Special Issue "Plant-based green synthesis of nanoparticles: production, characterization and applications"

A special issue of Biomolecules (ISSN 2218-273X). This special issue belongs to the section "Biological Materials".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 December 2020).

Special Issue Editors

Dr. Christophe Hano
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Associate Professor, Laboratory of Woody Plants and Crops Biology (LBLGC), Orleans University, INRA USC1328, 45067 Orléans Cedex 2, France
Interests: chemistry of natural products; analytical methods; HPLC; LC-MS; polyphenols (lignans, flavonoids, phenolic acids); ethnopharmacology; history of pharmacy
Special Issues and Collections in MDPI journals
Dr. Bilal Haider Abbasi
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Department of Biotechnology, Quaid-i-Azam University, Islamabad 45320, Pakistan
Interests: Plant in vitro technology; plant cell culture, elicitation of secondary metabolites; light; nutraceuticals; cosmeceuticals; phytochemicals; green synthesis; bioassays
Special Issues and Collections in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Nanotechnology is an interdisciplinary area of research taking advantage of core techniques used in various disciplines like chemistry, engineering, physics and biological sciences, and leading to the development of novel strategies to manipulate minute particles resulting in the production of nanoparticles (NPs). These NPs may be defined as particles with at least one dimension ranging from 1–100 nm. Nanotechnology deals with the synthesis, development and applications of a variety of NPs. These NPs are generally produced via laborious and hazard-prone physical and chemical methods. According to the safety-by-design principle, during the last decade a large array of safe, facile, cost effective, reproducible and scalable green synthesis approaches of NPs have been developed. Among these green biological methods, plant-based biosynthesis of NPs is considered a gold technique due to easy availability and the diverse nature of plants. The potential of plant extracts to produce NPs that have definite size and shape, as well as composition, is of great importance. Moreover, the great diversity of phytochemicals readily available in plant extracts can be utilized in this green approach as the natural stabilizing and reducing agents for the biosynthesis of NPs. Plant-derived NPs are also prone to present less harmful side effects to the human population as compared to chemically synthesized NPs, and exhibit high biological potential with applications in various domains such as in agriculture (e.g. in precision farming with controlled release of agrochemicals, target-specific delivery of biomolecules, more efficient nutrients absorption, detection and control of plant diseases, etc.), in food science and technology (e.g. in processing, storage and packaging processes), in bioengineering (biocatalysts, photocatalysts, biosensors, etc.), in cosmetic (e.g. sunscreen, anti-aging, hair growth, bioactive compounds delivery, nanoemulsion, etc.) or in nanomedicine and human health protection (e.g. antimicrobial, antiparasitic, antiproliferative, pro-apoptotic, pro- or anti-oxidative depending on the context, anti-inflammatory activities, etc.). Recently, NPs have also emerged as a novel effective elicitor in plant in vitro systems with the ability to enhance the synthesis of bioactive secondary metabolites, thus further increasing the potential applications spectra of plant-based NPs.

We encourage investigators to consider submitting reviews, regular research papers and short communications to this Special Issue of Biomolecules aiming to highlight the most novel and promising developments in this field.

Dr. Christophe Hano
Dr. Bilal Haider Abbasi
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

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Keywords

  • Nanoparticles
  • Green synthesis
  • Green biotechnology
  • Biological activities
  • Human health
  • Pharmaceuticals
  • Cosmeceuticals
  • Food science and technology
  • Precision Agriculture

Published Papers (18 papers)

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Research

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Communication
Green Biosynthesis of Silver Nanoparticles Using Leaf Extract of Carissa carandas L. and Their Antioxidant and Antimicrobial Activity against Human Pathogenic Bacteria
Biomolecules 2021, 11(2), 299; https://doi.org/10.3390/biom11020299 - 17 Feb 2021
Viewed by 594
Abstract
Carissa carandas L. is traditionally used as antibacterial medicine and accumulates many antioxidant phytochemicals. Here, we expand this traditional usage with the green biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) achieved using a Carissa carandas L. leaf extract as a reducing and capping agent. The [...] Read more.
