Special Issue "Antioxidant and Anti-aging Action of Plant Polyphenols"

A special issue of Medicines (ISSN 2305-6320).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 December 2018).

Special Issue Editor

Dr. Christophe Hano
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
LBLGC EA1207, INRA USC1328, University of Orleans, 21 Rue Loigny la Bataille, F-28000 Chartres, France
Tel. +33 (0)2 37 30 97 53
Interests: chemistry of natural products; analytical methods; HPLC; LC-MS; polyphenols (lignans, flavonoids, phenolic acids); ethnopharmacology; history of pharmacy
Special Issues and Collections in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Polyphenols are plant natural products found in fruits, vegetables and seeds that we consume daily. They have a wide range of applications as food supplements or medicines. The growing antioxidant and anti-aging (Sensu largo) potential of polyphenols in the field of public health (to fight against degenerative diseases such as cancer, cardiovascular diseases, type II diabetes, hypertension or Alzheimer's disease) will be considered in this Special Issue.

But we will also consider the other side. While most in vitro and in cellulo assays are not disputed, it is sometimes more difficult to evaluate these beneficial effects at the level of the whole organism. Many epidemiological or clinical studies are in this respect at odds with some of these assays. Some other questions about their active concentrations, possible “cocktail effects”, for examples, also remain little (and sometimes not) discussed in the science of nutrition or in disease prevention policies. This Special Issue will also examine critical review, opinion papers or controversial views on this topic.

Assoc. Prof. Dr. Christophe Hano
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

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Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Medicines is an international peer-reviewed open access quarterly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1000 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • anti-aging
  • antioxidant
  • polyphenols
  • degenerative diseases
  • in vitro assays
  • in cellulo assays
  • epidemiological studies
  • clinical trials

Published Papers (8 papers)

