected for this study. Dentin specimens were allocated into four groups, standardized and then bonded with two commercial multimode adhesives, according to two humidity conditions (50% relative humidity (RH) and 90% RH). Following composite resin build-up and 24 h of water storage, the μTBS of the bonded interface was analyzed. The 50% RH was higher for Scotchbond Universal (SBU) than Prime&Bond Universal (PBU), while for 90% RH, SBU had significantly lower values than PBU. With PBU, the mean bond strength was not significantly different between both humidity settings tested (p > 0.05), while for SBU, the mean bond strength was significantly different between both conditions tested (p < 0.05); μTBS was significantly higher for 50% RH than for the other group. Within the limitation of this in vitro study, it can be concluded that: 1) the bonding performance of adhesives systems depends on the humidity settings; 2) increased RH exerts a detrimental effect on the bond strength of 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate (HEMA)-containing adhesive tested. However, this phenomenon was not observed for HEMA-free adhesive tested; 3) further research in this area is needed to investigate different adhesive systems, temperatures and humidity settings. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Surface Properties of Dental Materials and Instruments)
17 pages, 3103 KiB  
Article
An In Vitro Study to Evaluate the Effect of Artificial Aging on Translucency, Contrast Ratio, and Color of Zirconia Dental Ceramic at Different Sintering Levels
by Mallika Shetty, Saurabh Jain, Tushar Milind Wankhede, Mohammed E. Sayed, Zahid Mohammed, Sanath Shetty, Mohammed Hussain Dafer Al Wadei, Saeed M. Alqahtani, Ahlam Abdulsalam Ahmed Othman, Mashael Adullah Alnijaiban, Alhanouf K. Alnajdi, Tariq Ibrahim Akkam, Saad Saleh AlResayes, Abdulkarim Hussain Alshehri and Fawzia Ibraheem Shaabi
Coatings 2022, 12(5), 642; https://doi.org/10.3390/coatings12050642 - 8 May 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1765
Abstract
Increasing demands for aesthetically pleasing dental restorations have promoted the use of materials that display superior optical properties. Zirconia-based all-ceramic systems have good optical properties, thus providing the desired esthetics for dental restorations. The altered oral conditions impact the physical properties of these [...] Read more.
Increasing demands for aesthetically pleasing dental restorations have promoted the use of materials that display superior optical properties. Zirconia-based all-ceramic systems have good optical properties, thus providing the desired esthetics for dental restorations. The altered oral conditions impact the physical properties of these materials. Multiple studies have been conducted to evaluate the effect of aging on the mechanical properties of computerized-aided design and computerized-aided manufacturing (CAD/CAM)-based zirconia; however, there is a scarcity of literature discussing the effect of aging on change in translucency, contrast ratio, and color. Therefore, this research aimed to evaluate the effect of accelerated artificial aging on translucency parameter (TP), contrast ratio (CR), and color of CAD/CAM zirconia at different sintering temperatures. Twenty-eight rectangular-shaped specimens were obtained by CAD/CAM milling of zirconia blank. Sintering of the samples was carried out at four different temperatures 1350 °C, 1400 °C, 1450 °C, and 1500 °C, respectively. Thermocycling of the samples was performed in a thermocycler. TP, CR, and color evaluation of all the samples was done again using a Spectrophotometer. Data acquired were statistically evaluated by one-way ANOVA and Post Hoc test. The highest amount of change in TP was recorded for specimens sintered at 1400 °C (1.86), whereas the least change was attributed to 1350 °C (0.51). The highest change in CR was observed in specimens sintered at 1500 °C (0.0971), and the least change in CR was observed at 1450 °C (0.0086). The highest ΔE values were recorded for 1400 °C against both white (1.86) and black background (2.17), whereas the least change was attributed to 1350 °C against white (0.86) and against a black background (1.41). The changes in TP were significant, but CR did not show any significant change. ΔE values for all the experimental groups were significant, but were below the clinically perceptible range. An increase in sintering temperature increased the translucency. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Surface Properties of Dental Materials and Instruments)
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8 pages, 1022 KiB  
Article
Color Analysis of Metal Ceramic Restorations Fabricated from Different Dental Laboratories
by Abdullah Saleh Aljamhan, Syed Rashid Habib, Aleshba Saba Khan, Muhammad Qasim Javed, Usman Anwer Bhatti and Muhammad Sohail Zafar
Coatings 2022, 12(3), 297; https://doi.org/10.3390/coatings12030297 - 22 Feb 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1985
Abstract
Objective: The aim of the present in vitro study was to explore the differences in color matching of most frequently used shades for metal ceramic dental restorations fabricated by different laboratories. Materials and Methods: A total sample size of 180 discs of metal [...] Read more.
