Special Issue "Photodynamic Therapy (PDT) in Oncology"

A special issue of Cancers (ISSN 2072-6694).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 January 2020).

Special Issue Editors

Prof. Dr. Ángeles Juarranz

Guest Editor
Department of Biology, Faculty of Sciences, Universidad Autónoma de Madrid, 28049 Madrid, Spain
Special Issues and Collections in MDPI journals
Dr. Yolanda Gilaberte

Guest Editor
Department of Dermatology, University Hospital Miguel Servet, IIS Aragón, 50009 Zaragoza, Spain
Dr. Salvador González

Guest Editor
Department of Medicine and Medical Specialties, Alcalá de Henares University, 28805 Madrid, Spain

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is a minimally invasive therapeutic modality approved for treatment of several types of cancer and non-oncological disorders. PDT is able to selectively destroy tumours accessible to light, being used in dermatology for the treatment of non-melanoma skin cancers (basal cell carcinoma and Bowen disease) and precancerous lesions (actinic keratosis) as well as for the treatment of head and neck cancer, endoscopically accessible tumours such as pulmonary, bladder, gastrointestinal and gynaecological neoplasms. Moreover, interstitial PDT has been proposed for solid tumors such as brain and prostate cancer. Additionally, PDT can be used for cancer diagnose being theragnosis a promising technique based for targeted fluorescent imaging and PDT. Although photofrin, aminolevulinic acid and its ester derivatives are the main compounds used in clinical trials, newer photosensitizers and delivery tools are being evaluated. From the first articles published by the group of Dougherty, T.J. that describe the advantages and applications of PDT in the eighties, many investigations the mechanisms of action, new photosensitizers and new cancer applications have been performed.

This special Issue on Cancers is focused on photodynamic therapy and it would include original articles on aspects related with treatment of cancer. In particular, research on photochemical mechanisms, new photosensitizers and delivery tools, cellular and tissue targets, cellular response (cell death and survival), vascular damage and immune response by using different cellular and animal models. Translational work describing the value of PDT alone or in combination with other treatment modalities in cancer treatment will also be included.

Prof. Dr. Ángeles Juarranz
Dr. Yolanda Gilaberte
Dr. Salvador González
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Cancers is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2000 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • photodynamic therapy
  • photosensitizers
  • action mechanisms
  • in vitro and in vivo models
  • applications in cancer
  • delivery tools
  • resistance mechanisms

Published Papers (15 papers)