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Research

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Open AccessArticle
An Investigation of Potential Sources of Nutraceuticals from the Niger Delta Areas, Nigeria for Attenuating Oxidative Stress
Medicines 2019, 6(1), 15; https://doi.org/10.3390/medicines6010015 - 20 Jan 2019
Abstract
Background: Diets rich in fruits, vegetables, and medicinal plants possess antioxidants potentially capable of mitigating cellular oxidative stress. This study investigated the antioxidant, anti-acetylcholinesterase (AChE), and total phenolic and flavonoids contents (TPC/TFC) of dietary sources traditionally used for memory enhancing in Niger Delta, [...] Read more.
Background: Diets rich in fruits, vegetables, and medicinal plants possess antioxidants potentially capable of mitigating cellular oxidative stress. This study investigated the antioxidant, anti-acetylcholinesterase (AChE), and total phenolic and flavonoids contents (TPC/TFC) of dietary sources traditionally used for memory enhancing in Niger Delta, Nigeria. Methods: Dacroydes edulis methanolic seed extract (DEMSE), Cola lepidota methanolic seed extract (CLMSE), Terminalia catappa methanolic seed extract (TeCMSE), Tricosanthes cucumerina methanolic seed extract (TrCMSE), Tetrapleura tetraptera methanolic seed extract (TTMSE), and defatted Moringa oleifera methanolic seed extract (DMOMSE); Dennettia tripetala methanolic fruit extract (DTMFE), Artocarpus communis methanolic fruit extract (ACMFE), Gnetum africana methanolic leaf extract (GAMLE), Musa paradisiaca methanolic stembark extract (MPMSE), and Mangifera indica methanolic stembark extract (MIMSE) were evaluated for free radical scavenging antioxidant ability using 2,2-Diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), reducing power capacity (reduction of ferric iron to ferrous iron), AChE inhibitory potential by Ellman assay, and then TPC/TFC contents determined by estimating milli-equivalents of Gallic acid and Quercetin per gram, respectively. Results: The radical scavenging percentages were as follows: MIMSE (58%), MPMSE (50%), TrCMSE (42%), GAMLE (40%), CLMSE (40%), DMOMSE (38%), and DEMFE (37%) relative to β-tocopherol (98%). The highest iron reducing (antioxidant) capacity was by TrCMSE (52%), MIMSE (40%) and GAMLE (38%). Extracts of MIMSE, TrCMSE, DTMFE, TTMSE, and CLMSE exhibited concentration-dependent AChE inhibitory activity (p < 0.05–0.001). At a concentration of 200 µg/mL, the AChE inhibitory activity and IC50 (µg/mL) exhibited by the most potent extracts were: MIMSE (≈50%/111.9), TrCMSE (≈47%/201.2), DTMFE (≈32%/529.9), TTMSE (≈26%/495.4), and CLMSE (≈25%/438.4). The highest TPC were from MIMSE (156.2), TrCMSE (132.65), GAMLE (123.26), and CLMSE (119.63) in mg gallic acid equivalents/g, and for TFC were: MISME (87.35), GAMLE (73.26), ACMFE (69.54), CLMSE (68.35), and TCMSE2 (64.34) mg quercetin equivalents/gram. Conclusions: The results suggest that certain inedible and edible foodstuffs, most notably MIMSE, MPMSE, TrCMSE, GAMLE, and CLMSE may be beneficial to ameliorate the potentially damaging effects of redox stress. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antioxidant and Anti-aging Action of Plant Polyphenols)
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Open AccessArticle
Total Polyphenol Content and Antioxidant Capacity of Rosehips of Some Rosa Species
Medicines 2018, 5(3), 84; https://doi.org/10.3390/medicines5030084 - 04 Aug 2018
Cited by 4
Abstract
Background: Rosehips, the fruits of Rosa species, are well known for their various health benefits like strengthening the immune system and treating digestive disorders. Antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and cell regenerative effects are also among their health enhancing impacts. Rosehips are rich in compounds having [...] Read more.
Background: Rosehips, the fruits of Rosa species, are well known for their various health benefits like strengthening the immune system and treating digestive disorders. Antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and cell regenerative effects are also among their health enhancing impacts. Rosehips are rich in compounds having antioxidant properties, like vitamin C, carotenoids, and phenolics. Methods: Total polyphenol content (Folin-Ciocalteu’s method), and in vitro total antioxidant capacity (ferric-reducing ability of plasma, FRAP) in rosehips of four Rosa species (R. canina, R. gallica, R. rugosa, R. spinosissima) were determined and compared. Ripe fruits were harvested at two locations. Water and ethanolic extracts of dried fruit flesh were analyzed. Results:R. spinosissima had the highest total phenolic content and antioxidant capacity, significantly higher than the other investigated Rosa species. Both parameters were reported in decreasing order for R. spinosissima > R. canina > R. rugosa > R. gallica. Ethanolic extracts of rosehips showed higher phenolic content and antioxidant activity than water extracts. Antioxidant properties were influenced by the growing site of Rosa species. Conclusions: This study indicates that R. spinosissima exhibited the greatest phenolic and antioxidant content, and therefore can be used as a reliable source of natural antioxidants, and serve as a suitable species for further plant breeding activities. Furthermore, investigations of various Rosa species for their antioxidant properties may draw more attention to their potential as functional foods. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antioxidant and Anti-aging Action of Plant Polyphenols)
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Open AccessArticle
Effect of Hochuekkito (Buzhongyiqitang) on Nasal Cavity Colonization of Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus in Murine Model
Medicines 2018, 5(3), 83; https://doi.org/10.3390/medicines5030083 - 01 Aug 2018
Abstract
Background: Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) infections are largely preceded by colonization with MRSA. Hochuekkito is the formula composing 10 herbal medicines in traditional Kampo medicine to treat infirmity and to stimulate immune functions. We evaluated the efficacy of hochuekkito extract (HET) against MRSA [...] Read more.
