Inflammation and Natural Products

A special issue of Life (ISSN 2075-1729). This special issue belongs to the section "Pharmaceutical Science".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (30 May 2023) | Viewed by 44846

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Guest Editor
Faculty of Health Sciences, Universidad Loyola Andalucía, 41704 Dos Hermanas, Sevilla, Spain
Interests: inflammation; natural products; skin pathologies; photoprotection; microalgae; polyphenols; carotenoids
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Guest Editor
Department of Medicine and Medical Specialties, Alcalá de Henares University, 28805 Madrid, Spain
Interests: skin; photoprotection; skin cancer; inflammation; natural products; confocal microscopy
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Terrestrial and marine environments are inexhaustible sources of compounds and active extracts, which have been employed in medicine since ancient times. The aim of this Special Issue is to collect new approaches around compounds and extracts isolated from natural products and their biological activity, with a focus on anti-inflammatory pathways. Thus, this Special Issue welcomes full papers, short communications, and review articles on natural (from terrestrial or marine sources) secondary metabolites of microorganisms and plants which have significant anti-inflammatory activity.

This Special Issue will serve as a reference text for researchers and academics, as well as those studying natural products and their pharmacological activities. Researchers working in the field of natural products and related pathways are encouraged to publish their recent findings in this Special Issue of Life.

Dr. Azahara Rodríguez-Luna
Dr. Salvador González
Guest Editors

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Keywords

  • natural products
  • inflammation
  • biological activity
  • anti-inflammatory activity
  • antioxidant activity
  • anticancer potential
  • terrestrial products
  • marine products
  • phytochemistry
  • pharmacology

Published Papers (14 papers)

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Research

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14 pages, 5448 KiB  
Article
In Vitro and In Vivo Anti-Psoriasis Activity of Ficus carica Fruit Extracts via JAK-STAT Modulation
by Jeong Hwa Lee and Mi-Young Lee
Life 2023, 13(8), 1671; https://doi.org/10.3390/life13081671 - 31 Jul 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1608
Abstract
Psoriasis, a chronic and autoimmune inflammatory disorder of the skin, has been often underdiagnosed and underestimated despite its prevalence and considerable negative effects on the quality of life. In this study, the anti-inflammatory activity of Ficus carica fruit extract (FFE) was investigated against [...] Read more.
Psoriasis, a chronic and autoimmune inflammatory disorder of the skin, has been often underdiagnosed and underestimated despite its prevalence and considerable negative effects on the quality of life. In this study, the anti-inflammatory activity of Ficus carica fruit extract (FFE) was investigated against LPS-stimulated RAW 264.7 cells. The in vitro results showed that FFE reduced the production of nitric oxide (NO) and iNOS expression. Moreover, FFE reduced the level of β-hexosaminidase released with histamine in allergic reactions. However, the MAPK and NFκB signaling molecules associated with the inflammatory response were not significantly regulated by FFE. In contrast, the phosphorylation of JAK1 and STAT3 in the JAK–STAT signaling pathway was dramatically reduced by FFE treatment. Psoriasis-like skin lesions were induced in BALB/c mice using imiquimod (IMQ) to test the feasibility of FFE as a treatment for psoriasis. The efficacy of FFE was evaluated based on phenotypic and histological features. FFE was effective in relieving the symptoms of psoriasis-like skin lesions, such as erythema, dryness, scales, and thick epidermis. Notably, STAT3 modulation was also contributable to the in vivo ameliorative activity of FFE. Taken together, FFE with anti-psoriasis activity in vitro and in vivo through the JAK–STAT modulation could be developed as a therapeutic agent against psoriasis. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Inflammation and Natural Products)
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18 pages, 3436 KiB  
Article
Comparative Studies on the Anti-Inflammatory and Apoptotic Activities of Four Greek Essential Oils: Involvement in the Regulation of NF-κΒ and Steroid Receptor Signaling
by Achilleas Georgantopoulos, Athanasios Vougioukas, Foteini D. Kalousi, Ioannis Tsialtas and Anna-Maria G. Psarra
Life 2023, 13(7), 1534; https://doi.org/10.3390/life13071534 - 10 Jul 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2298
Abstract
Essential oils (EOs) are well-known for their anti-fungal, anti-microbial, anti-inflammatory and relaxing activities. Steroid hormones, especially glucocorticoids, are also well-known for their anti-inflammatory activities and control of the hypothalamus–pituitary–adrenal (HPA) axis and glucose homeostasis. The biological activities of glucocorticoids render them the most [...] Read more.