Order results
Result details
Select all
Export citation of selected articles as:
Open AccessArticle
Efficacy of 5-Aminolevulinic Acid in Photodynamic Detection and Photodynamic Therapy in Veterinary Medicine
Cancers 2019, 11(4), 495; https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers11040495 - 07 Apr 2019
Cited by 2
Abstract
5-Aminolevulinic acid (5-ALA), a commonly used photosensitizer in photodynamic detection (PDD) and therapy (PDT), is converted in situ to the established photosensitizer protoporphyrin IX (PpIX) via the heme biosynthetic pathway. To extend 5-ALA-PDT application, we evaluated the PpIX fluorescence induced by exogenous 5-ALA [...] Read more.
5-Aminolevulinic acid (5-ALA), a commonly used photosensitizer in photodynamic detection (PDD) and therapy (PDT), is converted in situ to the established photosensitizer protoporphyrin IX (PpIX) via the heme biosynthetic pathway. To extend 5-ALA-PDT application, we evaluated the PpIX fluorescence induced by exogenous 5-ALA in various veterinary tumors and treated canine and feline tumors. 5-ALA-PDD sensitivity and specificity in the whole sample group for dogs and cats combined were 89.5 and 50%, respectively. Notably, some small tumors disappeared upon 5-ALA-PDT. Although single PDT application was not curative, repeated PDT+/−chemotherapy achieved long-term tumor control. We analyzed the relationship between intracellular PpIX concentration and 5-ALA-PDT in vitro cytotoxicity using various primary tumor cells and determined the correlation between intracellular PpIX concentration and 5-ALA transporter and metabolic enzyme mRNA expression levels. 5-ALA-PDT cytotoxicity in vitro correlated with intracellular PpIX concentration in carcinomas. Ferrochelatase mRNA expression levels strongly negatively correlated with PpIX accumulation, representing the first report of a correlation between mRNA expression related to PpIX accumulation and PpIX concentration in canine tumor cells. Our findings suggested that the results of 5-ALA-PDD might be predictive for 5-ALA-PDT therapeutic effects for carcinomas, with 5-ALA-PDT plus chemotherapy potentially increasing the probability of tumor control in veterinary medicine. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Photodynamic Therapy (PDT) in Oncology)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
In-Vivo Optical Monitoring of the Efficacy of Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor Targeted Photodynamic Therapy: The Effect of Fluence Rate
Cancers 2020, 12(1), 190; https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers12010190 - 13 Jan 2020
Abstract
Targeted photodynamic therapy (PDT) has the potential to improve the therapeutic effect of PDT due to significantly better tumor responses and less normal tissue damage. Here we investigated if the efficacy of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) targeted PDT using cetuximab-IRDye700DX is fluence [...] Read more.
Targeted photodynamic therapy (PDT) has the potential to improve the therapeutic effect of PDT due to significantly better tumor responses and less normal tissue damage. Here we investigated if the efficacy of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) targeted PDT using cetuximab-IRDye700DX is fluence rate dependent. Cell survival after treatment with different fluence rates was investigated in three cell lines. Singlet oxygen formation was investigated using the singlet oxygen quencher sodium azide and singlet oxygen sensor green (SOSG). The long-term response (to 90 days) of solid OSC-19-luc2-cGFP tumors in mice was determined after illumination with 20, 50, or 150 mW·cm−2. Reflectance and fluorescence spectroscopy were used to monitor therapy. Singlet oxygen was formed during illumination as shown by the increase in SOSG fluorescence and the decreased response in the presence of sodium azide. Significantly more cell death and more cures were observed after reducing the fluence rate from 150 mW·cm−2 to 20 mW·cm−2 both in-vitro and in-vivo. Photobleaching of IRDye700DX increased with lower fluence rates and correlated with efficacy. The response in EGFR targeted PDT is strongly dependent on fluence rate used. The effectiveness of targeted PDT is, like PDT, dependent on the generation of singlet oxygen and thus the availability of intracellular oxygen. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Photodynamic Therapy (PDT) in Oncology)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Selective Killing of Activated T Cells by 5-Aminolevulinic Acid Mediated Photodynamic Effect: Potential Improvement of Extracorporeal Photopheresis
Cancers 2020, 12(2), 377; https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers12020377 - 06 Feb 2020
Abstract
Extracorporeal photopheresis (ECP), a modality that exposes isolated leukocytes to the photosensitizer 8-methoxypsoralen (8-MOP) and ultraviolet-A (UV-A) light, is used to treat conditions such as cutaneous T-cell lymphoma and graft-versus-host disease. However, the current procedure of ECP has limited selectivity and efficiency; and [...] Read more.
Extracorporeal photopheresis (ECP), a modality that exposes isolated leukocytes to the photosensitizer 8-methoxypsoralen (8-MOP) and ultraviolet-A (UV-A) light, is used to treat conditions such as cutaneous T-cell lymphoma and graft-versus-host disease. However, the current procedure of ECP has limited selectivity and efficiency; and produces only partial response in the majority of treated patients. Additionally, the treatment is expensive and time-consuming, so the improvement for this modality is needed. In this study, we used the concept of photodynamic therapy (PDT) with 5-aminolevulinic acid (ALA), a precursor of an endogenously synthesized photosensitizer protoporphyrin IX (PpIX) in combination with blue light to explore the possibility of targeting activated human blood T cells ex vivo. With various T-cell activation protocols, a high ALA-induced PpIX production took place in activated CD3+, CD4+CD25+, and CD8+ T cell populations with their subsequent killing after blue light exposure. By contrast, resting T cells were much less damaged by the treatment. The selective and effective killing effect on the activated cells was also seen after co-cultivating activated and resting T cells. Under our clinically relevant experimental conditions, ALA-PDT killed activated T cells more selectively and efficiently than 8-MOP/UV-A. Monocyte-derived dendritic cells (DCs) were not affected by the treatment. Incubation of ALA-PDT damaged T cells with autologous DCs induced a downregulation of the co-stimulatory molecules CD80/CD86 and also upregulation of interleukin 10 (IL-10) and indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase expression, two immunosuppressive factors that may account for the generation of tolerogenic DCs. Overall, the data support the potential use of ALA-PDT strategy for improving ECP by selective and effective killing of activated T cells and induction of immune tolerance. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Photodynamic Therapy (PDT) in Oncology)
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

