materials-logo

Journal Browser

Journal Browser

Biomaterials and Mechanics in Dentistry

A special issue of Materials (ISSN 1996-1944). This special issue belongs to the section "Biomaterials".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (20 December 2023) | Viewed by 16946

Special Issue Editors


E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Laboratory of Materials Research, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Silesian University of Technology, Gliwice, Poland
Interests: dental materials; biomaterials; polymers; composites; antimicrobial materials; nanomaterials; mechanical properties; denture; implants; dental caries
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Mechanical Technological Faculty, Department of Engineering Materials and Biomaterials, Silesian University of Technology, Gliwice, Poland
Interests: biomechanics; finite element analysis (FEA); efficacy of dental solutions; load distribution in dentures, implants and tissues; reinforcement; implant failure; wear; soft tissue pressure pain threshold; bone fixation and prosthesis design; simulation and virtual planning in surgery
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Different types of dental biomaterials have been introduced into the market to meet the expectations of both dentists and patients. The aim of basic and developmental research is to continuously improve their clinical properties (such as life span), biocompatibility, antimicrobial properties, mechanical properties, tribological characteristics, and toxicity. Many studies explore the development of new materials, while others focus on the investigation of commercially available products in the context of their role in the oral environment or the use of modern technologies used for processing. Considering that dental biomaterial products should be compatible with biological systems, knowledge of biomechanical engineering also plays an extremely important role in their design. Interdisciplinary research which combines the principles of materials science and mechanical engineering with medical sciences must be carried out to improve our understanding. For this purpose, we invite you to submit a manuscript for this Special Issue. Original research articles and reviews related to any of the topics mentioned above are welcome.

Prof. Dr. Grzegorz Chladek
Prof. Dr. Jaroslaw Zmudzki
Prof. Dr. Monika Lukomska-Szymanska
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All submissions that pass pre-check are peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Materials is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2600 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • dental materials
  • biomaterials
  • biomechanics
  • polymers
  • composites
  • metals and metals alloys
  • ceramics
  • cements
  • surface modifications
  • antimicrobial properties
  • biological properties
  • cytotoxicity
  • mechanical properties
  • functional properties
  • fatigue
  • wear
  • oral environment
  • nanomaterials
  • biofilm
  • orthodontic materials
  • prosthetic materials
  • restorative materials
  • finite element analysis (FEA)
  • materials technologies
  • additive technologies
  • CAD/CAM technologies

Published Papers (12 papers)

Order results
Result details
Select all
Export citation of selected articles as:

Research

14 pages, 4152 KiB  
Article
Mechanical Properties of Nano-Crystalline Glass-Carbomer Cements Used in Dentistry
by Małgorzata Karolus, Adrian Barylski, Magdalena Fryc and Damian Strzelec
Materials 2024, 17(5), 1186; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma17051186 - 4 Mar 2024
Viewed by 693
Abstract
The main aim of this study was to assess the impact of the environment on the mechanical and tribological properties of glass-carbomer cements used in dentistry. The properties of the Glass Cements Polyalkene (GCP) Glass Fill material, belonging to glass-polyalkene cements, were tested [...] Read more.
The main aim of this study was to assess the impact of the environment on the mechanical and tribological properties of glass-carbomer cements used in dentistry. The properties of the Glass Cements Polyalkene (GCP) Glass Fill material, belonging to glass-polyalkene cements, were tested after placing it in various environments: air, distilled water, artificial saliva simulating a neutral environment (pH = 7), and simulating inflammation (pH = 4). The research material included four samples and a two-year reference material. The analysis of volumetric consumption and the assessment of the impact of solubility on the stability of glass-carbomer cements were carried out using tribological measurements and Vickers hardness measurements. In addition, microstructural characterization of the materials was performed using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). It was observed that the lowest wear (0.04%), the most stable microstructure, and the lowest average hardness (21.52 HV 0.1) were exhibited by the material stored in artificial saliva simulating a neutral environment (pH = 7). The least stable microstructure and statistically the highest hardness (77.3 HV 0.1) was observed in the test sample, which was stored in air for two years and then in distilled water. The highest consumption (0.11%) was recorded in the case of cement placed in artificial saliva simulating inflammation (pH = 4). The results obtained in this study indicate specific trends in the influence of the environment in which the tested cement is located, such as air, distilled water, air/distilled water, artificial saliva simulating a neutral environment, and simulating inflammation, on its structure, hardness, and wear. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biomaterials and Mechanics in Dentistry)
Show Figures

