Special Issue "Thyroid Cancer"

A special issue of Cancers (ISSN 2072-6694).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 30 June 2019

Special Issue Editors

Guest Editor
Prof. Roberta Vanni

Department of Biomedical Science, University of Cagliari, Cagliari, Italy
Website | E-Mail
Interests: genomic instability; tumor molecular genetics and cytogenetics; thyroid tumor biology; stem-like cancer cells; telomere
Guest Editor
Prof. Giovanni Tallini

Department of Experimental, Diagnostic and Specialty Medicine, University of Bologna School of Medicine, Bologna, Italy
Website | E-Mail
Interests: pathology; surgical pathology; oncologic pathology; endocrine pathology; thyroid pathology; molecular pathology; molecular oncology
Guest Editor
Prof. Efisio Puxeddu

Department of Medicine, University of Perugia, 06132 Perugia, Italy
Website | E-Mail
Interests: thyroid cancer

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

The incidence of thyroid cancer has dramatically increased in the last 40 years, due to both an improved detection of small (<2 cm) thyroid nodules by neck ultrasonography and a true escalation in thyroid cancer incidence. In spite of this dramatic increase, the vast majority (more than 85%) of thyroid cancer patients are cured by initial treatment and mortality is stably low. This claims for the need of precise parameters able to distinguish between indolent and clinically aggressive nodules, to avoid overtreatment and to accurately identify those tumors that require a more aggressive therapy. Molecular biology has been of great benefit in this respect, and new classifications, taking into account molecular parameters, have recently been introduced, defining new subclasses of thyroid tumors.  The aim of this Special Issue is to provide an overview of recent developments in understanding the biology and molecular oncology of thyroid tumors of follicular cell derivation and their repercussions on the diagnosis, prognosis and therapy. 

We particularly welcome contributions on all aspects related to thyroid tumors of follicular origin, in the form of either original research articles, concise reviews, or shorter perspective articles. Articles with mechanistic and functional insights from a cellular and molecular biological perspective are especially welcome. 

Relevant topics include, but are not limited to:

  • Molecular pathology of follicular cell derived thyroid cancer
  • Preoperative evaluation of thyroid nodules: ultrasonography     
  • Preoperative evaluation of thyroid nodules: cytopathology      
  • Thyroid tumors in children    
  • Radiation-induced thyroid cancer
  • The role of Chemokines in Thyroid Cancer Microenvironment      
  • The role of miRNA and long non coding RNA in thyroid cancer      
  • The role of precision thyroid cancer medicine
  • Thyroid cancer stem and progenitor cells
  • Radioiodine-refractory thyroid cancer
  • Tyrosine kinase inhibitors
  • Immunotherapy for thyroid carcinoma
  • Thyroid cancer proteomics
  • Thyroid cancer metabolomics

Prof. Roberta Vanni
Prof. Giovanni Tallini
Prof. Efisio Puxeddu
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

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Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Cancers is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1800 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • thyroid cancer
  • follicular cells
  • cancer molecular profiling
  • cancer development
  • cancer progression
  • advanced thyroid cancer
  • cancer therapy
  • tyrosine kinase inhibitors
  • inflammation
  • immunotherapy

Published Papers (4 papers)