Carissa carandas L. is traditionally used as antibacterial medicine and accumulates many antioxidant phytochemicals. Here, we expand this traditional usage with the green biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) achieved using a Carissa carandas L. leaf extract as a reducing and capping agent. The green synthesis of AgNPs reaction was carried out using 1mM silver nitrate and leaf extract. The effect of temperature on the synthesis of AgNPs was examined using room temperature (25 °C) and 60 °C. The silver nanoparticles were formed in one hour by stirring at room temperature. In this case, a yellowish brown colour was developed. The successful formation of silver nanoparticles was confirmed by UV–Vis, Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis. The characteristic peaks of the UV-vis spectrum and XRD confirmed the synthesis of AgNPs. The biosynthesised AgNPs showed potential antioxidant activity through DPPH assay. These AgNPs also exhibited potential antibacterial activity against human pathogenic bacteria. The results were compared with the antioxidant and antibacterial activities of the plant extract, and clearly suggest that the green biosynthesized AgNPs can constitute an effective antioxidant and antibacterial agent. Full article
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Article
Microwave-Assisted Rapid Green Synthesis of Gold Nanoparticles Using Seed Extract of Trachyspermum ammi: ROS Mediated Biofilm Inhibition and Anticancer Activity
Biomolecules 2021, 11(2), 197; https://doi.org/10.3390/biom11020197 - 30 Jan 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 796
Abstract
Green synthesis of metal nanoparticles using plant extracts as capping and reducing agents for the biomedical applications has received considerable attention. Moreover, emergence and spread of multidrug resistance among bacterial pathogens has become a major health concern and lookout for novel alternative effective [...] Read more.
Green synthesis of metal nanoparticles using plant extracts as capping and reducing agents for the biomedical applications has received considerable attention. Moreover, emergence and spread of multidrug resistance among bacterial pathogens has become a major health concern and lookout for novel alternative effective drugs has gained momentum. In current study, we synthesized gold nanoparticles using the seed extract of Trachyspermum ammi (TA-AuNPs), assessed its efficacy against drug resistant biofilms of Listeria monocytogenes and Serratia marcescens, and evaluated its anticancer potential against HepG2 cancer cell lines. Microwave-assisted green synthesis of gold nanoparticles was carried out and characterization was done using UV-vis spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and dynamic light scattering (DLS). Most nanoparticles were observed as spherical and spheroidal with few anisotropies with an average crystalline size of 16.63 nm. Synthesized TA-AuNPs demonstrated significant biofilm inhibitory activity against L. monocytogenes (73%) as well as S. marcescens (81%). Exopolysaccharide (EPS), motility, and CSH, key elements that facilitate the formation and maintenance of biofilm were also inhibited significantly at the tested sub-minimum inhibitory concentrations (sub-MICs). Further, TA-AuNPs effectively obliterated preformed mature biofilms of S. marcescens and L. monocytogenes by 64% and 58%, respectively. Induction of intracellular ROS production in TA-AuNPs treated bacterial cells could be the plausible mechanism for the reduced biofilm formation in test pathogens. Administration of TA-AuNPs resulted in the arrest of cellular proliferation in a concentration-dependent manner. TA-AuNPs decrease the intracellular GSH in HepG2 cancer cell lines, cells become more prone to ROS generation, hence induce apoptosis. Thus, this work proposes a new eco-friendly and rapid approach for fabricating NPs which can be exploited for multifarious biomedical applications. Full article
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Article
Phytogenic Synthesis of Pd-Ag/rGO Nanostructures Using Stevia Leaf Extract for Photocatalytic H2 Production and Antibacterial Studies
Biomolecules 2021, 11(2), 190; https://doi.org/10.3390/biom11020190 - 29 Jan 2021
Viewed by 520
Abstract
Continuously increasing energy demand and growing concern about energy resources has attracted much research in the field of clean and sustainable energy sources. In this context, zero-emission fuels are required for energy production to reduce the usage of fossil fuel resources. Here, we [...] Read more.
Continuously increasing energy demand and growing concern about energy resources has attracted much research in the field of clean and sustainable energy sources. In this context, zero-emission fuels are required for energy production to reduce the usage of fossil fuel resources. Here, we present the synthesis of Pd-Ag-decorated reduced graphene oxide (rGO) nanostructures using a green chemical approach with stevia extract for hydrogen production and antibacterial studies under light irradiation. Moreover, bimetallic nanostructures are potentially lime lighted due to their synergetic effect in both scientific and technical aspects. Structural characteristics such as crystal structure and morphological features of the synthesized nanostructures were analyzed using X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy. Analysis of elemental composition and oxidation states was carried out by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Optical characteristics of the biosynthesized nanostructures were obtained by UV-Vis absorption spectroscopy, and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy was used to investigate possible functional groups that act as reducing and capping agents. The antimicrobial activity of the biosynthesized Pd-Ag-decorated rGO nanostructures was excellent, inactivating 96% of Escherichia coli cells during experiments over 150 min under visible light irradiation. Hence, these biosynthesized Pd-Ag-decorated rGO nanostructures can be utilized for alternative nanomaterial-based drug development in the future. Full article
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Article
Phytomediated Photo-Induced Green Synthesis of Silver Nanoparticles Using Matricaria chamomilla L. and Its Catalytic Activity against Rhodamine B
Biomolecules 2020, 10(12), 1604; https://doi.org/10.3390/biom10121604 - 26 Nov 2020
Viewed by 668
Abstract
The bio-fabrication of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) was carried out through the facile green route, using the aqueous extract of Matricaria chamomilla L. Herein, we have developed a cost-efficient, ecofriendly, and photo-induced method for the biomolecule-assisted synthesis of AgNPs using an aqueous extract of [...] Read more.