Objective: The aim of the present in vitro study was to explore the differences in color matching of most frequently used shades for metal ceramic dental restorations fabricated by different laboratories. Materials and Methods: A total sample size of 180 discs of metal ceramic were prepared by six laboratories (labs): each lab prepared 30 samples, 10 for each shade (A1, B1, and C1). Instructions for standardization were provided. A spectrophotometer and CIE LAB system was used to find ΔE value for difference between shades observed by spectrophotometer. For statistical analysis, ANOVA and post hoc Tukey tests were used. Significance level was <0.05. Results: Significant variation (p = 0.000) was observed among the labs for ΔE. The maximum value for ΔE in shade A1 was 77.0 ± 0.065 and minimum value for ΔE noted for shade A1 was 69.19 ± 1.39. The values of ΔE for shade B1 were maximum 80.14 ± 0.16 and minimum 68.38 ± 0.40 and the values of ΔE for shade C1 were maximum 80.16 ± 0.14 and minimum 71.62 ± 1.23. Twelve out of 15 comparisons between labs for shade A1, 14 of 15 comparisons for shade B1, and 11 of 15 comparisons for shade C1 showed significant difference (p = 0.000). Conclusions: Similar tooth shades (A1, B1, and C1) when duplicated by different labs exhibited highly significant color variations. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Surface Properties of Dental Materials and Instruments)
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13 pages, 2838 KiB  
Article
Impact of Smokeless Tobacco on the Color Stability of Zirconia, Zirconia-Reinforced Lithium Silicate and Feldspathic CAD/CAM Restorative Materials: An In Vitro Study
by Mohammed M. Al Moaleem, Hafiz A. Adawi, Khalaf F. Alsharif, Hassan A. Alhazmi, Faris A. Alshahrani, Ramzi M. Abu Hadi, Recep Kara, Hussam M. Muyidi, Asaad Khalid, Abdulrahman M. Asiri, Ahmed H. Huraysi, Jabbar A. Khubrani, Shilpa Bhandi and Shankargouda Patil
Coatings 2022, 12(2), 207; https://doi.org/10.3390/coatings12020207 - 5 Feb 2022
Cited by 10 | Viewed by 2285
Abstract
WHO estimates that the global number of tobacco users exceeds 1.3 billion people. Few studies have examined the effect of locally made smokeless tobacco (ST) products on the color changes of material used in dental prosthetics. Bearing the recent advances in CAD/CAM ceramic [...] Read more.
WHO estimates that the global number of tobacco users exceeds 1.3 billion people. Few studies have examined the effect of locally made smokeless tobacco (ST) products on the color changes of material used in dental prosthetics. Bearing the recent advances in CAD/CAM ceramic restorations material in mind, this study aimed to assess ST influence on mean color change (∆E*) values among selected CAD/CAM ceramic types: multilayer zirconia (Ceramill Zolid PS), zirconia-reinforced lithium silicate ceramic (Vita Suprinity), and feldspathic (Vita TriLuxe) restorative materials. The color changes of the ceramics were compared to VITA classical and VITA 3D-MASTER shade guides. Sixty CAD/CAM ceramic specimens (20 samples each) were fabricated from Ceramill Zolid PS, Vita TriLuxe Forte, and VITA Suprinity. Specimens were prepared and divided into two groups according to the ST type and immersed for two weeks. Basic VITA classical and VITA 3D-MASTER colors were recorded at a baseline of one week and two weeks. The highest ∆E* values were recorded in the black ST for Vita Suprinity (4.77) in the first week, followed by Vita TriLuxe (4.07) in the second week. For white ST, Vita TriLuxe (4.87), and Vita Suprinity (4.42) showed extensive color change after two weeks and one week, respectively. The color change was least in zirconia for black and white ST after one week. CAD/CAM ceramic materials showed no significant difference after 1 and 2 weeks for the tested ST types. The effects of ST on CAD/CAM ceramic material (∆E* values) were high but did not reach clinically unacceptable values. Zirconia showed the least amount of color change among all the tested materials. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Surface Properties of Dental Materials and Instruments)
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20 pages, 3148 KiB  
Article
A Comparative Study of the Mechanical Properties of Selected Dental Composites with a Dual-Curing System with Light-Curing Composites
by Monika Domarecka, Agata Szczesio-Wlodarczyk, Michał Krasowski, Magdalena Fronczek, Tomasz Gozdek, Jerzy Sokolowski and Kinga Bociong
Coatings 2021, 11(10), 1255; https://doi.org/10.3390/coatings11101255 - 15 Oct 2021
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 3239
Abstract
Dual-curing composites have a wide spectrum of use in practice (rebuilding, reconstruction, and luting). The characterization of this type of material and comparative study of selected mechanical properties with light-cured materials were carried out for this paper. In this study, we used six [...] Read more.
