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Open AccessArticle

Thyroid Cancer after Exposure to Radioiodine in Childhood and Adolescence: 131I-Related Risk and the Role of Selected Host and Environmental Factors

1
Section of Environment and Radiation, International Agency for Research on Cancer, WHO, 69372 Lyon, France
2
Division of Cancer Epidemiology and Genetics, National Cancer Institute, NIH, U.S. DHHS, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA
3
The Republican Research Centre for Radiation Medicine and Human Ecology, 246040 Gomel, Republic of Belarus
4
National Medical Research Radiological Centre of the Ministry of Health of the Russian Federation, Obninsk, 249036 Kaluga Region, Russia
5
Fukushima Medical University, Fukushima 960-1295, Japan
6
ISGlobal-Barcelona Institute for Global Health, 08003 Barcelona, Spain
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Cancers 2019, 11(10), 1481; https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers11101481
Received: 6 August 2019 / Revised: 20 September 2019 / Accepted: 29 September 2019 / Published: 2 October 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Thyroid Cancer)
In this study, we expanded on a previously published population-based case-control study on subjects exposed to iodine-131 (131I) from Chernobyl fallout at age ≤18 years using improved individual 131I absorbed thyroid doses. We further studied the impact of iodine deficiency and other selected host risk factors on 131I-related thyroid cancer risk after childhood exposure. We included 298 thyroid cancer cases and 1934 matched controls from the most contaminated regions of Belarus and the Russian Federation. We performed statistical analysis using conditional logistic regression models. We found a statistically significant linear quadratic dose-effect association between thyroid cancer and 131I thyroid dose in the range up to 5 grays (Gy). Self-reported personal history of benign nodules, any thyroid disease except thyroid cancer, family history of thyroid cancer, increased body mass index, and deficient stable iodine status at the time of the accident were statistically significant risk factors (p < 0.05 for each factor) for thyroid cancer after adjustment for thyroid 131I dose effect. Subjects who received stable iodine supplementation in the years after the accident had a significantly lower 131I-related risk of thyroid cancer. Our findings are important for thyroid cancer prevention, and for further improvement of medical surveillance in the affected populations. View Full-Text
Keywords: Chernobyl nuclear accident; Iodine-131; absorbed thyroid dose; childhood exposure; thyroid cancer; iodine deficiency Chernobyl nuclear accident; Iodine-131; absorbed thyroid dose; childhood exposure; thyroid cancer; iodine deficiency
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Zupunski, L.; Ostroumova, E.; Drozdovitch, V.; Veyalkin, I.; Ivanov, V.; Yamashita, S.; Cardis, E.; Kesminiene, A. Thyroid Cancer after Exposure to Radioiodine in Childhood and Adolescence: 131I-Related Risk and the Role of Selected Host and Environmental Factors. Cancers 2019, 11, 1481.

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