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Research

Open AccessArticle Identification of Targetable Lesions in Anaplastic Thyroid Cancer by Genome Profiling
Cancers 2019, 11(3), 402; https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers11030402
Received: 13 February 2019 / Revised: 13 March 2019 / Accepted: 19 March 2019 / Published: 22 March 2019
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Abstract
Anaplastic thyroid cancer (ATC) is a rare and extremely malignant tumor with no available cure. The genetic landscape of this malignancy has not yet been fully explored. In this study, we performed whole exome sequencing and the RNA-sequencing of fourteen cases of ATC [...] Read more.
Anaplastic thyroid cancer (ATC) is a rare and extremely malignant tumor with no available cure. The genetic landscape of this malignancy has not yet been fully explored. In this study, we performed whole exome sequencing and the RNA-sequencing of fourteen cases of ATC to delineate copy number changes, fusion gene events, and somatic mutations. A high frequency of genomic amplifications was seen, including 29% of cases having amplification of CCNE1 and 9% of CDK6; these events may be targetable by cyclin dependent kinase (CDK) inhibition. Furthermore, 9% harbored amplification of TWIST1, which is also a potentially targetable lesion. A total of 21 fusion genes in five cases were seen, none of which were recurrent. Frequent mutations included TP53 (55%), the TERT promoter (36%), and ATM (27%). Analyses of mutational signatures showed an involvement of processes that are associated with normal aging, defective DNA mismatch repair, activation induced cytidine deaminase (AID)/apolipoprotein B editing complex (APOBEC) activity, failure of DNA double-strand break repair, and tobacco exposure. Taken together, our results shed new light on the tumorigenesis of ATC and show that a relatively large proportion (36%) of ATCs harbor genetic events that make them candidates for novel therapeutic approaches. When considering that ATC today has a mortality rate of close to 100%, this is highly relevant from a clinical perspective. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Thyroid Cancer)
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Open AccessArticle Long-Term Outcome after Hemithyroidectomy for Papillary Thyroid Cancer: A Comparative Study and Review of the Literature
Received: 17 November 2018 / Revised: 9 December 2018 / Accepted: 21 December 2018 / Published: 27 December 2018
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Abstract
Background: The extent of surgery for differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC) remains a controversial issue. Since a less aggressive approach is becoming more predominant, we aim here to study the short- and long-term outcomes of DTC patients after hemithyroidectomy. Methods: From a total of [...] Read more.
Background: The extent of surgery for differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC) remains a controversial issue. Since a less aggressive approach is becoming more predominant, we aim here to study the short- and long-term outcomes of DTC patients after hemithyroidectomy. Methods: From a total of 1252 consecutive papillary thyroid cancer (PTC) patients, 109 treated with hemithyroidectomy and 50 with total thyroidectomy but no I131 were included. Persistent or recurrent disease was defined based on histopathology, imaging studies, and thyroglobulin levels. Results: Our hemithyroidectomy cohort included females (84.4%), microcarcinomas (81.9%), TNM stage I (95.4%), and a low American Thyroid Association (ATA) recurrence risk (94.5%). At one-year post-treatment, 3.7% had persistent disease (all female, median age 55 years, tumor size 7.5 mm). Recurrent disease was detected in 7.5% of those with excellent response at 1-year. With a follow-up of 8.6 years (1–48), all 109 patients were disease free at last visit, including the 11 patients (10.1%) who received additional treatment. Also, when comparing the hemi- and total thyroidectomy groups no significant differences were found in the rate of persistent and recurrent disease, overall mortality, and disease status at last visit. Conclusions: For properly selected low-risk PTC patients, hemithyroidectomy is a safe treatment option with a favorable long-term outcome. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Thyroid Cancer)
Open AccessFeature PaperArticle Immune Gene Signature Delineates a Subclass of Papillary Thyroid Cancer with Unfavorable Clinical Outcomes
Cancers 2018, 10(12), 494; https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers10120494
Received: 17 November 2018 / Revised: 2 December 2018 / Accepted: 3 December 2018 / Published: 5 December 2018
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (2415 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) represents a heterogeneous disease with diverse clinical outcomes highlighting a need to identify robust biomarkers with clinical relevance. We applied non-negative matrix factorization-based deconvolution to publicly available gene expression profiles of thyroid cancers in the Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) [...] Read more.
Papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) represents a heterogeneous disease with diverse clinical outcomes highlighting a need to identify robust biomarkers with clinical relevance. We applied non-negative matrix factorization-based deconvolution to publicly available gene expression profiles of thyroid cancers in the Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) consortium. Among three metagene signatures identified, two signatures were enriched in canonical BRAF-like and RAS-like thyroid cancers with up-regulation of genes involved in oxidative phosphorylation and cell adhesions, respectively. The third metagene signature representing up-regulation of immune-related genes further segregated BRAF-like and RAS-like PTCs into their respective subgroups of immunoreactive (IR) and immunodeficient (ID), respectively. BRAF-IR PTCs showed enrichment of tumor infiltrating immune cells, tall cell variant PTC, and shorter recurrence-free survival compared to BRAF-ID PTCs. RAS-IR and RAS-ID PTC subtypes included majority of normal thyroid tissues and follicular variant PTC, respectively. Immunopathological features of PTC subtypes such as immune cell fraction, repertoire of T cell receptors, cytolytic activity, and expression level of immune checkpoints such as and PD-L1 and CTLA-4 were consistently observed in two different cohorts. Taken together, an immune-related metagene signature can classify PTCs into four molecular subtypes, featuring the distinct histologic type, genetic and transcriptional alterations, and potential clinical significance. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Thyroid Cancer)
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Graphical abstract

Open AccessArticle CCND1 Splice Variant as A Novel Diagnostic and Predictive Biomarker for Thyroid Cancer
Cancers 2018, 10(11), 437; https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers10110437
Received: 20 October 2018 / Revised: 11 November 2018 / Accepted: 12 November 2018 / Published: 13 November 2018
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (3560 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Cyclin D1 protein is aberrantly overexpressed in thyroid cancers, but mutations of the CCND1 gene are rare in these tumors. We investigated the CCND1 rs9344 (G870A) polymorphism and the expression profiles of wild-type CCND1a and shortened oncogenic isoform CCND1b at the mRNA and [...] Read more.
Cyclin D1 protein is aberrantly overexpressed in thyroid cancers, but mutations of the CCND1 gene are rare in these tumors. We investigated the CCND1 rs9344 (G870A) polymorphism and the expression profiles of wild-type CCND1a and shortened oncogenic isoform CCND1b at the mRNA and protein levels in 286 thyroid tumors. Genotype AA of rs9344 was associated with high expression of CCND1b mRNA and was more frequently found in thyroid cancer than in benign tumors. The mRNA expression levels of CCND1b were higher in papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) than in benign or other malignant tumors. However, the expression of CCND1a mRNA showed no association with the parameters. Noninvasive follicular thyroid neoplasm with papillary-like nuclear features (NIFTP) was distinguished from PTC by low expression of CCND1b at mRNA and protein levels. We further observed that cyclin D1b immunostaining helped to avoid the misdiagnosis of classic PTC with predominant follicular pattern as NIFTP in a separate cohort. Nuclear cyclin D1b expression was associated with aggressive clinicopathologic features in PTC. These findings suggest that cyclin D1b overexpression can be used as a diagnostic and predictive biomarker in thyroid tumors and may be functionally involved in the development and progression of the disease. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Thyroid Cancer)
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Graphical abstract

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