The bio-fabrication of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) was carried out through the facile green route, using the aqueous extract of Matricaria chamomilla L. Herein, we have developed a cost-efficient, ecofriendly, and photo-induced method for the biomolecule-assisted synthesis of AgNPs using an aqueous extract of Matricaria chamomilla L. as a bio-reducing and capping/stabilizing agent. The biomolecule-capped AgNPs were confirmed from the surface plasmon resonance (SPR) band at λmax = 450 nm using a UV–visible spectrometer. The stability of the AgNPs was confirmed by recording the UV–visible spectra for a more extended period, and no precipitation was observed in the sol. The morphology and structure of photo-induced biomolecule-capped AgNPs were characterized by different microscopic and spectroscopy techniques such as TEM, SEM, EDX, XRD, and FTIR analysis. The role of phytochemicals as reducing and stabilizing agents was confirmed by comparative FTIR analysis of the AgNPs and pure Matricaria chamomilla L. aqueous extract. The obtained result shows that the AgNPs are mostly spherical morphology with an average size of about 26 nm. Furthermore, the thermal stability of biomolecule-capped AgNPs was examined by TGA-DTG analysis that showed a weight loss of approximately 36.63% up to 800 °C. Moreover, the potential photocatalytic activity of photo-induced AgNPs against Rhodamine B (RB) was examined in the presence of UV light irradiation. The catalyst reusability, the effect of catalyst dosage and initial dye concentration, and the effect of the temperature and pH of the reaction medium were also assessed. Full article
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Article
Silver Nanoparticle Regulates Salt Tolerance in Wheat Through Changes in ABA Concentration, Ion Homeostasis, and Defense Systems
Biomolecules 2020, 10(11), 1506; https://doi.org/10.3390/biom10111506 - 02 Nov 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 638
Abstract
Salinity is major abiotic stress affecting crop yield, productivity and reduces the land-usage area for agricultural practices. The purpose of this study is to analyze the effect of green-synthesized silver nanoparticle (AgNP) on physiological traits of wheat (Triticum aestivum) under salinity [...] Read more.
Salinity is major abiotic stress affecting crop yield, productivity and reduces the land-usage area for agricultural practices. The purpose of this study is to analyze the effect of green-synthesized silver nanoparticle (AgNP) on physiological traits of wheat (Triticum aestivum) under salinity stress. Using augmented and high-throughput characterization of synthesized AgNPs, this study investigated the proximity of AgNPs-induced coping effects under stressful cues by measuring the germination efficiency, oxidative-biomarkers, enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidants, proline and nitrogen metabolism, stomatal dynamics, and ABA content. Taken together, the study shows a promising approach in salt tolerance and suggests that mechanisms of inducing the salt tolerance depend on proline metabolism, ions accumulation, and defense mechanisms. This study ascertains the queries regarding the correlation between nanoparticles use and traditional agriculture methodology; also significantly facilitates to reach the goal of sustainable developments for increasing crop productivity via much safer and greener approachability. Full article
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Article
Green Synthesis of Antileishmanial and Antifungal Silver Nanoparticles Using Corn Cob Xylan as a Reducing and Stabilizing Agent
Biomolecules 2020, 10(9), 1235; https://doi.org/10.3390/biom10091235 - 25 Aug 2020
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 776
Abstract
Corn cob is an agricultural byproduct that produces an estimated waste burden in the thousands of tons annually, but it is also a good source of xylan, an important bioactive polysaccharide. Silver nanoparticles containing xylan (nanoxylan) were produced using an environmentally friendly synthesis [...] Read more.