Dual-curing composites have a wide spectrum of use in practice (rebuilding, reconstruction, and luting). The characterization of this type of material and comparative study of selected mechanical properties with light-cured materials were carried out for this paper. In this study, we used six materials with a dual-cure system—Bulk EZ, Fill-Up!, StarFill 2B, Rebilda DC, MultiCore Flow, Activa Bioactive-Restorative—and three light-cured materials—Filtek Bulk Fill Posterior, Charisma Classic, and G-aenial Universal Flo. The materials were conditioned for 24 h in water at 37 °C before testing. Selected material properties were determined: three-point bending flexural strength, diametral tensile strength, hardness, microhardness, and shrinkage stress. The highest three-point bending flexural strength (TPB) was 137.0 MPa (G-aenial Universal Flo), while the lowest amounted to 86.5 MPa (Activa Bioactive). The diametral tensile strength (DTS) values were in a range from 39.2 MPa (Rebilda DC) to 54.1 MPa (Charisma Classic). The lowest hardness (HV) value of 26 was obtained by the Activa Bioactive material, while the highest values were recorded for Filtek Bulk Fill Posterior and Charisma Classic-53. The shrinkage stress of the tested materials ranged from 6.3 MPa (Charisma Classic) to 13.2 MPa (G-aenial Universal Flo). Dual-curing composites were found to have similar properties to light-cured composites. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Surface Properties of Dental Materials and Instruments)
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11 pages, 12411 KiB  
Article
Press-On Force Effect on the Efficiency of Composite Restorations Final Polishing—Preliminary In Vitro Study
by Anna Lehmann, Kacper Nijakowski, Natalia Potempa, Paweł Sieradzki, Mateusz Król, Olaf Czyż, Agnieszka Radziszewska and Anna Surdacka
Coatings 2021, 11(6), 705; https://doi.org/10.3390/coatings11060705 - 11 Jun 2021
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1840
Abstract
The surface texture of dental restorations has a major influence on plaque accumulation and aesthetical appearance. The study aimed to evaluate the surface roughness of composite resins depending on the varying polishing sequences and applied forces. A total of 60 samples from two [...] Read more.
