Virotherapy is a novel cancer treatment based on oncolytic viruses (OVs), which selectively infect and lyse cancer cells, without harming normal cells or tissues. Several viruses, either naturally occurring or developed through genetic engineering, are currently under investigation in clinical studies. Emerging reports suggesting the immune-stimulatory property of OVs against tumor cells further support the clinical use of OVs for the treatment of lesions lacking effective therapies. Poorly differentiated thyroid carcinoma (PDTC) and anaplastic thyroid carcinoma (ATC), have a poor prognosis and limited treatment options. Therefore, several groups investigated the therapeutic potential of OVs in PDTC/ATC models producing experimental data sustaining the potential clinical efficacy of OVs in these cancer models. Moreover, the presence of an immunosuppressive microenvironment further supports the potential use of OVs in ATC. In this review, we present the results of the studies evaluating the efficacy of OVs alone or in combination with other treatment options. In particular, their potential therapeutic combination with multiple kinases inhibitors (MKIs) or immune checkpoint inhibitors are discussed.
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