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Open AccessReview

A Systematic Review of Phase II Targeted Therapy Clinical Trials in Anaplastic Thyroid Cancer

by 1, 2,3 and 2,3,4,*
1
General Practice, The Doctors of Viborg Stadion Allé 1, 8800 Viborg, Denmark
2
Department of Clinical Medicine, Aarhus University, 8200 Aarhus, Denmark
3
Department of Otorhinolaryngology, Region Hospital Holstebro, 7500 Holstebro, Denmark
4
Department of Clinical Pharmacology, Aarhus University Hospital, 8000 Aarhus, Denmark
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Cancers 2019, 11(7), 943; https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers11070943
Received: 13 June 2019 / Revised: 28 June 2019 / Accepted: 2 July 2019 / Published: 4 July 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Thyroid Cancer)
Anaplastic thyroid carcinoma (ATC) is a rare, but devastating disease. Despite multimodal approaches combining surgery, chemotherapy and radiation therapy, ATC is associated with a dire prognosis, with a median overall survival of only three to ten months. Novel treatments are thus urgently needed. Recent efforts towards the characterization of the molecular landscape of ATC have led to the identification of pro-oncogenic targetable alterations, lending promise for novel targeted therapeutic approaches. This systematic review summarizes the results of phase II clinical trials of targeted therapy in ATC, providing an overview of efficacy and safety profiles. The majority of trials to date have consisted of small single-arm studies and have presented modest results. However, only a minority of trials have selected or stratified patients by molecular alterations. In the setting of BRAF V600E mutated ATC, dabrafenib/trametinib combination therapy and vemurafenib monotherapy have both demonstrated efficacy. Everolimus has furthermore shown promising results in patients with PI3K/mTOR/AKT pathway alterations. These studies underscore the importance of molecular profiling of tumors for appropriate patient selection and determination of genomic correlates of response. Clinical trials are underway testing additional targeted therapies as monotherapy, or as a part of multimodal treatment, and in combination with immunotherapy. View Full-Text
Keywords: anaplastic thyroid cancer; thyroid neoplasms; targeted therapy; clinical trials; precision medicine anaplastic thyroid cancer; thyroid neoplasms; targeted therapy; clinical trials; precision medicine
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Ljubas, J.; Ovesen, T.; Rusan, M. A Systematic Review of Phase II Targeted Therapy Clinical Trials in Anaplastic Thyroid Cancer. Cancers 2019, 11, 943.

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