The surface texture of dental restorations has a major influence on plaque accumulation and aesthetical appearance. The study aimed to evaluate the surface roughness of composite resins depending on the varying polishing sequences and applied forces. A total of 60 samples from two composite resins (Boston and Charisma) were polymerized using a lamp with 1200 mW/cm2 intensity and covering celluloid strip. The polishing sequence consisted of 12.6 mm OptiDisc (Kerr) – with increased disc per each subsequent step. Half of the samples were polished at 1N force, with the other half at 2N. The surface roughness examination was performed using a WYKO NT930 (Veeco) optical profilometer. The selected roughness parameters were compared by ANOVA with the significance level α = 0.05. The more complex polishing sequence affected on the composite smoothness. Higher roughness was identified in Charisma samples as compared to Boston. The specimens polished with 2N force contained a slightly rougher surface than those polished with 1N. However, these differences were not statistically significant. Despite the satisfactory visual effect obtained by polishing the composite samples, the profilometric examination revealed the roughness. Finishing is crucial for providing a smooth composite surface, allowing it to function properly in the oral environment. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Surface Properties of Dental Materials and Instruments)
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14 pages, 1660 KiB  
Article
Measurement of the Level of Nitric Oxide in Exhaled Air in Patients Using Acrylic Complete Dentures and with Oral Pathologies
by Magdalena Wyszyńska, Aleksandra Czelakowska, Rafał Rój, Magdalena Zając, Michał Mielnik, Jacek Kasperski and Małgorzata Skucha-Nowak
Coatings 2021, 11(2), 169; https://doi.org/10.3390/coatings11020169 - 31 Jan 2021
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 2014
Abstract
The measurement of nitric oxide (NO) in exhaled air is used in diagnostics and monitoring of the pathologies in the respiratory system but also in the oral cavity. Researchers have shown a huge increase of its level in asthma and diseases in the [...] Read more.
The measurement of nitric oxide (NO) in exhaled air is used in diagnostics and monitoring of the pathologies in the respiratory system but also in the oral cavity. Researchers have shown a huge increase of its level in asthma and diseases in the oral cavity. It seems reasonable to research the impact of pathologies in the oral cavity on the level of NO in exhaled air. The purpose of this study was to determine the impact of inflammation in the oral cavity (according to the material of dentures) on the level of nitric oxide in exhaled air. Three groups of patients were examined in this study. The hygiene of acrylic dentures, hard tissues, periodontal tissues, hygiene of the oral cavity, and level of NO in exhaled air were examined. Prosthetic stomatitis, denture plaque, tooth decay, poor sanitation and periodontitis increase levels of NO. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Surface Properties of Dental Materials and Instruments)
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10 pages, 1691 KiB  
Article
Use of Ytterbium Trifluoride in the Field of Microinvasive Dentistry—An In Vitro Preliminary Study
by Małgorzata Skucha-Nowak, Anna Nowak-Wachol, Dariusz Skaba, Kacper Wachol and Anna Korytkowska-Wałach
Coatings 2020, 10(10), 915; https://doi.org/10.3390/coatings10100915 - 24 Sep 2020
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2180
Abstract
Background: The aim of this study was an attempt at determining the quantity of the degree of the addition of ytterbium trifluoride as a marker, aimed at facilitating the observation and assessment of the effectiveness of penetration into the decalcified enamel of human [...] Read more.
Background: The aim of this study was an attempt at determining the quantity of the degree of the addition of ytterbium trifluoride as a marker, aimed at facilitating the observation and assessment of the effectiveness of penetration into the decalcified enamel of human teeth of an experimental preparation with the characteristics of a dental infiltrant and a commercially available commercial preparation called Icon. Methods: The test material was 20 decalcified human teeth. The first half of the batch was soaked in Icon, the second half in an experimental preparation with the characteristics of a dental infiltrant and with a component responsible for bacteriostaticity. Ytterbium trifluoride was added to both preparations to facilitate the microscopic observations: 20 mg/1 g in the first phase of the experiment, 60 mg/1 g in the second phase. Results: YbF3 particles could not be found in the teeth from the first phase of the experiment. Particles rich in ytterbium could be found only in the teeth from the second phase of the experiment, with three times the content of ytterbium. Conclusion: The addition of 6% ytterbium trifluoride (both commercial and laboratory synthesized) facilitates microscopic observation, allowing the conclusion that both Icon and the experimental preparation with the characteristics of a dental infiltrant penetrate the decalcified enamel of a human tooth. The SEM analysis of the preparations in terms of content and particle size of ytterbium trifluoride shows that the distribution is heterogeneous. Large size particles predominate, yet particles with a diameter of less than 1 µm were also found. This may confirm the fact that most of them have probably agglomerated. The method of scattering YbF3 nanoparticles in the infiltrant resin requires further work so that they do not appear as agglomerates. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Surface Properties of Dental Materials and Instruments)
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10 pages, 2303 KiB  
Article
In Vitro Analysis of Quality of Dental Adhesive Bond Systems Applied in Various Conditions
by Agata Trzcionka, Ruta Narbutaite, Alma Pranckeviciene, Rytis Maskeliūnas, Robertas Damaševičius, Gintautas Narvydas, Dawid Połap, Katarzyna Mocny-Pachońska, Marcin Wozniak and Marta Tanasiewicz
Coatings 2020, 10(9), 891; https://doi.org/10.3390/coatings10090891 - 17 Sep 2020
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 3115
Abstract
Introduction: There are several methods of reducing a microleakage, and one of them is choosing appropriate adhesive material. The aim of the work was the in vitro analysis of 4 bonds: 3M ESPE “Single bond”, Dentsply “Prime and Bond Active”, Coltene “One Coat [...] Read more.