Open AccessArticle
A Basic Study of Photodynamic Therapy with Glucose-Conjugated Chlorin e6 Using Mammary Carcinoma Xenografts
Cancers 2019, 11(5), 636; https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers11050636 - 08 May 2019
Cited by 1
Abstract
By using the Warburg effect—a phenomenon where tumors consume higher glucose levels than normal cells—on cancer cells to enhance the effect of photodynamic therapy (PDT), we developed a new photosensitizer, glucose-conjugated chlorin e6 (G-Ce6). We analyzed the efficacy of PDT with G-Ce6 against [...] Read more.
By using the Warburg effect—a phenomenon where tumors consume higher glucose levels than normal cells—on cancer cells to enhance the effect of photodynamic therapy (PDT), we developed a new photosensitizer, glucose-conjugated chlorin e6 (G-Ce6). We analyzed the efficacy of PDT with G-Ce6 against canine mammary carcinoma (CMC) in vitro and in vivo. The pharmacokinetics of G-Ce6 at 2, 5, and 20 mg/kg was examined in normal dogs, whereas its intracellular localization, concentration, and photodynamic effects were investigated in vitro using CMC cells (SNP cells). G-Ce6 (10 mg/kg) was administered in vivo at 5 min or 3 h before laser irradiation to SNP tumor-bearing murine models. The in vitro study revealed that G-Ce6 was mainly localized to the lysosomes. Cell viability decreased in a G-Ce6 concentration- and light intensity-dependent manner in the PDT group. Cell death induced by PDT with G-Ce6 was not inhibited by an apoptosis inhibitor. In the in vivo study, 5-min-interval PDT exhibited greater effects than 3-h-interval PDT. The mean maximum blood concentration and half-life of G-Ce6 (2 mg/kg) were 15.19 ± 4.44 μg/mL and 3.02 ± 0.58 h, respectively. Thus, 5-min-interval PDT with G-Ce6 was considered effective against CMC. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Photodynamic Therapy (PDT) in Oncology)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
TLD1433 Photosensitizer Inhibits Conjunctival Melanoma Cells in Zebrafish Ectopic and Orthotopic Tumour Models
Cancers 2020, 12(3), 587; https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers12030587 - 04 Mar 2020
Abstract
The ruthenium-based photosensitizer (PS) TLD1433 has completed a phase I clinical trial for photodynamic therapy (PDT) treatment of bladder cancer. Here, we investigated a possible repurposing of this drug for treatment of conjunctival melanoma (CM). CM is a rare but often deadly ocular [...] Read more.
The ruthenium-based photosensitizer (PS) TLD1433 has completed a phase I clinical trial for photodynamic therapy (PDT) treatment of bladder cancer. Here, we investigated a possible repurposing of this drug for treatment of conjunctival melanoma (CM). CM is a rare but often deadly ocular cancer. The efficacy of TLD1433 was tested on several cell lines from CM (CRMM1, CRMM2 and CM2005), uveal melanoma (OMM1, OMM2.5, MEL270), epidermoid carcinoma (A431) and cutaneous melanoma (A375). Using 15 min green light irradiation (21 mW/cm2, 19 J.cm−2, 520 nm), the highest phototherapeutic index (PI) was reached in CM cells, with cell death occurring via apoptosis and necrosis. The therapeutic potential of TLD1433 was hence further validated in zebrafish ectopic and newly-developed orthotopic CM models. Fluorescent CRMM1 and CRMM2 cells were injected into the circulation of zebrafish (ectopic model) or behind the eye (orthotopic model) and 24 h later, the engrafted embryos were treated with the maximally-tolerated dose of TLD1433. The drug was administrated in three ways, either by (i) incubating the fish in drug-containing water (WA), or (ii) injecting the drug intravenously into the fish (IV), or (iii) injecting the drug retro-orbitally (RO) into the fish. Optimally, four consecutive PDT treatments were performed on engrafted embryos using 60 min drug-to-light intervals and 90 min green light irradiation (21 mW/cm2, 114 J.cm−2, 520 nm). This PDT protocol was not toxic to the fish. In the ectopic tumour model, both systemic administration by IV injection and RO injection of TLD1433 significantly inhibited growth of engrafted CRMM1 and CRMM2 cells. However, in the orthotopic model, tumour growth was only attenuated by localized RO injection of TLD1433. These data unequivocally prove that the zebrafish provides a fast vertebrate cancer model that can be used to test the administration regimen, host toxicity and anti-cancer efficacy of PDT drugs against CM. Based on our results, we suggest repurposing of TLD1433 for treatment of incurable CM and further testing in alternative pre-clinical models. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Photodynamic Therapy (PDT) in Oncology)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Photochemically-Induced Release of Lysosomal Sequestered Sunitinib: Obstacles for Therapeutic Efficacy