Corn cob is an agricultural byproduct that produces an estimated waste burden in the thousands of tons annually, but it is also a good source of xylan, an important bioactive polysaccharide. Silver nanoparticles containing xylan (nanoxylan) were produced using an environmentally friendly synthesis method. To do this, we extracted xylan from corn cobs using an ultrasound technique, which was confirmed by both chemical and NMR analyses. This xylan contained xylose, glucose, arabinose, galactose, mannose, and glucuronic acid in a molar ratio of 50:21:14:9:2.5:2.5, respectively. Nanoxylan synthesis was analyzed using UV–vis spectroscopy at kmax = 469 nm and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), which confirmed the presence of both silver and xylan in the nanoxylan product. Dynamic light scattering (DLS) and atomic force microscopy (AFM) revealed that the nanoxylan particles were ~102.0 nm in size and spherical in shape, respectively. DLS also demonstrated that nanoxylan was stable for 12 months and coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES) showed that the nanoxylan particles were 19% silver. Nanoxylan reduced Leishmania amazonensis promastigote viability with a half maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) value of 25 μg/mL, while xylan alone showed no effective. Additionally, nanoxylan exhibited antifungal activity against Candida albicans (MIC = 7.5 μg/mL), C. parapsilosis (MIC = 7.5 μg/mL), and Cryptococcus neoformans (MIC = 7.5 μg/mL). Taken together, these data suggest that it is possible to synthesize silver nanoparticles using xylan and that these nanoxylan exert improved antileishmanial and antifungal activities when compared to the untreated polysaccharide or silver nitrate used for their synthesis. Thus, nanoxylan may represent a promising new class of antiparasitic agents for use in the treatment of these microorganisms. Full article
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Article
Tumoricidal and Bactericidal Properties of ZnONPs Synthesized Using Cassia auriculata Leaf Extract
Biomolecules 2020, 10(7), 982; https://doi.org/10.3390/biom10070982 - 30 Jun 2020
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 930
Abstract
In this work, we aimed to synthesize zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnONPs) using an aqueous extract of Cassia auriculata leaves (CAE) at room temperature without the provision of additional surfactants or capping agents. The formation of as-obtained ZnONPs was analyzed by UV–visible (ultraviolet) absorption [...] Read more.
In this work, we aimed to synthesize zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnONPs) using an aqueous extract of Cassia auriculata leaves (CAE) at room temperature without the provision of additional surfactants or capping agents. The formation of as-obtained ZnONPs was analyzed by UV–visible (ultraviolet) absorption and emission spectroscopy, X-ray photoemission spectroscopy (XPS), X-ray diffraction analysis (XRD), energy dispersive X-ray diffraction (EDX), thermogravimetric analysis/differential thermal analysis (TGA-DTA), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM), and selected area electron diffraction (SAED). The XRD results reflect the wurtzite structure of as-prepared ZnONPs, which produced diffraction patterns showing hexagonal phases. The SEM images indicate that the morphology of as-prepared ZnONPs is composed of hexagonal nanostructures with an average diameter of 20 nm. The HR-TEM result shows that the inter-planar distance between two lattice fringes is 0.260 nm, which coincides with the distance between the adjacent (d-spacing) of the (002) lattice plane of ZnO. The fluorescence emission spectrum of ZnONPs dispersed in ethanol shows an emission maximum at 569 nm, revealing the semiconductor nature of ZnO. As-obtained ZnONPs enhanced the tumoricidal property of CAE in MCF-7 breast cancer cells without significant inhibition of normal human breast cells, MCF-12A. Furthermore, we have studied the antibacterial effects of ZnONPs, which showed direct cell surface contact, resulting in the disturbance of bacterial cell integrity. Full article
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Article
Effects of Biogenic Zinc Oxide Nanoparticles on Growth and Oxidative Stress Response in Flax Seedlings vs. In Vitro Cultures: A Comparative Analysis
Biomolecules 2020, 10(6), 918; https://doi.org/10.3390/biom10060918 - 17 Jun 2020
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 974
Abstract
Linum usitatissimum biosynthesizes lignans and neolignans that are diet and medicinally valuable metabolites. In recent years, zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnONPs) have emerged as potential elicitors for the enhanced biosynthesis of commercial secondary metabolites. Herein, we investigated the influence of biogenic ZnONPs on both [...] Read more.
Linum usitatissimum biosynthesizes lignans and neolignans that are diet and medicinally valuable metabolites. In recent years, zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnONPs) have emerged as potential elicitors for the enhanced biosynthesis of commercial secondary metabolites. Herein, we investigated the influence of biogenic ZnONPs on both seedlings and stem-derived callus of L. usitatissimum. Seedlings of L. usitatissimum grown on Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium supplemented with ZnONPs (1–1000 mg/L) presented the highest antioxidant activity, total phenolic content, total flavonoid content, peroxidase and superoxide dismutase activities at 500 mg/L, while the maximum plantlet length was achieved with 10 mg/L. Likewise, the high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis revealed the enhanced production of secoisolariciresinol diglucoside, lariciresinol diglucoside, dehydrodiconiferyl alcohol glucoside and guaiacylglycerol-β-coniferyl alcohol ether glucoside in the plantlets grown on the 500 mg/L ZnONPs. On the other hand, the stem explants were cultured on MS media comprising 1-naphthaleneacetic acid (1 mg/L) and ZnONPs (1–50 mg/L). The highest antioxidant and other activities with an enhanced rooting effect were noted in 25 mg/L ZnONP-treated callus. Similarly, the maximum metabolites were also accumulated in 25 mg/L ZnONP-treated callus. In both systems, the dose-dependent production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) was recorded, resulting in oxidative damage with a more pronounced toxic effect on in vitro cultures. Altogether, the results from this study constitute a first comprehensive view of the impact of ZnONPs on the oxidative stress and antioxidant responses in seedlings vs. in vitro cultures. Full article
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Article
Green Synthesis of Gold and Silver Nanoparticles Using Leaf Extract of Clerodendrum inerme; Characterization, Antimicrobial, and Antioxidant Activities
Biomolecules 2020, 10(6), 835; https://doi.org/10.3390/biom10060835 - 29 May 2020
Cited by 21 | Viewed by 1522
Abstract
Due to their versatile applications, gold (Au) and silver (Ag) nanoparticles (NPs) have been synthesized by many approaches, including green processes using plant extracts for reducing metal ions. In this work, we propose to use plant extract with active biomedical components for NPs [...] Read more.