Essential oils (EOs) are well-known for their anti-fungal, anti-microbial, anti-inflammatory and relaxing activities. Steroid hormones, especially glucocorticoids, are also well-known for their anti-inflammatory activities and control of the hypothalamus–pituitary–adrenal (HPA) axis and glucose homeostasis. The biological activities of glucocorticoids render them the most widely prescribed anti-inflammatory drugs, despite their adverse side effects. In this study, comparative studies of the anti-inflammatory activities and interference with glucocorticoids receptor (GR) and estrogen receptor (ER) signaling of EOs from Greek Oregano, Melissa officinalis, Lavender and from the Chios Mastic, produced from the Greek endemic mastic tree, were performed in Human Embryonic Kidney 293 (HEK-293) cells. Chios Mastic (Mastiha) and oregano EOs exhibited the highest anti-inflammatory activities. The former showed a reduction in both NF-κB activity and protein levels. Mastic essential oil also caused a reduction in GR protein levels that may compensate for its boosting effect on dexamethasone (DEX)-induced GR transcriptional activation, ending up in no induction of the gluconeogenic phoshoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK) protein levels that constitute the GR target. Oregano, Melissa officinalis and lavender EOs caused the suppression of the transcriptional activation of GR. Furthermore, the most active EO, that taken from Melissa officinalis, showed a reduction in both GR and PEPCK protein levels. Thus, the anti-inflammatory and anti-gluconeogenic activities of the EOs were uncovered, possibly via the regulation of GR signaling. Moreover, cytotoxic actions of Melissa officinalis and lavender EOs via the induction of mitochondrial-dependent apoptosis were revealed. Our results highlight these essentials oils’ anti-inflammatory and apoptotic actions in relation to their implication on the regulation of steroid hormones’ actions, uncovering their potential use in steroid therapy, with many applications in pharmaceutical and health industries as anti-cancer, anti-hyperglycemic and anti-inflammatory supplements. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Inflammation and Natural Products)
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21 pages, 2014 KiB  
Article
Wound Healing and Anti-Inflammatory Effects of a Newly Developed Ointment Containing Jujube Leaves Extract
by Marilena-Viorica Hovaneț, Emma Adriana Ozon, Elena Moroșan, Oana Cristina Șeremet, Eliza Oprea, Elisabeta-Irina Geană, Adriana Iuliana Anghel, Carmellina Bădiceanu, Ligia Elena Duțu, Cristina Silvia Stoicescu, Eugenia Nagoda and Robert Ancuceanu
Life 2022, 12(12), 1947; https://doi.org/10.3390/life12121947 - 22 Nov 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 3264
Abstract
Ziziphus jujuba Mill. (jujube) is a well-known medicinal plant with pronounced wound healing properties. The present study aimed to establish the chemical composition of the lyophilized ethanolic extract from Romanian Ziziphus jujuba leaves and to evaluate the healing and anti-inflammatory properties of a [...] Read more.