Cancers 2020, 12(2), 417; https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers12020417 - 11 Feb 2020
Abstract
Lysosomal accumulation of sunitinib has been suggested as an underlying mechanism of resistance. Here, we investigated if photochemical internalization (PCI), a technology for cytosolic release of drugs entrapped in endosomes and lysosomes, would activate lysosomal sequestered sunitinib. By super-resolution fluorescence microscopy, sunitinib was [...] Read more.
Lysosomal accumulation of sunitinib has been suggested as an underlying mechanism of resistance. Here, we investigated if photochemical internalization (PCI), a technology for cytosolic release of drugs entrapped in endosomes and lysosomes, would activate lysosomal sequestered sunitinib. By super-resolution fluorescence microscopy, sunitinib was found to accumulate in the membrane of endo/lysosomal compartments together with the photosensitizer disulfonated tetraphenylchlorin (TPCS2a). Furthermore, the treatment effect was potentiated by PCI in the human HT-29 and the mouse CT26.WT colon cancer cell lines. The cytotoxic outcome of sunitinib-PCI was, however, highly dependent on the treatment protocol. Thus, neoadjuvant PCI inhibited lysosomal accumulation of sunitinib. PCI also inhibited lysosomal sequestering of sunitinib in HT29/SR cells with acquired sunitinib resistance, but did not reverse the resistance. The mechanism of acquired sunitinib resistance in HT29/SR cells was therefore not related to lysosomal sequestering. Sunitinib-PCI was further evaluated on HT-29 xenografts in athymic mice, but was found to induce only a minor effect on tumor growth delay. In immunocompetent mice sunitinib-PCI enhanced areas of treatment-induced necrosis compared to the monotherapy groups. However, the tumor growth was not delayed, and decreased infiltration of CD3-positive T cells was indicated as a possible mechanism behind the failed overall response. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Photodynamic Therapy (PDT) in Oncology)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessBrief Report
Cytoplasmic Increase in Hsp70 Protein: A Potential New Biomarker of Early Infiltration of Cutaneous Squamous Cell Carcinoma Arising from Actinic Keratosis
Cancers 2020, 12(5), 1151; https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers12051151 - 03 May 2020
Abstract
Background: Cutaneous squamous skin cell carcinoma (SCC) is the second most frequent type of non-melanoma skin cancer and is the second leading cause of death by skin cancer in Caucasian populations. However, at present it is difficult to predict patients with poor SCC [...] Read more.
Background: Cutaneous squamous skin cell carcinoma (SCC) is the second most frequent type of non-melanoma skin cancer and is the second leading cause of death by skin cancer in Caucasian populations. However, at present it is difficult to predict patients with poor SCC prognosis. Objective: To identify proteins with expression levels that could predict SCC infiltration in SCC arising from actinic keratosis (SCC-AK). Methods: A total of 20 biopsies from 20 different patients were studied; 10 were SCC-AK samples and 10 were taken from normal skin. Early infiltrated SCC-AK samples were selected based on histological examination, and to determine the expression of proteins, fresh skin samples were processed by two-dimensional electrophoresis. Results: The expression levels of three proteins, namely alpha hemoglobin and heat shock proteins 27 and 70 (Hsp27 and Hsp70, respectively) were significantly increased in SCC-AK samples with respect to normal control skin. However, only the expression level of Hsp70 protein positively correlated with the level of SCC-AK dermis infiltration. Immunohistological examination suggested that increased expression of Hsp70 proteins seemed to mainly occur in the cytoplasm of keratinocytes. The increased cytoplasmic Hsp70 expression in SCC-AK was confirmed by Western blot experiments. Conclusion: Cytoplasmic expression of Hsp70 could be a potential biomarker of early infiltration of SCC arising from AK. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Photodynamic Therapy (PDT) in Oncology)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