Figure 1

12 pages, 1918 KiB  
Article
The Efficacy of Different Laser Applications on Dentin Sealing in Preventing Discoloration Induced by Mineral Trioxide Aggregate
by Yesim Sesen Uslu, Burçin Arıcan Alpay, Pinar Sesen and Taha Özyürek
Materials 2024, 17(5), 1015; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma17051015 - 22 Feb 2024
Viewed by 685
Abstract
The aim of this in vitro study was to evaluate the effect of the pre-application of a dentin-bonding agent and the application of different lasers on the prevention of tooth discoloration caused by mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA) in the presence of blood. Sixty [...] Read more.
The aim of this in vitro study was to evaluate the effect of the pre-application of a dentin-bonding agent and the application of different lasers on the prevention of tooth discoloration caused by mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA) in the presence of blood. Sixty extracted human anterior teeth were selected, with root lengths standardized to 10 mm and root canals shaped using Gates-Glidden drills #3 to #5. The samples were divided into six groups (n = 10): Group 1 with no surface treatment and Groups 2 to 6 with Optibond universal adhesive and Neodymium yttrium aluminum garnet (Nd:YAG), Erbium yttrium aluminum garnet (Er:YAG), Erbium-chromium-yttrium-scandium-gallium-garnet (Er:Cr:YSGG), and diode laser applications, respectively. Root canals were filled with fresh human blood, and ProRoot MTA and a collagen barrier were then placed. Color changes were measured with a spectrophotometer at 0, 7, 30, 90, and 180 days post MTA placement. Color differences (∆E) were analyzed using a two-factor mixed-design ANOVA with the Sidak method (p = 0.05). All treatment groups exhibited discoloration above the acceptability threshold. Although all treatment approaches exhibited less color change compared to the control group (p < 0.05), there was no significant difference among them in terms of preventing color change (p > 0.05). It was determined that none of the methods could guarantee 100% prevention of discoloration caused by MTA–blood contact. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biomaterials and Mechanics in Dentistry)
Show Figures

Figure 1

15 pages, 3361 KiB  
Article
Shear Bond Strength of Metal and Ceramic Brackets Depending on Etching Protocol in Direct Bonding Technique
by Agnieszka Nawrocka, Joanna Nowak, Salvatore Sauro, Louis Hardan, Rim Bourgi and Monika Lukomska-Szymanska
Materials 2023, 16(20), 6697; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma16206697 - 15 Oct 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1237
Abstract
Successful orthodontic therapy, apart from a proper treatment plan, depends on optimal bracket–enamel adhesion. Among numerous factors affecting adhesion, the type of bracket and preparation of the tooth’s surface are crucial. The aim of this study was to compare the shear bond strength [...] Read more.
Successful orthodontic therapy, apart from a proper treatment plan, depends on optimal bracket–enamel adhesion. Among numerous factors affecting adhesion, the type of bracket and preparation of the tooth’s surface are crucial. The aim of this study was to compare the shear bond strength (SBS) of metal and ceramic brackets to the enamel’s surface using direct bonding. Forty extracted human premolars were divided into four groups according to the etching method (etch-and-rinse and self-etch) and bracket type. The SBS and adhesive remnant index (ARI) were determined. The ceramic brackets achieved the highest SBS values both in the self-etch (SE) and etch-and-rinse (ER) protocols. Higher SBS values for ceramic and metallic brackets were found in the ER protocol. In all tested groups, the achieved SBS value was satisfactory to withstand orthodontic and occlusal forces. There was no significant difference in the ARI score between study groups (p = 0.71). The fracture occurred between the bracket base and adhesive material in both types of brackets, which decreased the risk of enamel damage during debonding. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biomaterials and Mechanics in Dentistry)
Show Figures