Ziziphus jujuba Mill. (jujube) is a well-known medicinal plant with pronounced wound healing properties. The present study aimed to establish the chemical composition of the lyophilized ethanolic extract from Romanian Ziziphus jujuba leaves and to evaluate the healing and anti-inflammatory properties of a newly developed lipophilic ointment containing 10% dried jujube leaves extract. The ultra-High-Performance Liquid Chromatography Electrospray Ionization Tandem Mass Spectrometry method was used, and 47 compounds were detected, among them the novel epicatechin and caffeic acid. The extract contains significant amounts of rutin (29.836 mg/g), quercetin (15.180 mg/g) and chlorogenic acid (350.96 µg/g). The lipophilic ointment has a slightly tolerable pH, between 5.41–5.42, and proved to be non-toxic in acute dermal irritation tests on New Zealand albino rabbits and after repeated administration on Wistar rats. The ointment also has a healing activity comparable to Cicatrizin (a pharmaceutical marketed product) on Wistar rats and a moderate anti-inflammatory action compared to the control group, but statistically insignificant compared to indomethacin in the rat-induced inflammation test by intraplantar administration of kaolin. The healing and anti-inflammatory properties of the tested ointment are due to phenolic acids and flavonoids content, less because of minor components as apocynin, scopoletin, and isofraxidin. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Inflammation and Natural Products)
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21 pages, 392 KiB  
Article
Chemical Composition, Antioxidant, Anti-Diabetic, Anti-Acetylcholinesterase, Anti-Inflammatory, and Antimicrobial Properties of Arbutus unedo L. and Laurus nobilis L. Essential Oils
by Samiah Hamad Al-Mijalli, Hanae Naceiri Mrabti, Hayat Ouassou, Rachid Flouchi, Emad M. Abdallah, Ryan A. Sheikh, Mohammed Merae Alshahrani, Ahmed Abdullah Al Awadh, Hicham Harhar, Nasreddine El Omari, Ahmed Qasem, Hamza Assaggaf, Naif Hesham Moursi, Abdelhakim Bouyahya, Monica Gallo and Moulay El Abbes Faouzi
Life 2022, 12(11), 1876; https://doi.org/10.3390/life12111876 - 14 Nov 2022
Cited by 14 | Viewed by 3035
Abstract
The objectives of this work were to determine the phytochemical composition and antioxidant, anti-diabetic, antibacterial, anti-inflammatory, and anti-acetylcholinesterase properties of Arbutus unedo L. and Laurus nobilis L. EOs. The antioxidant effects were estimated using four complementary methods. In addition, the anti-diabetic activity was [...] Read more.
The objectives of this work were to determine the phytochemical composition and antioxidant, anti-diabetic, antibacterial, anti-inflammatory, and anti-acetylcholinesterase properties of Arbutus unedo L. and Laurus nobilis L. EOs. The antioxidant effects were estimated using four complementary methods. In addition, the anti-diabetic activity was assessed by targeting three carbohydrate-hydrolyzing enzymes, namely α-amylase, α-glucosidase, and lipase. The anti-inflammatory and anti-acetylcholinesterase effects were evaluated by testing the inhibitory potential of both plants on lipo-oxygenase and acetylcholinesterase (AChE), respectively. The antimicrobial activity of these oils was evaluated using disc-diffusion, minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC), and minimum lethal concentration (MLC) tests. The chemical composition of L. nobilis essential oil (EO) was dominated by eucalyptol (36.40%), followed by α-terpineole (13.05%), α-terpinyl acetate (10.61%), linalool (10.34%), and northujane (5.74%). The main volatile compounds of A. unedo EOs were decenal (13.47%), α-terpineol (7.8%), and palmitic acid (6.00%). L. nobilis and A. unedo EOs inhibited α-amylase with IC50 values of 42.51 ± 0.012 and 102 ± 0.06 µg/mL, respectively. Moreover, both oils inhibited the activity of α-glucosidase (IC50 = 1.347 ± 0.021 µg/mL and IC50 = 76 ± 0.021 µg/mL) and lipase (IC50 = 21.23 ± 0.021 µg/mL and IC50 = 97.018 ± 0.012 µg/mL, respectively). In addition, L. nobilis EO showed an anti-AChE activity (IC50 = 89.44 ± 0.07 µg/mL) higher than that of A. unedo EO (IC50 = 378.57 ± 0.05 µg/mL). Regarding anti-inflammatory activity, in vitro assays showed that L. nobilis significantly inhibits (IC50 = 48.31 ± 0.07 μg/mL) 5-lipoxygenase compared to A. unedo (IC50 = 86.14 ± 0.05 μg/mL). This was confirmed in vivo via a notable inhibition of inflammation recorded after 6 h of treatment in both plants at a dose of 50 mg/kg. The microbiological results revealed that EOs from both plants inhibited the growth of all tested organisms except P. aeruginosa, with the highest antimicrobial effect for L. nobilis. The results of these tests showed that these two plants possess remarkable biological and pharmacological properties, explaining their medicinal effects and suggesting them as promising sources of natural drugs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Inflammation and Natural Products)

Review

Jump to: Research

68 pages, 2735 KiB  
Review
A Review of the Potential Benefits of Herbal Medicines, Small Molecules of Natural Sources, and Supplements for Health Promotion in Lupus Conditions
by Ardalan Pasdaran, Bahareh Hassani, Ali Tavakoli, Ekaterina Kozuharova and Azadeh Hamedi
Life 2023, 13(7), 1589; https://doi.org/10.3390/life13071589 - 19 Jul 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 5100
Abstract
The Latin word lupus, meaning wolf, was in the medical literature prior to the 1200s to describe skin lesions that devour flesh, and the resources available to physicians to help people were limited. The present text reviews the ethnobotanical and pharmacological aspects of [...] Read more.