The Potential of Nanobody-Targeted Photodynamic Therapy to Trigger Immune Responses
Cancers 2020, 12(4), 978; https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers12040978 - 15 Apr 2020
Abstract
Nanobody-targeted photodynamic therapy (NB-PDT) has been recently developed as a more tumor-selective approach rather than conventional photodynamic therapy (PDT). NB-PDT uses nanobodies that bind to tumor cells with high affinity, to selectively deliver a photosensitizer, i.e., a chemical which becomes cytotoxic when excited [...] Read more.
Nanobody-targeted photodynamic therapy (NB-PDT) has been recently developed as a more tumor-selective approach rather than conventional photodynamic therapy (PDT). NB-PDT uses nanobodies that bind to tumor cells with high affinity, to selectively deliver a photosensitizer, i.e., a chemical which becomes cytotoxic when excited with light of a particular wavelength. Conventional PDT has been reported to be able to induce immunogenic cell death, characterized by the exposure/release of damage-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs) from dying cells, which can lead to antitumor immunity. We explored this aspect in the context of NB-PDT, targeting the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), using high and moderate EGFR-expressing cells. Here we report that, after NB-PDT, the cytoplasmic DAMP HSP70 was detected on the cell membrane of tumor cells and the nuclear DAMP HMGB1 was found in the cell cytoplasm. Furthermore, it was shown that NB-PDT induced the release of the DAMPs HSP70 and ATP, as well as the pro- inflammatory cytokines IL- 1β and IL-6. Conditioned medium from high EGFR-expressing tumor cells treated with NB-PDT led to the maturation of human dendritic cells, as indicated by the upregulation of CD86 and MHC II on their cell surface, and the increased release of IL-12p40 and IL-1β. Subsequently, these dendritic cells induced CD4+ T cell proliferation, accompanied by IFNγ release. Altogether, the initial steps reported here point towards the potential of NB-PDT to stimulate the immune system, thus giving this selective-local therapy a systemic reach. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Photodynamic Therapy (PDT) in Oncology)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Role of Polymer Micelles in the Delivery of Photodynamic Therapy Agent to Liposomes and Cells
Cancers 2020, 12(2), 384; https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers12020384 - 07 Feb 2020
Abstract
The use of nanocarriers for hydrophobic photosensitizers, in the context of photodynamic therapy (PDT) to improve pharmacokinetics and bio-distribution, is well-established. However, the mechanisms at play in the internalization of nanocarriers are not well-elucidated, despite its importance in nanocarrier design. In this study, [...] Read more.
The use of nanocarriers for hydrophobic photosensitizers, in the context of photodynamic therapy (PDT) to improve pharmacokinetics and bio-distribution, is well-established. However, the mechanisms at play in the internalization of nanocarriers are not well-elucidated, despite its importance in nanocarrier design. In this study, we focus on the mechanisms involved in copolymer poly(ethylene oxide)-block-poly(ε-caprolactone) PEO-PCL and poly(ethylene oxide)-block-poly styrene PEO-PS micelles - membrane interactions through complementary physico-chemical studies on biomimetic membranes, and biological experiments on two-dimensional (2D) and three-dimensional (3D) cell cultures. Förster Resonance Energy Transfer measurements on fluorescently-labelled lipid vesicles, and flow cytometry on two cancerous cell lines enabled the evaluation in the uptake of a photosensitizer, Pheophorbide a (Pheo), and copolymer chains towards model membranes, and cells, respectively. The effects of calibrated light illumination for PDT treatment on lipid vesicle membranes, i.e., leakage and formation of oxidized lipids, and cell viability, were assessed. No significant differences were observed between the ability of PEO-PCL and PEO-PS micelles in delivering Pheo to model membranes, but Pheo was found in higher concentrations in cells in the case of PEO-PCL. These higher Pheo concentrations did not correspond to better performances in PDT treatment. We demonstrated that there are subtle differences in PEO-PCL and PEO-PS micelles for the delivery of Pheo. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Photodynamic Therapy (PDT) in Oncology)
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