Figure 1

16 pages, 3776 KiB  
Article
Corrosion Resistance of Titanium Dental Implant Abutments: Comparative Analysis and Surface Characterization
by Jakub Kowalski, Dorota Rylska, Bartłomiej Januszewicz, Bartlomiej Konieczny, Michal Cichomski, Jukka P. Matinlinna, Mateusz Radwanski, Jerzy Sokolowski and Monika Lukomska-Szymanska
Materials 2023, 16(20), 6624; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma16206624 - 10 Oct 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1108
Abstract
Metals subjected to the oral environment are prone to corrosion over time and this can be harmful. Metallic restoration components such as dental subgingival implant abutments are exposed to pH changes and different ions while in contact with saliva. The aim of the [...] Read more.
Metals subjected to the oral environment are prone to corrosion over time and this can be harmful. Metallic restoration components such as dental subgingival implant abutments are exposed to pH changes and different ions while in contact with saliva. The aim of the study was to evaluate the corrosion resistance of titanium dental implant abutments and to compare and contrast the surface characteristics of these alloys before and after corrosion. The corrosion examination (Ecorr, jcorr, OCP, polarization curve) of two implant abutments (TiDesign EV, Astra Tech, Dentsply, York, PA, USA; Individual Titanium Abutment, Apollo Implants Components, Pabianice, Poland) was performed in 0.9% NaCl and 5% HCl. Moreover, specimens were investigated using SEM-EDS before and after the corrosion test. The value of jcorr in NaCl was higher for Astra (34.2 × 10−8 ± 2.5 × 10−8 A/cm2) than for Apollo (8.8 × 10−8 ± 2.5 × 10−8 A/cm2). Whereas, in HCl, the opposite relationship was observed (Astra 2.9 × 10−4 ± 0.8 × 10−4 A/cm2 and Apollo 62.7 × 10−4 ± 9.3 × 10−4 A/cm2). An average reactive anodic current density in NaCl for Astra amounted up to ~0.2 × 10−5–1.5 × 10−5 A/cm2, while for Apollo-up to ~3.3–9.7 × 10−7 A/cm2. The composition of both alloys after corrosion in NaCl demonstrated some changes: a decrease in the Ti, and Al and an increase in oxygen content. Hence, both alloys after corrosion in HCl demonstrated some minor changes in the elemental composition. Based on the results it can be concluded that: 1. Astra and Apollo abutments revealed good corrosion resistance and a passivation layer on the surface. 2. Apollo abutments exhibited better corrosion resistance in a neutral environment, suggesting that Astra abutments were found to be more resistant to corrosion in an acidic medium. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biomaterials and Mechanics in Dentistry)
Show Figures