The Latin word lupus, meaning wolf, was in the medical literature prior to the 1200s to describe skin lesions that devour flesh, and the resources available to physicians to help people were limited. The present text reviews the ethnobotanical and pharmacological aspects of medicinal plants and purified molecules from natural sources with efficacy against lupus conditions. Among these molecules are artemisinin and its derivatives, antroquinonol, baicalin, curcumin, emodin, mangiferin, salvianolic acid A, triptolide, the total glycosides of paeony (TGP), and other supplements such as fatty acids and vitamins. In addition, medicinal plants, herbal remedies, mushrooms, and fungi that have been investigated for their effects on different lupus conditions through clinical trials, in vivo, in vitro, or in silico studies are reviewed. A special emphasis was placed on clinical trials, active phytochemicals, and their mechanisms of action. This review can be helpful for researchers in designing new goal-oriented studies. It can also help practitioners gain insight into recent updates on supplements that might help patients suffering from lupus conditions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Inflammation and Natural Products)
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16 pages, 1146 KiB  
Review
Molecular Insights into Royal Jelly Anti-Inflammatory Properties and Related Diseases
by Lilla Bagameri, Sara Botezan, Otilia Bobis, Victorita Bonta and Daniel Severus Dezmirean
Life 2023, 13(7), 1573; https://doi.org/10.3390/life13071573 - 17 Jul 2023
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 3340
Abstract
Royal jelly (RJ), a highly nutritious natural product, has gained recognition for its remarkable health-promoting properties, leading to its widespread use in the pharmaceutical, food, and cosmetic industries. Extensive investigations have revealed that RJ possesses a broad spectrum of therapeutic effects, including anti-inflammatory, [...] Read more.
Royal jelly (RJ), a highly nutritious natural product, has gained recognition for its remarkable health-promoting properties, leading to its widespread use in the pharmaceutical, food, and cosmetic industries. Extensive investigations have revealed that RJ possesses a broad spectrum of therapeutic effects, including anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, antitumor, anti-aging, and antibacterial activities. Distinctive among bee products, RJ exhibits a significantly higher water and relatively lower sugar content. It is characterized by its substantial protein content, making it a valuable source of this essential macronutrient. Moreover, RJ contains a diverse array of bioactive substances, such as lipids, phenolic compounds, flavonoids, organic acids, minerals, vitamins, enzymes, and hormones. This review aims to provide an overview of current research on the bioactive components present in RJ and their associated health-promoting qualities. According to existing literature, these bioactive substances hold great potential as alternative approaches to enhancing human health. Notably, this review emphasizes the anti-inflammatory properties of RJ, particularly in relation to inflammatory diseases, such as multiple sclerosis (MS), rheumatoid arthritis (RA), and inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD). Furthermore, we delve into the antitumor and antioxidant activities of RJ, aiming to deepen our understanding of its biological functions. By shedding light on the multifaceted benefits of RJ, this review seeks to encourage its utilization and inspire further investigation in this field. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Inflammation and Natural Products)
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42 pages, 1944 KiB  
Review
Triterpenes as Potential Drug Candidates for Rheumatoid Arthritis Treatment
by Célia Faustino, Lídia Pinheiro and Noélia Duarte
Life 2023, 13(7), 1514; https://doi.org/10.3390/life13071514 - 5 Jul 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2432
Abstract
Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a chronic autoimmune inflammatory disease characterized by joint inflammation, swelling and pain. Although RA mainly affects the joints, the disease can also have systemic implications. The presence of autoantibodies, such as anti-cyclic citrullinated peptide antibodies and rheumatoid factors, is [...] Read more.
Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a chronic autoimmune inflammatory disease characterized by joint inflammation, swelling and pain. Although RA mainly affects the joints, the disease can also have systemic implications. The presence of autoantibodies, such as anti-cyclic citrullinated peptide antibodies and rheumatoid factors, is a hallmark of the disease. RA is a significant cause of disability worldwide associated with advancing age, genetic predisposition, infectious agents, obesity and smoking, among other risk factors. Currently, RA treatment depends on anti-inflammatory and disease-modifying anti-rheumatic drugs intended to reduce joint inflammation and chronic pain, preventing or slowing down joint damage and disease progression. However, these drugs are associated with severe side effects upon long-term use, including immunosuppression and development of opportunistic infections. Natural products, namely triterpenes with anti-inflammatory properties, have shown relevant anti-arthritic activity in several animal models of RA without undesirable side effects. Therefore, this review covers the recent studies (2017–2022) on triterpenes as safe and promising drug candidates for the treatment of RA. These bioactive compounds were able to produce a reduction in several RA activity indices and immunological markers. Celastrol, betulinic acid, nimbolide and some ginsenosides stand out as the most relevant drug candidates for RA treatment. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Inflammation and Natural Products)
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29 pages, 781 KiB  
Review
Clinical Applications of Polypodium leucotomos (Fernblock®): An Update
by Azahara Rodríguez-Luna, Alicia Zamarrón, Ángeles Juarranz and Salvador González
Life 2023, 13(7), 1513; https://doi.org/10.3390/life13071513 - 5 Jul 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 3989
Abstract
Exposure to sun radiation leads to higher risk of sunburn, pigmentation, immunosuppression, photoaging and skin cancer. In addition to ultraviolet radiation (UVR), recent research indicates that infrared radiation (IR) and visible light (VIS) can play an important role in the pathogenesis of some [...] Read more.
Exposure to sun radiation leads to higher risk of sunburn, pigmentation, immunosuppression, photoaging and skin cancer. In addition to ultraviolet radiation (UVR), recent research indicates that infrared radiation (IR) and visible light (VIS) can play an important role in the pathogenesis of some of these processes. Detrimental effects associated with sun exposure are well known, but new studies have shown that DNA damage continues to occur long after exposure to solar radiation has ended. Regarding photoprotection strategies, natural substances are emerging for topical and oral photoprotection. In this sense, Fernblock®, a standardized aqueous extract of the fern Polypodium Leucotomos (PLE), has been widely administered both topically and orally with a strong safety profile. Thus, this extract has been used extensively in clinical practice, including as a complement to photodynamic therapy (PDT) for treating actinic keratoses (AKs) and field cancerization. It has also been used to treat skin diseases such as photodermatoses, photoaggravated inflammatory conditions and pigmentary disorders. This review examines the most recent developments in the clinical application of Fernblock® and assesses how newly investigated action mechanisms may influence its clinical use. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Inflammation and Natural Products)
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14 pages, 690 KiB  
Review
Plumbagin, a Natural Compound with Several Biological Effects and Anti-Inflammatory Properties
by Giovannamaria Petrocelli, Pasquale Marrazzo, Laura Bonsi, Federica Facchin, Francesco Alviano and Silvia Canaider
Life 2023, 13(6), 1303; https://doi.org/10.3390/life13061303 - 31 May 2023
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 2993
Abstract
Phytochemicals from various medicinal plants are well known for their antioxidant properties and anti-cancer effects. Many of these bioactive compounds or natural products have demonstrated effects against inflammation, while some showed a role that is only approximately described as anti-inflammatory. In particular, naphthoquinones [...] Read more.