Background: Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) infections are largely preceded by colonization with MRSA. Hochuekkito is the formula composing 10 herbal medicines in traditional Kampo medicine to treat infirmity and to stimulate immune functions. We evaluated the efficacy of hochuekkito extract (HET) against MRSA colonization using a nasal infection murine model. Methods: We evaluated the effects of HET as follows: (1) the growth inhibition by measuring turbidity of bacterial culture in vitro, (2) the nasal colonization of MRSA by measuring bacterial counts, and (3) the splenocyte proliferation in mice orally treated with HET by the 3H-thymidine uptake assay. Results: HET significant inhibited the growth of MRSA. The colony forming unit (CFU) in the nasal fluid of HET-treated mice was significantly lower than that of HET-untreated mice. When each single crude drug—Astragali radix, Bupleuri radix, Zingiberis rhizoma, and Cimicifugae rhizome—was removed from hochuekkito formula, the effect of the formula significantly weakened. The uptake of 3H-thymidine into murine splenocytes treated with HET was significantly higher than that from untreated mice. The effects of the modified formula described above were also significantly weaker than those of the original formula. Conclusions: Hochuekkito is effective for the treatment of MRSA nasal colonization in the murine model. We suggest HET as the therapeutic candidate for effective therapy on nasal cavity colonization of MRSA in humans. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antioxidant and Anti-aging Action of Plant Polyphenols)
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Open AccessArticle
Optimisation of the Microwave-Assisted Ethanol Extraction of Saponins from Gac (Momordica cochinchinensis Spreng.) Seeds
Medicines 2018, 5(3), 70; https://doi.org/10.3390/medicines5030070 - 03 Jul 2018
Cited by 4
Abstract
Background: Gac (Momordica cochinchinensis Spreng.) seeds contain saponins that are reportedly medicinal. It was hypothesised that the extraction of saponins from powdered Gac seed kernels could be optimised using microwave-assisted extraction (MAE) with ethanol as the extraction solvent. The aim was to [...] Read more.
Background: Gac (Momordica cochinchinensis Spreng.) seeds contain saponins that are reportedly medicinal. It was hypothesised that the extraction of saponins from powdered Gac seed kernels could be optimised using microwave-assisted extraction (MAE) with ethanol as the extraction solvent. The aim was to determine an appropriate ethanol concentration, ratio of solvent to seed powder and microwave power and time for extraction. Whether or not defatting the Gac seed powder had an impact on the extraction of saponins, was also determined. Methods: Ethanol concentrations ranged from 60–100% were used to compare total saponins content (TSC) extracted from full-fat and defatted Gac seeds. Ratios of solvent to Gac seeds ranged from 10 to 100 mL g−1 and microwave conditions ranged from 1–4 cycles at power levels ranged from 360–720 W, were examined successively to evaluate their efficiency in extracting saponins from full-fat Gac seeds. Results: A four-fold higher of TSC was obtained in extracts from full-fat Gac seed powder than from defatted powder (100 vs. 26 mg aescin equivalents (AE) per gram of Gac seeds). The optimal parameters for the extraction of saponins were a ratio of 30 mL of 100% absolute ethanol per g of full-fat Gac seed powder with the microwave set at 360Wfor three irradiation cycles of 10 s power ON and 15 s power OFF per cycle. Conclusions: Gac seed saponins could be efficiently extracted using MAE. Full-fat powder of the seed kernels is recommended to be used for a better yield of saponins. The optimised MAE conditions are recommended for the extraction of enriched saponins from Gac seeds for potential application in the nutraceutical and pharmaceutical industries. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antioxidant and Anti-aging Action of Plant Polyphenols)
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Open AccessArticle
Antioxidant and Anti-Inflammatory Activities of Fractions from Bidens engleri O.E. Schulz (Asteraceae) and Boerhavia erecta L. (Nyctaginaceae)
Medicines 2018, 5(2), 53; https://doi.org/10.3390/medicines5020053 - 12 Jun 2018
Cited by 1
Abstract
Background: According to recent studies, reactive oxygen is the leader of human metabolic disease development. The use of natural antioxidants is the best way to stop or prevent this problem. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate the antioxidant and anti-inflammatory [...] Read more.
Background: According to recent studies, reactive oxygen is the leader of human metabolic disease development. The use of natural antioxidants is the best way to stop or prevent this problem. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate the antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities and to determine the polyphenolic contents of the Bidens engleri and Boerhavia erecta fractions. Methods: Plant fractions were obtained using Soxhlet procedures with hexane, dichloromethane, acetonitrile, ethyl acetate, methanol, and butanol solvent, successively. The different fractions were compared according to their antioxidant, anti-inflammatory activities, total phenolic, and total flavonoid contents. The phenolic contribution to the biological activity was evaluated. Result: The Bidens engleri and Boerhavia erecta fractions showed the highest antioxidant abilities, notably the polar fractions, which inhibited significantly the radical 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and 2,2-O-azinobis(3-ethylbenzoline-6-sulphonate) (ABTS). The butanol fraction from Bidens engleri and methanol fraction from Boerhavia erecta have presented the best iron (III) reduction power with 211.68 and 198.55 mgAAE/g, respectively. Butanol and acetonitrile were the best solvents for extracting phenolic compounds from Bidens engleri and Boerhavia erecta, respectively. In contrast, dichloromethane was the best solvent for extracting a flavonoid from two plants with anti-COX-2 and anti-LOX-15 active compounds. The phenolic compound contributed significantly to antioxidant activity (r > 0.80). Conclusion: The Bidens engleri and Boerhavia erecta fractions possessed a potential antioxidant for fighting oxidative stress and helping to prevent diabetes, hypertension, and cardiovascular diseases. The uses of this plant could be promoted in Burkina Faso. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antioxidant and Anti-aging Action of Plant Polyphenols)
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Review