Open AccessCommunication
CD44 Targeting Mediated by Polymeric Nanoparticles and Combination of Chlorine TPCS2a-PDT and Docetaxel-Chemotherapy for Efficient Killing of Breast Differentiated and Stem Cancer Cells In Vitro
Cancers 2020, 12(2), 278; https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers12020278 - 23 Jan 2020
Abstract
The presence of rare but highly tumorigenic cancer stem cells (CSCs) within the tumors is recognized as one of the major reasons of failure of conventional chemotherapies, mainly attributed to the development of drug resistance and increasing metastatic potential. Here, we propose a [...] Read more.
The presence of rare but highly tumorigenic cancer stem cells (CSCs) within the tumors is recognized as one of the major reasons of failure of conventional chemotherapies, mainly attributed to the development of drug resistance and increasing metastatic potential. Here, we propose a therapeutic strategy based on the simultaneous delivery of docetaxel (DTX) and the photosensitizer meso-tetraphenyl chlorine disulfonate (TPCS2a) using hyaluronic acid (HA) coated polymeric nanoparticles (HA-NPs) for the targeting and killing of CD44 over-expressing breast cancer (BC) cells, both differentiated and CSCs (CD44high/CD24low population), thus combining chemotherapy and photodynamic therapy (PDT). Using the CD44high MDA-MB-231 and the CD44low MCF-7 cells, we demonstrated the occurrence of CD44-mediated uptake of HA-NPs both in monolayers and mammosphere cultures enriched in CSCs. Cell treatments showed that combination therapy using co-loaded NPs ([email protected]/TPCS2a-NPs) had superior efficacy over monotherapies ([email protected] or [email protected]2a-NPs) in reducing the self-renewal capacity, measured as mammosphere formation efficiency, and in eradicating the CSC population evaluated with aldehyde dehydrogenase activity assay and CD44/CD24 immunostaining. In summary, these in vitro studies demonstrated for the first time the potential of the combination of DTX-chemotherapy and TPCS2a-PDT for killing CSCs using properly designed NPs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Photodynamic Therapy (PDT) in Oncology)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessReview
Sensitive Photodynamic Detection of Adult T-cell Leukemia/Lymphoma and Specific Leukemic Cell Death Induced by Photodynamic Therapy: Current Status in Hematopoietic Malignancies
Cancers 2020, 12(2), 335; https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers12020335 - 02 Feb 2020
Abstract
Adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma (ATL), an aggressive type of T-cell malignancy, is caused by the human T-cell leukemia virus type I (HTLV-1) infections. The outcomes, following therapeutic interventions for ATL, have not been satisfactory. Photodynamic therapy (PDT) exerts selective cytotoxic activity against malignant cells, [...] Read more.
Adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma (ATL), an aggressive type of T-cell malignancy, is caused by the human T-cell leukemia virus type I (HTLV-1) infections. The outcomes, following therapeutic interventions for ATL, have not been satisfactory. Photodynamic therapy (PDT) exerts selective cytotoxic activity against malignant cells, as it is considered a minimally invasive therapeutic procedure. In PDT, photosensitizing agent administration is followed by irradiation at an absorbance wavelength of the sensitizer in the presence of oxygen, with ultimate direct tumor cell death, microvasculature injury, and induced local inflammatory reaction. This review provides an overview of the present status and state-of-the-art ATL treatments. It also focuses on the photodynamic detection (PDD) of hematopoietic malignancies and the recent progress of 5-Aminolevulinic acid (ALA)-PDT/PDD, which can efficiently induce ATL leukemic cell-specific death with minor influence on normal lymphocytes. Further consideration of the ALA-PDT/PDD system along with the circulatory system regarding the clinical application in ATL and others will be discussed. ALA-PDT/PDD can be promising as a novel treatment modality that overcomes unmet medical needs with the optimization of PDT parameters to increase the effectiveness of the tumor-killing activity and enhance the innate and adaptive anti-tumor immune responses by the optimized immunogenic cell death. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Photodynamic Therapy (PDT) in Oncology)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Metformin as an Adjuvant to Photodynamic Therapy in Resistant Basal Cell Carcinoma Cells
Cancers 2020, 12(3), 668; https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers12030668 - 13 Mar 2020
Abstract
Photodynamic Therapy (PDT) with methyl-aminolevulinate (MAL-PDT) is being used for the treatment of Basal Cell Carcinoma (BCC), although resistant cells may appear. Normal differentiated cells depend primarily on mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) to generate energy, but cancer cells switch this metabolism to aerobic [...] Read more.
Photodynamic Therapy (PDT) with methyl-aminolevulinate (MAL-PDT) is being used for the treatment of Basal Cell Carcinoma (BCC), although resistant cells may appear. Normal differentiated cells depend primarily on mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) to generate energy, but cancer cells switch this metabolism to aerobic glycolysis (Warburg effect), influencing the response to therapies. We have analyzed the expression of metabolic markers (β-F1-ATPase/GAPDH (glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase) ratio, pyruvate kinase M2 (PKM2), oxygen consume ratio, and lactate extracellular production) in the resistance to PDT of mouse BCC cell lines (named ASZ and CSZ, heterozygous for ptch1). We have also evaluated the ability of metformin (Metf), an antidiabetic type II compound that acts through inhibition of the AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK)/mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) pathway to sensitize resistant cells to PDT. The results obtained indicated that resistant cells showed an aerobic glycolysis metabolism. The treatment with Metf induced arrest in the G0/G1 phase and a reduction in the lactate extracellular production in all cell lines. The addition of Metf to MAL-PDT improved the cytotoxic effect on parental and resistant cells, which was not dependent on the PS protoporphyrin IX (PpIX) production. After Metf + MAL-PDT treatment, activation of pAMPK was detected, suppressing the mTOR pathway in most of the cells. Enhanced PDT-response with Metf was also observed in ASZ tumors. In conclusion, Metf increased the response to MAL-PDT in murine BCC cells resistant to PDT with aerobic glycolysis. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Photodynamic Therapy (PDT) in Oncology)
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