Phytochemicals from various medicinal plants are well known for their antioxidant properties and anti-cancer effects. Many of these bioactive compounds or natural products have demonstrated effects against inflammation, while some showed a role that is only approximately described as anti-inflammatory. In particular, naphthoquinones are naturally-occurring compounds with different pharmacological activities and allow easy scaffold modification for drug design approaches. Among this class of compounds, Plumbagin, a plant-derived product, has shown interesting counteracting effects in many inflammation models. However, scientific knowledge about the beneficial effect of Plumbagin should be comprehensively reported before candidating this natural molecule into a future drug against specific human diseases. In this review, the most relevant mechanisms in which Plumbagin plays a role in the process of inflammation were summarized. Other relevant bioactive effects were reviewed to provide a complete and compact scenario of Plumbagin’s potential therapeutic significance. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Inflammation and Natural Products)
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14 pages, 2380 KiB  
Review
Critical Assessment of the Anti-Inflammatory Potential of Usnic Acid and Its Derivatives—A Review
by Wojciech Paździora, Irma Podolak, Marta Grudzińska, Paweł Paśko, Karolina Grabowska and Agnieszka Galanty
Life 2023, 13(4), 1046; https://doi.org/10.3390/life13041046 - 19 Apr 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1641
Abstract
Inflammation is a response of the organism to an external factor that disrupts its natural homeostasis, and it helps to eliminate the cause of tissue injury. However, sometimes the body’s response is highly inadequate and the inflammation may become chronic. Thus, the search [...] Read more.
Inflammation is a response of the organism to an external factor that disrupts its natural homeostasis, and it helps to eliminate the cause of tissue injury. However, sometimes the body’s response is highly inadequate and the inflammation may become chronic. Thus, the search for novel anti-inflammatory agents is still needed. One of the groups of natural compounds that attract interest in this context is lichen metabolites, with usnic acid (UA) as the most promising candidate. The compound reveals a broad spectrum of pharmacological properties, among which anti-inflammatory properties have been studied both in vitro and in vivo. The aim of this review was to gather and critically evaluate the results of the so-far published data on the anti-inflammatory properties of UA. Despite some limitations and shortcomings of the studies included in this review, it can be concluded that UA has interesting anti-inflammatory potential. Further research should be directed at the (i) elucidation of the molecular mechanism of UA; (ii) verification of its safety; (iii) comparison of the efficacy and toxicity of UA enantiomers; (iv) design of UA derivatives with improved physicochemical properties and pharmacological activity; and (v) use of certain forms or delivery carriers of UA, especially in its topical application. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Inflammation and Natural Products)
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20 pages, 7164 KiB  
Review
Current Update on Role of Hesperidin in Inflammatory Lung Diseases: Chemistry, Pharmacology, and Drug Delivery Approaches
by Salman Hosawi
Life 2023, 13(4), 937; https://doi.org/10.3390/life13040937 - 3 Apr 2023
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 2680
Abstract
Inflammation is a common feature of many respiratory diseases, such as pneumonia, asthma, pulmonary fibrosis, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), lung cancer, acute lung injury, and COVID-19. Flavonoids have demonstrated their anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effects by influencing inflammation at different stages and majorly [...] Read more.
Inflammation is a common feature of many respiratory diseases, such as pneumonia, asthma, pulmonary fibrosis, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), lung cancer, acute lung injury, and COVID-19. Flavonoids have demonstrated their anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effects by influencing inflammation at different stages and majorly impacting several respiratory diseases’ onset and development. According to current studies, hesperidin, one of the most abundant polyphenols, can inhibit transcription factors or regulatory enzymes essential for controlling inflammation-linked mediators, including nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB), Inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2). It also improved cellular antioxidant defences by activating the ERK/Nrf2 signalling pathway. Therefore, this review provides the latest studies on the effect of hesperidin in different respiratory diseases, its pharmacokinetic profile, and innovative drug delivery methods. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Inflammation and Natural Products)
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17 pages, 767 KiB  
Review
Anti-Inflammatory Properties of Plants from Serbian Traditional Medicine
by Katarina Radovanović, Neda Gavarić and Milica Aćimović
Life 2023, 13(4), 874; https://doi.org/10.3390/life13040874 - 24 Mar 2023
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 5975
Abstract
Inflammation is a natural protective response of the human body to a variety of hostile agents and noxious stimuli. Standard anti-inflammatory therapy includes drugs whose usage is associated with a number of side effects. Since ancient times, natural compounds have been used for [...] Read more.