Introduction: There are several methods of reducing a microleakage, and one of them is choosing appropriate adhesive material. The aim of the work was the in vitro analysis of 4 bonds: 3M ESPE “Single bond”, Dentsply “Prime and Bond Active”, Coltene “One Coat 7 Universal”, and Kuraray “Clearfil Universal Bond Quick”. Material and methods: 136 healthy molar teeth were collected and randomly split into 4 groups and Vth Class cavities were prepared. Chosen adhesives were used in four groups of teeth with the same composite. Teeth were the thermocycled, sealed, covered with lacquer, and submerged in 1% methylene blue solution for 24 h. After the thermocycling, the vertices of each tooth were sealed using dental wax. Each tooth was then fully covered with lacquer. All teeth were then submerged into 1% methylene blue solution for 24 h in room temperature. In the next step they were transversely cut through a center of restoration. The Olympus BX43 microscope was used to photograph each cut tooth. With the usage of Olympus stream software, measurement of the dye’s leakage was performed. Results. The statistical analysis proved that the most effective material when applied to ideally prepared cavity surface was Dentsply “Prime and Bond Active”. The second material was 3M ESPE “Single Bond”, third—Coltene “One Coat 7 Universal” and fourth—Kuraray “Clearfil Universal Bond Quick”. The most effective material applied to a too-dry surface was Dentsply “Prime and Bond Active”, second—3M ESPE “Single Bond”, third—Coltene “One Coat 7 Universal” and fourth—Kuraray “Clearfil Universal Bond Quick”. When it comes to too damp surfaces the best results were obtained with Dentsply “Prime and Bond Active” then Coltene “One Coat 7 Universal”, 3M ESPE “Single Bond” and Kuraray “Clearfil Universal Bond Quick”. Conclusion: The level of cavity dampness influences the quality of adhesives. Better results are obtained with over-dried surfaces than over-damp, which is connected with the dilution of the material. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Surface Properties of Dental Materials and Instruments)
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14 pages, 3901 KiB  
Article
Low-Cost Deposition of Antibacterial Ion-Substituted Hydroxyapatite Coatings onto 316L Stainless Steel for Biomedical and Dental Applications
by Abdul Samad Khan and Muhammad Awais
Coatings 2020, 10(9), 880; https://doi.org/10.3390/coatings10090880 - 13 Sep 2020
Cited by 14 | Viewed by 3172
Abstract
Substitutions of ions into an apatitic lattice may result in antibacterial properties. In this study, magnesium (Mg)-, zinc (Zn)-, and silicon (Si)-substituted hydroxyapatite (HA) were synthesized using a microwave irradiation technique. Polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) was added during the synthesis of the substituted HA [...] Read more.