Open AccessArticle
Comparison of Cellular Death Pathways after mTHPC-mediated Photodynamic Therapy (PDT) in Five Human Cancer Cell Lines
Cancers 2019, 11(5), 702; https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers11050702 - 21 May 2019
Abstract
One of the most promising photosensitizers (PS) used in photodynamic therapy (PDT) is the porphyrin derivative 5,10,15,20-tetra(m-hydroxyphenyl)chlorin (mTHPC, temoporfin), marketed in Europe under the trade name Foscan®. A set of five human cancer cell lines from head and neck [...] Read more.
One of the most promising photosensitizers (PS) used in photodynamic therapy (PDT) is the porphyrin derivative 5,10,15,20-tetra(m-hydroxyphenyl)chlorin (mTHPC, temoporfin), marketed in Europe under the trade name Foscan®. A set of five human cancer cell lines from head and neck and other PDT-relevant tissues was used to investigate oxidative stress and underlying cell death mechanisms of mTHPC-mediated PDT in vitro. Cells were treated with mTHPC in equitoxic concentrations and illuminated with light doses of 1.8–7.0 J/cm2 and harvested immediately, 6, 24, or 48 h post illumination for analyses. Our results confirm the induction of oxidative stress after mTHPC-based PDT by detecting a total loss of mitochondrial membrane potential (Δψm) and increased formation of ROS. However, lipid peroxidation (LPO) and loss of cell membrane integrity play only a minor role in cell death in most cell lines. Based on our results, apoptosis is the predominant death mechanism following mTHPC-mediated PDT. Autophagy can occur in parallel to apoptosis or the former can be dominant first, yet ultimately leading to autophagy-associated apoptosis. The death of the cells is in some cases accompanied by DNA fragmentation and a G2/M phase arrest. In general, the overall phototoxic effects and the concentrations as well as the time to establish these effects varies between cell lines, suggesting that the cancer cells are not all dying by one defined mechanism, but rather succumb to an individual interplay of different cell death mechanisms. Besides the evaluation of the underlying cell death mechanisms, we focused on the comparison of results in a set of five identically treated cell lines in this study. Although cells were treated under equitoxic conditions and PDT acts via a rather unspecific ROS formation, very heterogeneous results were obtained with different cell lines. This study shows that general conclusions after PDT in vitro require testing on several cell lines to be reliable, which has too often been ignored in the past. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Photodynamic Therapy (PDT) in Oncology)
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