Inflammation is a natural protective response of the human body to a variety of hostile agents and noxious stimuli. Standard anti-inflammatory therapy includes drugs whose usage is associated with a number of side effects. Since ancient times, natural compounds have been used for the treatment of inflammation. Traditionally, the use of medicinal plants is considered safe, inexpensive, and widely acceptable. In Serbia, traditional medicine, based on the strong belief in the power of medicinal herbs, is the widespread form of treatment. This is supported by the fact that Serbia is classified as one of 158 world centers of biodiversity, which confirms that this country is a treasure of medicinal herbs. Some of the most used herbs for the treatment of inflammations of various causes in Serbian tradition are yarrow, common agrimony, couch grass, onion, garlic, marshmallow, common birch, calendula, liquorice, walnut, St. John’s wort, chamomile, peppermint, white willow, sage, and many others. The biological activity and anti-inflammatory effect of selected plants are attributed to different groups of secondary biomolecules such as flavonoids, phenolic acids, sterols, terpenoids, sesquiterpenes, and tannins. This paper provides an overview of plants with traditional anti-inflammatory use in Serbia with reference to available studies that examined this effect. Plants used in traditional medicine could be a powerful source for the development of new remedies. Therefore intensive research on the bioactive potential of medicinal plants in each region should be the focus of scientists around the world. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Inflammation and Natural Products)
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16 pages, 626 KiB  
Review
The Use of Medicinal Plants in Blood Vessel Diseases: The Influence of Gender
by Guglielmina Froldi
Life 2023, 13(4), 866; https://doi.org/10.3390/life13040866 - 23 Mar 2023
Viewed by 1605
Abstract
Data available in the literature on the use of herbal products to treat inflammation-related vascular diseases were considered in this study, while also assessing the influence of gender. To this end, the articles published in PubMed over the past 10 years that described [...] Read more.
Data available in the literature on the use of herbal products to treat inflammation-related vascular diseases were considered in this study, while also assessing the influence of gender. To this end, the articles published in PubMed over the past 10 years that described the use of plant extracts in randomized clinical trials studying the effectiveness in vascular pathologies were analyzed. The difference in efficacy of plant-derived preparations in female and male subjects was always considered when reporting. The safety profiles of the selected plants were described, reporting unwanted effects in humans and also by searching the WHO database (VigiBase®). The medicinal plants considered were Allium sativum, Campomanesia xanthocarpa, Sechium edule, Terminalia chebula. Additionally, an innovative type of preparation consisting of plant-derived nanovesicles was also reported. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Inflammation and Natural Products)
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16 pages, 2355 KiB  
Review
Neuroprotective Potential of Biflavone Ginkgetin: A Review
by İ. İrem Tatlı Çankaya, Hari Prasad Devkota, Gokhan Zengin and Dunja Šamec
Life 2023, 13(2), 562; https://doi.org/10.3390/life13020562 - 16 Feb 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2511
Abstract
Neurological disorders are becoming more common, and there is an intense search for molecules that can help treat them. Several natural components, especially those from the flavonoid group, have shown promising results. Ginkgetin is the first known biflavonoid, a flavonoid dimer isolated from [...] Read more.
Neurological disorders are becoming more common, and there is an intense search for molecules that can help treat them. Several natural components, especially those from the flavonoid group, have shown promising results. Ginkgetin is the first known biflavonoid, a flavonoid dimer isolated from ginkgo (Ginkgo biloba L.). Later, its occurrence was discovered in more than 20 different plant species, most of which are known for their use in traditional medicine. Herein we have summarized the data on the neuroprotective potential of ginkgetin. There is evidence of protection against neuronal damage caused by ischemic strokes, neurotumors, Alzheimer’s disease (AD), and Parkinson’s disease (PD). Beneficial effects in ischemic strokes have been demonstrated in animal studies in which injection of ginkgetin before or after onset of the stoke showed protection from neuronal damage. AD protection has been the most studied to date. Possible mechanisms include inhibition of reactive oxygen species, inhibition of β-secretase, inhibition of Aβ fibril formation, amelioration of inflammation, and antimicrobial activity. Ginkgetin has also shown positive effects on the relief of PD symptoms in animal studies. Most of the available data are from in vitro or in vivo animal studies, where ginkgetin showed promising results, and further clinical studies should be conducted. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Inflammation and Natural Products)
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