Figure 1

14 pages, 3002 KiB  
Article
Micro-CT Evaluation of Microgaps at Implant-Abutment Connection
by Jakub Kowalski, Adam K. Puszkarz, Mateusz Radwanski, Jerzy Sokolowski, Michal Cichomski, Rim Bourgi, Louis Hardan, Salvatore Sauro and Monika Lukomska-Szymanska
Materials 2023, 16(12), 4491; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma16124491 - 20 Jun 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2132
Abstract
The assessment of microgaps at the implant–abutment interface is an important factor that may influence clinical success. Thus, the aim of this study was to evaluate the size of microgaps between prefabricated and customised abutments (Astra Tech, Dentsply, York, PA, USA; Apollo Implants [...] Read more.
The assessment of microgaps at the implant–abutment interface is an important factor that may influence clinical success. Thus, the aim of this study was to evaluate the size of microgaps between prefabricated and customised abutments (Astra Tech, Dentsply, York, PA, USA; Apollo Implants Components, Pabianice, Poland) mounted on a standard implant. The measurement of the microgap was performed using micro-computed tomography (MCT). Due to 15-degree rotation of samples, 24 microsections were obtained. Scans were performed at four levels established at the interface between the abutment and the implant neck. Moreover, the volume of the microgap was evaluated. The size of the microgap at all measured levels varied from 0.1 to 3.7 µm for Astra and from 0.1 to 4.9 µm for Apollo (p > 0.05). Moreover, 90% of the Astra specimens and 70% of the Apollo specimens did not exhibit any microgaps. The highest mean values of microgap size for both groups were detected at the lowest portion of the abutment (p > 0.05). Additionally, the average microgap volume was greater for Apollo than for Astra (p > 0.05). It can be concluded that most samples did not exhibit any microgaps. Furthermore, the linear and volumetric dimensions of microgaps observed at the interface between Apollo or Astra abutments and Astra implants were comparable. Additionally, all tested components presented microgaps (if any) that were clinically acceptable. However, the microgap size of the Apollo abutment was higher and more variable than that of the Astra one. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biomaterials and Mechanics in Dentistry)
Show Figures

Figure 1

13 pages, 2596 KiB  
Article
Bactericidal Activity of Graphene Oxide Tests for Selected Microorganisms
by Katarzyna Olczak, Witold Jakubowski and Witold Szymański
Materials 2023, 16(11), 4199; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma16114199 - 5 Jun 2023
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1472
Abstract
The aim of this study was to determine the bactericidal potential of graphene oxide (GO) in contact with four species of bacteria: E. coli, S. mutans, S. aureus and E. faecalis. Bacterial cell suspensions of each species were incubated in [...] Read more.
The aim of this study was to determine the bactericidal potential of graphene oxide (GO) in contact with four species of bacteria: E. coli, S. mutans, S. aureus and E. faecalis. Bacterial cell suspensions of each species were incubated in a medium containing GO, with incubation times of 5, 10, 30 and 60 min, at final concentrations of 50, 100, 200, 300 and 500 μg/mL. The cytotoxicity of GO was evaluated using live/dead staining. The results were recorded using a BD Accuri C6 flow cytofluorimeter. Obtained data were analyzed using BD CSampler software. A significant bacteria viability reduction was noted in all GO-containing samples. The antibacterial properties of GO were strongly influenced by GO concentration and incubation time. The highest bactericidal activity was observed at concentrations of 300 and 500 μg/mL for all incubation times (5, 10, 30 and 60 min). The highest antimicrobial potential was observed for E. coli: after 60 min, the mortality rate was 94% at 300 µg/mL GO and 96% at 500 µg/mL GO; the lowest was found for S. aureus—49% (300 µg/mL) and 55% (500 µg/mL). Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biomaterials and Mechanics in Dentistry)
Show Figures

Figure 1

13 pages, 3189 KiB  
Article
Removing Fractured Endodontic Files with a Tube Technique—The Strength of the Glued Joint: Tube-Endodontic File Setup
by Katarzyna Olczak, Jacek Grabarczyk and Witold Szymański
Materials 2023, 16(11), 4100; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma16114100 - 31 May 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2012
Abstract
One recommended technique for removing broken root canal instruments is to glue the fragment into a cannula adapted to it (i.e., the tube technique). The aim of the study was to determine the influence of the adhesive kind and length of the joint [...] Read more.
One recommended technique for removing broken root canal instruments is to glue the fragment into a cannula adapted to it (i.e., the tube technique). The aim of the study was to determine the influence of the adhesive kind and length of the joint on the breaking force. During the investigation, 120 files (60 H-files and 60 K-files) and 120 injection needles were used. Fragments of broken files were glued into the cannula using one of three materials: cyanoacrylate adhesive, composite prosthetic cement, or glass ionomer cement. The lengths of the glued joints were 2 and 4 mm. After the polymerization of adhesives, a tensile test was carried out to find a breaking force. The results were statistically analyzed (p < 0.05). For 4 mm lengths of glued joints, the breaking force was higher than for 2 mm for both file types (K and H). In the case of K-type files, the breaking force was higher for cyanoacrylate and composite adhesives than glass ionomer cement. For H-type files, no significant difference in joint strength was found between binders at 4 mm, while at 2 mm, a much better connection was obtained for cyanoacrylate glue than prosthetic cements. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biomaterials and Mechanics in Dentistry)
Show Figures