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Open AccessReview
Flavonoids from Nelumbo nucifera Gaertn., a Medicinal Plant: Uses in Traditional Medicine, Phytochemistry and Pharmacological Activities
Medicines 2018, 5(4), 127; https://doi.org/10.3390/medicines5040127 - 23 Nov 2018
Abstract
Nelumbo nucifera Gaertn. has been used as an important ingredient for traditional medicines since ancient times, especially in Asian countries. Nowadays, many new or unknown phytochemical compounds from N. nucifera are still being discovered. Most of the current research about pharmacological activity focus [...] Read more.
Nelumbo nucifera Gaertn. has been used as an important ingredient for traditional medicines since ancient times, especially in Asian countries. Nowadays, many new or unknown phytochemical compounds from N. nucifera are still being discovered. Most of the current research about pharmacological activity focus on nuciferine, many other alkaloids, phenolic compounds, etc. However, there is no current review emphasizing on flavonoids, which is one of the potent secondary metabolites of this species and its pharmacological activities. Therefore, following a taxonomic description, we aim to illustrate and update the diversity of flavonoid phytochemical compounds from N. nucifera, the comparative analysis of flavonoid compositions and contents in various organs. The uses of this species in traditional medicine and the main pharmacological activities such as antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, anti-diabetic, anti-obesity, anti-angiogenic and anti-cancer activities are also illustrated in this works. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antioxidant and Anti-aging Action of Plant Polyphenols)
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Open AccessFeature PaperReview
Flavonoids and Other Phenolic Compounds from Medicinal Plants for Pharmaceutical and Medical Aspects: An Overview
Medicines 2018, 5(3), 93; https://doi.org/10.3390/medicines5030093 - 25 Aug 2018
Cited by 23
Abstract
Phenolic compounds as well as flavonoids are well-known as antioxidant and many other important bioactive agents that have long been interested due to their benefits for human health, curing and preventing many diseases. This review attempts to demonstrate an overview of flavonoids and [...] Read more.
Phenolic compounds as well as flavonoids are well-known as antioxidant and many other important bioactive agents that have long been interested due to their benefits for human health, curing and preventing many diseases. This review attempts to demonstrate an overview of flavonoids and other phenolic compounds as the interesting alternative sources for pharmaceutical and medicinal applications. The examples of these phytochemicals from several medicinal plants are also illustrated, and their potential applications in pharmaceutical and medical aspects, especially for health promoting e.g., antioxidant effects, antibacterial effect, anti-cancer effect, cardioprotective effects, immune system promoting and anti-inflammatory effects, skin protective effect from UV radiation and so forth are highlighted. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antioxidant and Anti-aging Action of Plant Polyphenols)
Open AccessReview
Antioxidant Activity of Myrtus communis L. and Myrtus nivellei Batt. & Trab. Extracts: A Brief Review
Medicines 2018, 5(3), 89; https://doi.org/10.3390/medicines5030089 - 11 Aug 2018
Cited by 2
Abstract
Myrtus communis L. (myrtle) and Myrtus nivellei Batt. & Trab. (Saharan myrtle) have been used in folk medicine for alleviating some ailments. M. communis is largely distributed in the Mediterranean Basin, whereas M. nivellei is confined in specific zones of the central Saharan [...] Read more.
Myrtus communis L. (myrtle) and Myrtus nivellei Batt. & Trab. (Saharan myrtle) have been used in folk medicine for alleviating some ailments. M. communis is largely distributed in the Mediterranean Basin, whereas M. nivellei is confined in specific zones of the central Saharan mountains. The chemical composition and antioxidant activity of berry and leaf extracts isolated from myrtle are deeply documented, whereas those isolated from Saharan myrtle extracts are less studied. In both species, the major groups of constituents include gallic acid derivatives, flavonols, flavonol derivatives, and hydroxybenzoic acids. In coloured berries, anthocyanins are also present. In M. nivellei extracts are reported for some compounds not described in M. communis so far: 2-hydroxy-1,8-cineole-β-d-glucopyranoside, 2-hydroxy-1,8-cineole 2-O-α-l-arabinofuranosyl (1→6)-β-d-glucopyranoside, rugosin A, and rugosin B. Berries and leaves extracts of both species had antioxidant activity. Comparative studies of the antioxidant activity between leaf and berry myrtle extracts revealed that leaf extracts are best antioxidants, which can be assigned to the galloyl derivatives, flavonols, and flavonols derivatives, although the ratio of these groups of compounds might also have an important role in the antioxidant activity. The anthocyanins present in myrtle berries seem to possess weak antioxidant activity. The antioxidant activity of sample extracts depended on various factors: harvesting time, storage, extraction solvent, extraction type, and plant part used, among other factors. Leaf extracts of myrtle revealed to possess anti-inflammatory activity in several models used. This property has been attributed either to the flavonoids and/or hydrolysable tannins, nevertheless nonprenylated acylphloroglucinols (e.g., myrtucommulone and semimyrtucommulone) have also revealed a remarkable role in that activity. The biological activities of myrtle extracts found so far may direct its use towards for stabilizing complex lipid systems, as prebiotic in food formulations, and as novel therapeutic for the management of inflammation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antioxidant and Anti-aging Action of Plant Polyphenols)
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