Substitutions of ions into an apatitic lattice may result in antibacterial properties. In this study, magnesium (Mg)-, zinc (Zn)-, and silicon (Si)-substituted hydroxyapatite (HA) were synthesized using a microwave irradiation technique. Polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) was added during the synthesis of the substituted HA as a binding agent. The synthesized Mg-, Zn-, and Si-substituted HAs were then coated onto a 316L-grade stainless-steel substrate using low-cost electrophoretic deposition (EPD), thereby avoiding exposure to high temperatures. The deposited layer thickness was measured and the structural, phase and morphological analysis were characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscope (SEM), respectively. The bacterial adhesion of Staphylococcus aureus was characterized at 30 min, 2 h and 6 h. The results showed homogeneous, uniform thickness (50–70 µm) of the substrate. FTIR and XRD showed the characteristic spectral peaks of HA, where the presence of Mg, Zn and Si changed the spectral peak intensities. The Mg–HA coating showed the least bacterial adhesion at 30 min and 2 h. In contrast, the Si–HA coating showed the least adhesion at 6 h. EPD showed an effective way to get a uniform coating on bio-grade metal implants, where ionic-substituted HA appeared as alternative coating material compared to conventional HA and showed the least bacterial adhesion. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Surface Properties of Dental Materials and Instruments)
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16 pages, 1294 KiB  
Article
A Comparative Clinical Study of the Self-Adhering Flowable Composite Resin Vertise Flow and the Traditional Flowable Composite Resin Premise Flowable
by Aleksander Maj, Agata Trzcionka, Henryk Twardawa and Marta Tanasiewicz
Coatings 2020, 10(8), 800; https://doi.org/10.3390/coatings10080800 - 18 Aug 2020
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 3583
Abstract
Background. The aim of this research was to carry out a comparative clinical study of a self-adhesive, light-curing composite material called Vertise Flow and a traditional flow material called Premise flowable used in combination with dedicated bonding systems. In order to standardize the [...] Read more.
Background. The aim of this research was to carry out a comparative clinical study of a self-adhesive, light-curing composite material called Vertise Flow and a traditional flow material called Premise flowable used in combination with dedicated bonding systems. In order to standardize the clinical environment, the stability of oral hygiene (analyzed with the oral hygiene index and the approximal plaque index) was taken into consideration. Methods. The study involved 37 patients with 64 fillings. They were distributed into three groups: 22 fillings in Group I, 22 fillings in Group II and 20 fillings in Group III. In Group I (G I), Vertise Flow material was applied without the use of an etching agent or a bonding system; in Group II (G II), Premise flowable material was applied without the use of an etching agent, but with the use of the OptiBond All-In-One seventh-generation bonding system; in Group III (G III), Premise flowable material was applied after etching and treatment of the hard tooth tissues using a fifth-generation OptiBond Solo Plus bonding system. Then, at appropriate time intervals (0, i.e., right after filling and after 6, 12 and 24 months), the fillings were subjected to clinical evaluation, conducted according to the Ryge scale criteria with the use of registration by means of a fluorescent high-intensity visible light beam produced by a camera (Vista Proof). Results. The quality of fillings performed with the use of comparable materials was subjected to clinical evaluation using the Ryge scale of fillings after 6, 12, and 24 months; the examination showed significant differences between the tested materials. The Vertise Flow material used without an etching agent or a bonding system (G I) presented the weakest results with respect to marginal adaptation and smoothness among those evaluated in this study. The intensification of the degradation continued over time until the final clinical observation at 24 months. The results confirmed that the best quality was achieved with the Premise flowable material after etching and treatment of the hard tooth tissues using a fifth-generation OptiBond Solo Plus bonding system (G III) relative to others for all time points during the observation. Conclusions. The used preparation scheme and bonding system have an impact on the final quality of the composite filling. There is a need to carry out a qualitative clinical evaluation of dental restorative materials under uniform conditions using evaluation scales. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Surface Properties of Dental Materials and Instruments)
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14 pages, 3135 KiB  
Article
Evaluation of Surface Characteristics and Cytotoxicity of Dental Composites
by Antarinia Crăciun, Ioana Bȃldea, Ana Ispas, Mîndra Eugenia Badea, Ioan Petean, Codruta Sarosi, Marioara Moldovan, Stanca Cuc, Razvan Ene and Maria Crişan
Coatings 2020, 10(8), 749; https://doi.org/10.3390/coatings10080749 - 30 Jul 2020
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2355
Abstract
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the surface and in vitro cytotoxicity on human dysplastic oral keratinocytes (DOK) of four commercial resins-based dental composites commonly used in prosthodontics dental therapies: two indirect composites for crown and bridges—SR Adoro (IvoclarVivadent GmbH) and [...] Read more.