Figure 1

20 pages, 4953 KiB  
Article
Influence of Root Post Materials and Aging on Fracture Strength and Marginal Gap Quality of Ceramic Crowns—An In Vitro Study
by Christoph-Ludwig Hennig, André Stöcker, Ann Nitzsche, Justus Marquetand, Collin Jacobs and Florentine Jahn
Materials 2023, 16(11), 3985; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma16113985 - 26 May 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1097
Abstract
The design of and materials for prosthodontic abutments and posts have significant influences on the fracture resistance of restored teeth. This in vitro study compared the fracture strength and marginal quality of full-ceramic crowns as a function of the inserted root posts via [...] Read more.
The design of and materials for prosthodontic abutments and posts have significant influences on the fracture resistance of restored teeth. This in vitro study compared the fracture strength and marginal quality of full-ceramic crowns as a function of the inserted root posts via simulation of a five-year period of use. Test specimens were prepared from 60 extracted maxillary incisors using titanium L9 (A), glass-fiber L9 (B), and glass-fiber L6 (C) root posts. The circular marginal gap behavior, linear loading capacity, and material fatigue after artificial aging were investigated. The marginal gap behavior and material fatigue were analyzed using electron microscopy. The linear loading capacity of the specimens was investigated using the Zwick Z005 universal testing machine. None of the tested root post materials showed statistically significant differences in marginal width values (p = 0.921), except in the case of marginal gap location. For Group A, there was a statistically significant difference from the labial to the distal (p = 0.012), mesial (p = 0.000), and palatinal (p = 0.005). Similarly, Group B showed a statistically significant difference from the labial to the distal (p = 0.003), mesial (p = 0.000), and palatinal (p = 0.003). Group C showed a statistically significant difference from the labial to the distal (p = 0.001) and mesial (p = 0.009). Linear load capacity reached mean values of 455.8–537.7 N, and micro-cracks occurred after artificial aging, predominantly in Groups B and C. Through the chosen experimental design, it was shown that the root post material and root post length had no influence on the fracture strength of the test teeth before or after artificial aging. However, the marginal gap location depends on the root post material and its length, which is wider mesially and distally and also tends to be greater palatinally than labially. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biomaterials and Mechanics in Dentistry)
Show Figures