Due to their versatile applications, gold (Au) and silver (Ag) nanoparticles (NPs) have been synthesized by many approaches, including green processes using plant extracts for reducing metal ions. In this work, we propose to use plant extract with active biomedical components for NPs synthesis, aiming to obtain NPs inheriting the biomedical functions of the plants. By using leaves extract of Clerodendrum inerme (C. inerme) as both a reducing agent and a capping agent, we have synthesized gold (CI-Au) and silver (CI-Ag) NPs covered with biomedically active functional groups from C. inerme. The synthesized NPs were evaluated for different biological activities such as antibacterial and antimycotic against different pathogenic microbes (B. subtilis, S. aureus, Klebsiella, and E. coli) and (A. niger, T. harzianum, and A. flavus), respectively, using agar well diffusion assays. The antimicrobial propensity of NPs further assessed by reactive oxygen species (ROS) glutathione (GSH) and FTIR analysis. Biofilm inhibition activity was also carried out using colorimetric assays. The antioxidant and cytotoxic potential of CI-Au and CI-Ag NPs was determined using DPPH free radical scavenging and MTT assay, respectively. The CI-Au and CI-Ag NPs were demonstrated to have much better antioxidant in terms of %DPPH scavenging (75.85% ± 0.67% and 78.87% ± 0.19%), respectively. They exhibited excellent antibacterial, antimycotic, biofilm inhibition and cytotoxic performance against pathogenic microbes and MCF-7 cells compared to commercial Au and Ag NPs functionalized with dodecanethiol and PVP, respectively. The biocompatibility test further corroborated that CI-Ag and CI-Au NPs are more biocompatible at the concentration level of 1–50 µM. Hence, this work opens a new environmentally-friendly path for synthesizing nanomaterials inherited with enhanced and/or additional biomedical functionalities inherited from their herbal sources. Full article
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Article
Green Synthesis of MnO Nanoparticles Using Abutilon indicum Leaf Extract for Biological, Photocatalytic, and Adsorption Activities
Biomolecules 2020, 10(5), 785; https://doi.org/10.3390/biom10050785 - 19 May 2020
Cited by 14 | Viewed by 1441
Abstract
We report the synthesis of MnO nanoparticles (AI-MnO NAPs) using biological molecules of Abutilon indicum leaf extract. Further, they were evaluated for antibacterial and cytotoxicity activity against different pathogenic microbes (Escherichia coli, Bordetella bronchiseptica, Staphylococcus aureus, and Bacillus subtilis [...] Read more.
We report the synthesis of MnO nanoparticles (AI-MnO NAPs) using biological molecules of Abutilon indicum leaf extract. Further, they were evaluated for antibacterial and cytotoxicity activity against different pathogenic microbes (Escherichia coli, Bordetella bronchiseptica, Staphylococcus aureus, and Bacillus subtilis) and HeLa cancerous cells. Synthesized NAPs were also investigated for photocatalytic dye degradation potential against methylene blue (MB), and adsorption activity against Cr(VI) was also determined. Results from Scanning electron microscope (SEM), X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), Energy-dispersive X-ray (EDX), and Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) confirmed the successful synthesis of NAPs with spherical morphology and crystalline nature. Biological activity results demonstrated that synthesized AI-MnO NAPs exhibited significant antibacterial and cytotoxicity propensities against pathogenic microbes and cancerous cells, respectively, compared with plant extract. Moreover, synthesized AI-MnO NAPs demonstrated the comparable biological activities results to standard drugs. These excellent biological activities results are attributed to the existence of the plant’s biological molecules on their surfaces and small particle size (synergetic effect). Synthesized NAPs displayed better MB-photocatalyzing properties under sunlight than an ultraviolet lamp. The Cr(VI) adsorption result showed that synthesized NAPs efficiently adsorbed more Cr(VI) at higher acidic pH than at basic pH. Hence, the current findings suggest that Abutilon indicum is a valuable source for tailoring the potential of NAPs toward various enhanced biological, photocatalytic, and adsorption activities. Consequently, the plant’s biological molecule-mediated synthesized AI-MnO NAPs could be excellent contenders for future therapeutic applications. Full article
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Article
Green Synthesis and Characterization of Zinc Oxide Nanoparticles Using Eucalyptus globules and Their Fungicidal Ability Against Pathogenic Fungi of Apple Orchards
Biomolecules 2020, 10(3), 425; https://doi.org/10.3390/biom10030425 - 09 Mar 2020
Cited by 12 | Viewed by 1587
Abstract
Eucalyptus globules belonging to the Myrtaceae family was explored for the synthesis of zinc oxide nanoparticles and for biological applications. The aqueous extract of the synthesized zinc nanoparticles (ZnNPs) was characterized using UV-visible spectrophotometer, FTIR, SEM and TEM. The aqueous broth was observed [...] Read more.