Open AccessArticle
Selective Targeting of Cancer Stem Cells (CSCs) Based on Photodynamic Therapy (PDT) Penetration Depth Inhibits Colon Polyp Formation in Mice
Cancers 2020, 12(1), 203; https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers12010203 - 14 Jan 2020
Abstract
Targeting cancer stem cells (CSCs) without damaging normal stem cells could contribute to the development of novel radical cancer therapies. Cells expressing leucine-rich repeat-containing G-protein coupled receptor 5 (Lgr5) constitute a cancer-causing population in the colon; therefore, targeting of Lgr5+ cells is expected [...] Read more.
Targeting cancer stem cells (CSCs) without damaging normal stem cells could contribute to the development of novel radical cancer therapies. Cells expressing leucine-rich repeat-containing G-protein coupled receptor 5 (Lgr5) constitute a cancer-causing population in the colon; therefore, targeting of Lgr5+ cells is expected to provide an opportunity to mitigate colon cancer. However, the expression of Lgr5 in normal stem cells makes it difficult to prove the efficacy of therapies targeted exclusively at Lgr5+ cancer cells. We used a modified photodynamic therapy technique involving cellular radiative transfer between green fluorescent protein (GFP)-expressing cells and a rose bengal photosensitizer. After treatment, tumors containing GFP-Lgr5+ cells were observed to be significantly suppressed or retarded with little effect on GFP-Lgr5+ stem cells at the crypt bottom. Lgr5+ CSCs were specifically eradicated in situ, when localized based on the depth from the colon lumen, revealing the potential preventive efficacy of Lgr5-targeted therapy on tumor growth. This study supports the idea that Lgr5+ cells localized near the colon luminal surface are central to colorectal cancer. With further development, the targeting of localized Lgr5+ cancer stem cells, which this study demonstrates in concept, may be feasible for prevention of colon cancer in high-risk populations. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Photodynamic Therapy (PDT) in Oncology)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessReview
Photochemical Internalization: Light Paves Way for New Cancer Chemotherapies and Vaccines
Cancers 2020, 12(1), 165; https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers12010165 - 09 Jan 2020
Abstract
Photochemical internalization (PCI) is a further development of photodynamic therapy (PDT). In this report, we describe PCI as a potential tool for cellular internalization of chemotherapeutic agents or antigens and systematically review the ongoing research. Eighteen published papers described the pre-clinical and clinical [...] Read more.
Photochemical internalization (PCI) is a further development of photodynamic therapy (PDT). In this report, we describe PCI as a potential tool for cellular internalization of chemotherapeutic agents or antigens and systematically review the ongoing research. Eighteen published papers described the pre-clinical and clinical developments of PCI-mediated delivery of chemotherapeutic agents or antigens. The studies were screened against pre-defined eligibility criteria. Pre-clinical studies suggest that PCI can be effectively used to deliver chemotherapeutic agents to the cytosol of tumor cells and, thereby, improve treatment efficacy. One Phase-I clinical trial has been conducted, and it demonstrated that PCI-mediated bleomycin treatment was safe and identified tolerable doses of the photosensitizer disulfonated tetraphenyl chlorin (TPCS2a). Likewise, PCI was pre-clinically shown to mediate major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I antigen presentation and generation of tumor-specific cytotoxic CD8+ T-lymphocytes (CTL) and cancer remission. A first clinical Phase I trial with the photosensitizer TPCS2a combined with human papilloma virus antigen (HPV) was recently completed and results are expected in 2020. Hence, photosensitizers and light can be used to mediate cytosolic delivery of endocytosed chemotherapeutics or antigens. While the therapeutic potential in cancer has been clearly demonstrated pre-clinically, further clinical trials are needed to reveal the true translational potential of PCI in humans. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Photodynamic Therapy (PDT) in Oncology)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Back to TopTop