Figure 1

20 pages, 8176 KiB  
Article
The Influence of a Novel, Crenelated Design of CAD-CAM Ceramic Veneers on the Debonding Strength
by Alexandra-Cristina Măroiu, Anca Jivănescu, Dan-Andrei Șerban, Radu-Marcel Negru, Virgil-Florin Duma, Cosmin Sinescu and Mihai Romînu
Materials 2023, 16(10), 3694; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma16103694 - 12 May 2023
Viewed by 1332
Abstract
(1) Background: Aesthetic dentistry has become one of the most dynamic fields in modern dental medicine. Ceramic veneers represent the most appropriate prosthetic restorations for smile enhancement, due to their minimal invasiveness and highly natural appearance. For long-term clinical success, accurate design of [...] Read more.
(1) Background: Aesthetic dentistry has become one of the most dynamic fields in modern dental medicine. Ceramic veneers represent the most appropriate prosthetic restorations for smile enhancement, due to their minimal invasiveness and highly natural appearance. For long-term clinical success, accurate design of both tooth preparation and ceramic veneers is of paramount importance. The aims of this in vitro study were to assess the stress in anterior teeth restored with Computer-Aided Design (CAD) and Computer-Aided Manufacturing (CAM) ceramic veneers and compare the resistance to detachment and the fracture of ceramic veneers prepared using two different designs. (2) Methods: Sixteen lithium disilicate ceramic veneers were designed and milled using the CAD-CAM technology and divided into two groups according to the preparations (n = 8): Group 1, conventional (CO), with linear marginal contour and Group 2, crenelated (CR), the latter with our novel (patented) sinusoidal marginal design. All samples were bonded to anterior natural teeth. The mechanical resistance to detachment and fracture was investigated by applying bending forces on the incisal margin of the veneers in order to determine which type of preparation leads to better adhesion. An analytic method was employed, as well, and the results of the two approaches were compared. (3) Results: The mean values of the maximum force recorded at the veneer detachment were 78.82 ± 16.55 N for the CO group and 90.20 ± 29.81 N for the CR group. The relative increase, equal to 14.43%, demonstrated that the novel CR tooth preparation provided higher adhesive joints. In order to determine the stress distribution within the adhesive layer, a finite element analysis (FEA) was performed. The statistical t-test showed that the mean value of the maximum normal stresses is higher for the CR-type preparations. (4) Conclusions: The patented CR veneers represent a practical solution to augment the adhesion and mechanical properties of ceramic veneers. The obtained results demonstrated that CR adhesive joints triggered higher mechanical and adhesive forces, which subsequently led to a higher resistance to detachment and fracture. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biomaterials and Mechanics in Dentistry)
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

9 pages, 888 KiB  
Article
Efficacy of Shock Wave-Enhanced Emission Photoacoustic Streaming (SWEEPS) in the Removal of Different Combinations of Sealers Used with Two Obturation Techniques: A Micro-CT Study
by Anja Baraba, Marko Rajda, Gorana Baršić, Silvana Jukić Krmek, Damir Šnjarić and Ivana Miletić
Materials 2023, 16(8), 3273; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma16083273 - 21 Apr 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1222
Abstract
This study sought to evaluate the efficacy of SWEEPS in the removal of epoxy-resin-based and calcium-silicate-containing endodontic sealer combined with single-cone and carrier-based obturation techniques through a micro-CT analysis. Seventy-six single-rooted extracted human teeth with single root canal were instrumented with Reciproc instruments. [...] Read more.
This study sought to evaluate the efficacy of SWEEPS in the removal of epoxy-resin-based and calcium-silicate-containing endodontic sealer combined with single-cone and carrier-based obturation techniques through a micro-CT analysis. Seventy-six single-rooted extracted human teeth with single root canal were instrumented with Reciproc instruments. Specimens were randomly divided into four groups (n = 19) according to the root canal filling material and obturation technique: (1) AH Plus sealer + Reciproc gutta-percha, (2) TotalFill BC sealer + TotalFill BC Points, (3) AH Plus sealer + Guttafusion obturator, and (4) MTA Fillapex + Guttafusion obturator. All specimens were re-treated one week later using Reciproc instruments. Following re-treatment, root canals were additionally irrigated using the Auto SWEEPS modality. The differences in the root canal filling remnants were analyzed by micro-CT scanning of each tooth after root canal obturation, after re-treatment, and after additional SWEEPS treatment. Statistical analysis was performed using an analysis of variance (p < 0.05). The additional treatment with SWEEPS significantly reduced the volume of the root canal filling materials in all experimental groups compared to the removal of root canal filling using only reciprocating instruments (p < 0.05). However, the root canal filling was not removed completely from any of the samples. SWEEPS can be used to enhance the removal of both epoxy-resin-based and calcium-silicate-containing sealers, in combination with single-cone and carrier-based obturation techniques. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biomaterials and Mechanics in Dentistry)
Show Figures