Eucalyptus globules belonging to the Myrtaceae family was explored for the synthesis of zinc oxide nanoparticles and for biological applications. The aqueous extract of the synthesized zinc nanoparticles (ZnNPs) was characterized using UV-visible spectrophotometer, FTIR, SEM and TEM. The aqueous broth was observed to be an efficient reducing agent, leading to the rapid formation of ZnNPs of varied shapes with sizes ranging between 52–70 nm. In addition, antifungal activity of the biosynthesized ZnNPs was evaluated against major phytopathogens of apple orchards. At 100 ppm of ZnNPs, the fungal growth inhibition rate was found to be 76.7% for Alternaria mali, followed by 65.4 and 55.2% inhibition rate for Botryosphaeria dothidea and Diplodia seriata, respectively. The microscopic observations of the treated fungal plates revealed that ZnNPs damages the topography of the fungal hyphal layers leading to a reduced contraction of hyphae. This considerable fungicidal property of ZnNPs against phytopathogenic fungi can have a tremendous impact on exploitation of ZnNPs for fungal pest management and ensure protection in fruit crops. Full article
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Article
Cinnamomum verum Bark Extract Mediated Green Synthesis of ZnO Nanoparticles and Their Antibacterial Potentiality
Biomolecules 2020, 10(2), 336; https://doi.org/10.3390/biom10020336 - 19 Feb 2020
Cited by 12 | Viewed by 1453
Abstract
Cinnamomum verum plant extract mediated propellant chemistry route was used for the green synthesis of zinc oxide nanoparticles. Prepared samples were confirmed for their nano regime using advanced characterization techniques such as powder X-ray diffraction and microscopic techniques such as scanning electron microscopy [...] Read more.
Cinnamomum verum plant extract mediated propellant chemistry route was used for the green synthesis of zinc oxide nanoparticles. Prepared samples were confirmed for their nano regime using advanced characterization techniques such as powder X-ray diffraction and microscopic techniques such as scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. The energy band gap of the green synthesized zinc oxide (ZnO)-nanoparticles (NPs) were found between 3.25–3.28 eV. Fourier transmission infrared spectroscopy shows the presence of Zn-O bond within the wave number of 500 cm−1. SEM images show the specific agglomeration of particles which was also confirmed by TEM studies. The green synthesized ZnO-NPs inhibited the growth of Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus with a minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of 125 µg mL−1 and 62.5 µg mL−1, respectively. The results indicate the prepared ZnO-NPs can be used as a potential antimicrobial agent against harmful pathogens. Full article
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Article
Cymbopogon Citratus Functionalized Green Synthesis of CuO-Nanoparticles: Novel Prospects as Antibacterial and Antibiofilm Agents
Biomolecules 2020, 10(2), 169; https://doi.org/10.3390/biom10020169 - 22 Jan 2020
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 1298
Abstract
Chemically synthesized copper oxide nanoparticles (CuONPs) involve the generation of toxic products, which narrowed its biological application. Hence, we have developed a one-pot, green method for CuONP production employing the leaf extract of Cymbopogon citratus (CLE). Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis confirmed the [...] Read more.
