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Effects of Biogenic Zinc Oxide Nanoparticles on Growth and Oxidative Stress Response in Flax Seedlings vs. In Vitro Cultures: A Comparative Analysis

1
Department of Biotechnology, Quaid-i-Azam University, Islamabad 45320, Pakistan
2
Department of Biotechnology, Virtual University of Pakistan, Rawalpindi Campus 46300, Pakistan
3
Laboratoire de Biologie des Ligneux et des Grandes Cultures (LBLGC), INRAE USC1328, University of Orleans, F28000 Chartres, France
4
Department of Biotechnology, Kinnaird College for Women, Lahore 54000, Pakistan
5
Conditions Extrêmes et Matériaux, Haute Température et Irradiation (CEMHTI) CNRS UPR3079, 1D Avenue de la Recherche Scientifique, 45071 Orléans, France
6
Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmaceutical Botany, Mahidol University, Bangkok 10400, Thailand
7
Biomolecules et Biotechnologies Vegetales, EA2106, Universite Francois-Rabelais de Tours, 37000 Tours, France
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
These authors contributed equally to this work.
Biomolecules 2020, 10(6), 918; https://doi.org/10.3390/biom10060918
Received: 4 May 2020 / Revised: 15 June 2020 / Accepted: 15 June 2020 / Published: 17 June 2020
Linum usitatissimum biosynthesizes lignans and neolignans that are diet and medicinally valuable metabolites. In recent years, zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnONPs) have emerged as potential elicitors for the enhanced biosynthesis of commercial secondary metabolites. Herein, we investigated the influence of biogenic ZnONPs on both seedlings and stem-derived callus of L. usitatissimum. Seedlings of L. usitatissimum grown on Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium supplemented with ZnONPs (1–1000 mg/L) presented the highest antioxidant activity, total phenolic content, total flavonoid content, peroxidase and superoxide dismutase activities at 500 mg/L, while the maximum plantlet length was achieved with 10 mg/L. Likewise, the high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis revealed the enhanced production of secoisolariciresinol diglucoside, lariciresinol diglucoside, dehydrodiconiferyl alcohol glucoside and guaiacylglycerol-β-coniferyl alcohol ether glucoside in the plantlets grown on the 500 mg/L ZnONPs. On the other hand, the stem explants were cultured on MS media comprising 1-naphthaleneacetic acid (1 mg/L) and ZnONPs (1–50 mg/L). The highest antioxidant and other activities with an enhanced rooting effect were noted in 25 mg/L ZnONP-treated callus. Similarly, the maximum metabolites were also accumulated in 25 mg/L ZnONP-treated callus. In both systems, the dose-dependent production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) was recorded, resulting in oxidative damage with a more pronounced toxic effect on in vitro cultures. Altogether, the results from this study constitute a first comprehensive view of the impact of ZnONPs on the oxidative stress and antioxidant responses in seedlings vs. in vitro cultures. View Full-Text
Keywords: Linum usitatissimum L.; zinc oxide nanoparticles; antioxidants; peroxidase; superoxide dismutase; phenolics; flavonoids; lignans; neolignans Linum usitatissimum L.; zinc oxide nanoparticles; antioxidants; peroxidase; superoxide dismutase; phenolics; flavonoids; lignans; neolignans
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Zaeem, A.; Drouet, S.; Anjum, S.; Khurshid, R.; Younas, M.; Blondeau, J.P.; Tungmunnithum, D.; Giglioli-Guivarc’h, N.; Hano, C.; Abbasi, B.H. Effects of Biogenic Zinc Oxide Nanoparticles on Growth and Oxidative Stress Response in Flax Seedlings vs. In Vitro Cultures: A Comparative Analysis. Biomolecules 2020, 10, 918.

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