Figure 1

11 pages, 5709 KiB  
Article
Correlation between Friction and Wear in Cylindrical Anchorages Simulated with Wear Machine and Analyzed with Scanning Probe and Electron Microscope
by Tomasz Dąbrowa, Dominik Badura, Bartosz Pruchnik, Ewelina Gacka, Władysław Kopczyński, Marcin Mikulewicz, Teodor Gotszalk and Edward Kijak
Materials 2023, 16(5), 1991; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma16051991 - 28 Feb 2023
Viewed by 1227
Abstract
This paper presents the possibilities of applying atomic force microscopy (AFM) techniques to the study of the wear of prosthetic biomaterials. In the conducted research, a zirconium oxide sphere was used as a test piece for mashing, which was moved over the surface [...] Read more.
This paper presents the possibilities of applying atomic force microscopy (AFM) techniques to the study of the wear of prosthetic biomaterials. In the conducted research, a zirconium oxide sphere was used as a test piece for mashing, which was moved over the surface of selected biomaterials: polyether ether ketone (PEEK) and dental gold alloy (Degulor M). The process was carried out with constant load force in an artificial saliva environment (Mucinox). An atomic force microscope with an active piezoresistive lever was used to measure wear at the nanoscale. The advantage of the proposed technology is the high resolution of observation (less than 0.5 nm) in the three-dimensional (3D) measurements in a working area of 50 × 50 × 10 µm. The results of nano wear measurements in two measurement setups are presented: zirconia sphere (Degulor M and zirconia sphere) and PEEK were examined. The wear analysis was carried out using appropriate software. Achieved results present a tendency coincident with the macroscopic parameters of materials. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biomaterials and Mechanics in Dentistry)
Show Figures

Figure 1

15 pages, 4810 KiB  
Article
Miscibility and Optimization of the Liquid Rubber Content in the Resins of Light-Cured Dental Composites
by Krzysztof Pałka and Monika Sowa
Materials 2023, 16(1), 87; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma16010087 - 22 Dec 2022
Viewed by 1237
Abstract
Fracture toughness is one of the main factors influencing the durability of light-cured composites used for dental restorations and fillings. One of the methods of increasing the fracture toughness is the modification of the matrix with liquid acrylonitrile-free liquid rubber. This study aimed [...] Read more.
Fracture toughness is one of the main factors influencing the durability of light-cured composites used for dental restorations and fillings. One of the methods of increasing the fracture toughness is the modification of the matrix with liquid acrylonitrile-free liquid rubber. This study aimed to assess the miscibility of acrylonitrile-free liquid rubber with a blend of resins and their stability over time, and to determine the optimal amount of liquid rubber (LR) in the blend due to mechanical properties. Two blends of dimethacrylate resins were used: resin “F” composed of BisGMA (60 wt.%), TEGDMA (20 wt.%), BisEMA (10 wt.%) and UDMA (10 wt.%), and “C” resin containing BisGMA (40 wt.%), TEGDMA (40 wt.%), BisEMA (10 wt.%) and UDMA (10 wt.%). The modifier Hypro® 2000X168LC VTB liquid rubber was used in at 1%, 2%, 3%, 4%, 5%, 10%, 15% and 20% by weight in the resin blend. The miscibility was assessed by microscopy. The fracture toughness, flexural strength and Young’s modulus were determined in the bending test. The results showed that the solubility of the liquid rubber depends on the ratio of BisGMA/TEGDMA in the resins. In resins with 40 wt.% TEGDMA, the LR solubility was as high as 5%, while resins with 20 wt.% TEGDMA, the liquid rubber did not dissolve. The LR-resin mixtures showed good time stability, and no changes in the size or morphology of the rubber domains were found after 24 h of mixing. The maximum fracture toughness (2.46 MPa m1/2) was obtained for 5 wt.% LR in resin F and for 15 wt.% LR in resin C (2.53 MPa m1/2). The modification with liquid rubber resulted in an exponential reduction in both flexural strength and Young’s modulus. The analysis of the results of the mechanical tests allowed us to determine the optimal amount of LR for both resins. For resin F it was 5.4 wt.%, and for resin C it was 8.3 wt.%. It can be stated that the optimal amount of liquid rubber increases with its solubility in the resin. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biomaterials and Mechanics in Dentistry)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Back to TopTop