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the surface and in vitro cytotoxicity on human dysplastic oral keratinocytes (DOK) of four commercial resins-based dental composites commonly used in prosthodontics dental therapies: two indirect composites for crown and bridges—SR Adoro (IvoclarVivadent GmbH) and Solidex (Shofu Dental GmbH); and two dual-curing luting resin cements—RelyxUnicem (3M ESPE Dental Products) and Variolink Esthetic DC (IvoclarVivadentGmbH). A complex assessment of surface characteristics of the four materials was conducted before and after the exposure to artificial saliva through various analyses, such as Scanning Electron Microscopy, Atomic Force Microscopy and Cross Polarized Light Microscopy (PLM). The results showed that DOK viability was not severely affected by exposure to any of these materials; however, Variolink expressed higher values but still above the toxicity level of the rest of the composites. The analysis of the surface structure between initial and artificial saliva exposed specimens returned a compact aspect in both categories and although Variolink and Relyx were subjected to increased roughness after saliva exposure, no damage of the internal compactness was recorded, demonstrating a fair behavior of the luting cements in contact with the saliva. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Surface Properties of Dental Materials and Instruments)
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Review

Jump to: Research, Other

15 pages, 443 KiB  
Review
Factors Influencing Marginal Bone Loss around Dental Implants: A Narrative Review
by Jakub Kowalski, Barbara Lapinska, Joseph Nissan and Monika Lukomska-Szymanska
Coatings 2021, 11(7), 865; https://doi.org/10.3390/coatings11070865 - 19 Jul 2021
Cited by 25 | Viewed by 8513
Abstract
Implant supported dental prostheses are increasingly used in dental practice. The aim of this narrative review is to present the influence of transmucosal surface of prosthetic abutment and implant on peri-implant tissue. The article describes causes of bone loss around the dental implant. [...] Read more.
Implant supported dental prostheses are increasingly used in dental practice. The aim of this narrative review is to present the influence of transmucosal surface of prosthetic abutment and implant on peri-implant tissue. The article describes causes of bone loss around the dental implant. Moreover, properties of different materials are compared and discussed. The advantages, disadvantages, and biomechanical concept of different implant-abutment connections are presented. The location of connections in relation to the bone level and the influence of microgap between the abutment and implant are described. Additionally, the implant abutments for cemented and screwed prosthetic restorations are compared. The influence of implant and abutment surface at the transmucosal level on peri-implant soft tissue is discussed. Finally, the biological aspect of abutment-implant connection is analyzed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Surface Properties of Dental Materials and Instruments)
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Other

Jump to: Research, Review

12 pages, 2137 KiB  
Case Report
One-Year Clinical Aging of Low Stress Bulk-Fill Flowable Composite in Class II Restorations: A Case Report and Literature Review
by Louis Hardan, Monika Lukomska-Szymanska, Maciej Zarow, Carlos Enrique Cuevas-Suárez, Rim Bourgi, Natalia Jakubowicz, Krzysztof Sokolowski and Camillo D’Arcangelo
Coatings 2021, 11(5), 504; https://doi.org/10.3390/coatings11050504 - 25 Apr 2021
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 2635
Abstract
Bulk-fill flowable composites provide functional and aesthetic restorations while eliminating incremental composite layering and saving time. The degradation of the adhesive interface with subsequent gap formation is a concern when adhesively luted restorations are placed. Moreover, the number of adhesive interface failures increases [...] Read more.
Bulk-fill flowable composites provide functional and aesthetic restorations while eliminating incremental composite layering and saving time. The degradation of the adhesive interface with subsequent gap formation is a concern when adhesively luted restorations are placed. Moreover, the number of adhesive interface failures increases when they are exposed to long-term water storage. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the morphological characteristics of the tooth-composite interface in class II cavities restored with a low stress bulk-fill flowable composite after aging in an oral environment. We describe a case of a patient with class II cavities in four premolars restored with a low stress bulk-fill flowable composite Surefil SDR (Dentsply DeTrey GmbH, Konstanz, Germany). The occlusal part was restored with nano-hybrid resin composite Ceram X Mono (Dentsply DeTrey GmbH). After one year of clinical function, the teeth were extracted and examined in a scanning electron microscope (SEM). It can be concluded that the application of bulk-fill covered with conventional composite seems to provide the homogeneous and stable bond to tooth structure after one year of aging in an oral environment. However, some defects within the dentin-resin composite interface were observed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Surface Properties of Dental Materials and Instruments)
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