Chemically synthesized copper oxide nanoparticles (CuONPs) involve the generation of toxic products, which narrowed its biological application. Hence, we have developed a one-pot, green method for CuONP production employing the leaf extract of Cymbopogon citratus (CLE). Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis confirmed the capping of CuONPs by CLE esters (CLE-CuONPs). Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR) showed phenolics, sugars, and proteins mediated nucleation and stability of CLE-CuONPs. X-ray diffraction (XRD) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) revealed CLE-CuONPs between 11.4 to 14.5 nm. Staphylococcus aureus-1 (MRSA-1), Staphylococcus aureus-2 (MSSA-2) exposed to CLE-CuONPs (1500 µg/mL) showed 51.4%, 32.41% survival, while Escherichia coli-336 (E. coli-336) exposed to 1000 µg/mL CLE-CuONPs showed 45.27% survival. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) of CLE-CuONPs treated E. coli-336, MSSA-2 and MRSA-1 showed morphological deformations. The biofilm production by E. coli-336 and MRSA-1 also declined to 33.0 ± 3.2% and 49.0 ± 3.1% at 2000 µg/mL of CLE-CuONPs. Atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS) showed 22.80 ± 2.6%, 19.2 ± 4.2%, and 16.2 ± 3.6% accumulation of Cu2+ in E. coli-336, MSSA-2, and MRSA-1. Overall, the data exhibited excellent antibacterial and antibiofilm efficacies of esters functionalized CLE-CuONPs, indicating its putative application as a novel nano-antibiotic against multi drug resistance (MDR) pathogenic clinical isolates. Full article
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Article
Phytogenic Generation of NiO Nanoparticles Using Stevia Leaf Extract and Evaluation of Their In-Vitro Antioxidant and Antimicrobial Properties
Biomolecules 2020, 10(1), 89; https://doi.org/10.3390/biom10010089 - 06 Jan 2020
Cited by 18 | Viewed by 1396
Abstract
In the present study, economically viable NiO nanoparticles were produced by biogenic preparation using stevia leaf broth and their in-vitro antioxidant and antimicrobial activities were evaluated. The properties of the prepared NiO nanoparticles were confirmed by analytical techniques such as Ultraviolet-Visible (UV-Vis), X-ray [...] Read more.
In the present study, economically viable NiO nanoparticles were produced by biogenic preparation using stevia leaf broth and their in-vitro antioxidant and antimicrobial activities were evaluated. The properties of the prepared NiO nanoparticles were confirmed by analytical techniques such as Ultraviolet-Visible (UV-Vis), X-ray diffraction (XRD), FE-SEM, and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) analyses. Morphological studies using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) showed that the size of synthesized nanoparticles ranged from 20 to 50 nm, most of which were spherical and few of which were agglomerated. The role of the biological moieties, which reduce and cap the nanoparticles, was studied using FTIR analysis. The prepared nanoparticles strongly inhibited gram-negative bacteria, which is a camper with gram-positive bacteria and fungi. Furthermore, it performs an effective in-vitro activity through α,α-diphenyl-β-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) reduction. Thus, it can be concluded that the effective and easy green synthesis process used for NiO nanoparticles provides potential antimicrobial agents against multidrug-resistant microbes. Full article
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Article
Lemon-Fruit-Based Green Synthesis of Zinc Oxide Nanoparticles and Titanium Dioxide Nanoparticles against Soft Rot Bacterial Pathogen Dickeya dadantii
Biomolecules 2019, 9(12), 863; https://doi.org/10.3390/biom9120863 - 11 Dec 2019
Cited by 13 | Viewed by 3325
Abstract
Edible plant fruits are safe raw materials free of toxicants and rich in biomolecules for reducing metal ions and stabilizing nanoparticles. Zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnONPs) and titanium dioxide nanoparticles (TiO2NPs) are the most produced consumer nanomaterials and have known antibacterial activities [...] Read more.
Edible plant fruits are safe raw materials free of toxicants and rich in biomolecules for reducing metal ions and stabilizing nanoparticles. Zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnONPs) and titanium dioxide nanoparticles (TiO2NPs) are the most produced consumer nanomaterials and have known antibacterial activities but have rarely been used against phytopathogenic bacteria. Here, we synthesized ZnONPs and TiO2NPs simply by mixing ZnO or TiO2 solution with a lemon fruit extract at room temperature and showed their antibacterial activities against Dickeya dadantii, which causes sweet potato stem and root rot disease occurring in major sweet potato planting areas in China. Ultraviolet–visible spectrometry and energy dispersive spectroscopy determined their physiochemical characteristics. Transmission electron microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, and X-ray diffraction spectroscopy revealed the nanoscale size and polymorphic crystalline structures of the ZnONPs and TiO2NPs. Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy revealed their surface stabilization groups from the lemon fruit extract. In contrast to ZnO and TiO2, which had no antibacterial activity against D. dadantii, ZnONPs and TiO2NPs showed inhibitions on D. dadantii growth, swimming motility, biofilm formation, and maceration of sweet potato tuber slices. ZnONPs and TiO2NPs showed similar extents of antibacterial activities, which increased with the increase of nanoparticle concentrations, and inhibited about 60% of D. dadantii activities at the concentration of 50 µg∙mL−1. The green synthetic ZnONPs and TiO2NPs can be used to control the sweet potato soft rot disease by control of pathogen contamination of seed tubers. Full article
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Article
One-step Synthesis of Silver Nanoparticles Using Saudi Arabian Desert Seasonal Plant Sisymbrium irio and Antibacterial Activity Against Multidrug-Resistant Bacterial Strains
Biomolecules 2019, 9(11), 662; https://doi.org/10.3390/biom9110662 - 28 Oct 2019
Cited by 13 | Viewed by 1604
Abstract
Globally, antimicrobial resistance has grown at an alarming rate. To combat the multidrug-resistant (MDR) superbugs, silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs) were synthesized using an aqueous leaf extract of seasonal desert plant Sisymbrium irio obtained from the central region of Saudi Arabia by a simple [...] Read more.
Globally, antimicrobial resistance has grown at an alarming rate. To combat the multidrug-resistant (MDR) superbugs, silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs) were synthesized using an aqueous leaf extract of seasonal desert plant Sisymbrium irio obtained from the central region of Saudi Arabia by a simple one-step procedure. The physical and chemical properties of the Ag NPs were investigated through ultraviolet visisble analysis (UV-vis), Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscope (SEM), and transmission electron microscope (TEM) analysis. The UV-vis spectrum showed an absorption band at 426 nm. The XRD results showed a highly crystalline face-centered cubic structure. The surface morphology analyzed using SEM and TEM analyses showed the particle size to be in the range 24 nm to 50 nm. Various concentrations of Ag NPs were tested against MDR Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Acinetobacter baumanii that cause ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP). American Type Culture Collection (ATCC) Escherichia coli-25922 was used as the reference control strain. The Ag NPs effectively inhibited tested pathogens, even at the lowest concentration (6.25 µg) used. The bacterial inhibitory zone ranged from 11–21 mm. In conclusion, the newly synthesized Ag NPs could be a potential alternative candidate in biomedical applications in controlling the spread of MDR pathogens. Full article
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Review

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Review
Plant-Based Biosynthesis of Copper/Copper Oxide Nanoparticles: An Update on Their Applications in Biomedicine, Mechanisms, and Toxicity
Biomolecules 2021, 11(4), 564; https://doi.org/10.3390/biom11040564 - 12 Apr 2021
Viewed by 554
Abstract
Plants are rich in phytoconstituent biomolecules that served as a good source of medicine. More recently, they have been employed in synthesizing metal/metal oxide nanoparticles (NPs) due to their capping and reducing properties. This green synthesis approach is environmentally friendly and allows the [...] Read more.
Plants are rich in phytoconstituent biomolecules that served as a good source of medicine. More recently, they have been employed in synthesizing metal/metal oxide nanoparticles (NPs) due to their capping and reducing properties. This green synthesis approach is environmentally friendly and allows the production of the desired NPs in different sizes and shapes by manipulating parameters during the synthesis process. The most commonly used metals and oxides are gold (Au), silver (Ag), and copper (Cu). Among these, Cu is a relatively low-cost metal that is more cost-effective than Au and Ag. In this review, we present an overview and current update of plant-mediated Cu/copper oxide (CuO) NPs, including their synthesis, medicinal applications, and mechanisms. Furthermore, the toxic effects of these NPs and their efficacy compared to commercial NPs are reviewed. This review provides an insight into the potential of developing plant-based Cu/CuO NPs as a therapeutic agent for various diseases in the future. Full article
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Review
An Overview of the Algae-Mediated Biosynthesis of Nanoparticles and Their Biomedical Applications
Biomolecules 2020, 10(11), 1498; https://doi.org/10.3390/biom10111498 - 30 Oct 2020
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 1916
Abstract
Algae have long been exploited commercially and industrially as food, feed, additives, cosmetics, pharmaceuticals, and fertilizer, but now the trend is shifting towards the algae-mediated green synthesis of nanoparticles (NPs). This trend is increasing day by day, as algae are a rich source [...] Read more.
Algae have long been exploited commercially and industrially as food, feed, additives, cosmetics, pharmaceuticals, and fertilizer, but now the trend is shifting towards the algae-mediated green synthesis of nanoparticles (NPs). This trend is increasing day by day, as algae are a rich source of secondary metabolites, easy to cultivate, have fast growth, and are scalable. In recent era, green synthesis of NPs has gained widespread attention as a safe, simple, sustainable, cost-effective, and eco-friendly protocol. The secondary metabolites from algae reduce, cap, and stabilize the metal precursors to form metal, metal oxide, or bimetallic NPs. The NPs synthesis could either be intracellular or extracellular depending on the location of NPs synthesis and reducing agents. Among the diverse range of algae, the most widely investigated algae for the biosynthesis of NPs documented are brown, red, blue-green, micro and macro green algae. Due to the biocompatibility, safety and unique physico-chemical properties of NPs, the algal biosynthesized NPs have also been studied for their biomedical applications, which include anti-bacterial, anti-fungal, anti-cancerous, anti-fouling, bioremediation, and biosensing activities. In this review, the rationale behind the algal-mediated biosynthesis of metallic, metallic oxide, and bimetallic NPs from various algae have been reviewed. Furthermore, an insight into the mechanism of biosynthesis of NPs from algae and their biomedical applications has been reviewed critically. Full article
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