Experimental Biology 100 Years after the Foundation of the Italian Society: A Celebratory Special Issue

A special issue of Biology (ISSN 2079-7737).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 15 December 2024 | Viewed by 2338

Special Issue Editors


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Department of Life, Health and Environmental Sciences, University of L’Aquila, 67100 L’Aquila, Italy
Interests: reproduction; infertility; assisted reproductive technology; cryopreservation; environmental pollutants; oocyte; ovarian follicles; spermatozoa; embryos; histology; electron microscopy
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Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

The Italian Society of Experimental Biology was established in Pavia, Italy, in 1925 by the “Gotha” of famous Italian physicians and researchers. Among them, Camillo Golgi, Giuseppe Levi, Camillo Artom, Maurizio Ascoli, Luigi Califano and Luigi Condorelli, along other famous “Masters” of the Italian academy are reported in the Constitute Act of the Society. They understood that the key for discovering the mechanisms of disease pathogenesis was in the hands of experimental biologists, scientists who applied experimental methods to biomedical research.

With this Special Issue, we want to celebrate one of the most important and popular scientific societies in Italy (and probably in the world) by publishing both original papers and reviews produced by researchers worldwide on the topics of experimental biology, such as anatomy, histology, embryology, physiology, biochemistry, cell biology, genetics, pharmacology, anthropology, cancerology, pathology, microbiology, etc. The fields of research also include advanced microscopy and imaging, aging, aquatic environments, artificial intelligence applied to biomedicine, biodiversity and modeling, biology of reproduction and infertility, biomedical and pharmaceutical biotechnology, cellular stress, environment and health, micro- and nanovesicles in biomedicine, neuroscience, nutrition and food supplements, plant biology, precision medicine, regenerative medicine, structural biology, urban biodiversity and climate change, and other arguments related to the emerging concept of “one health”.

Your contribution to this Special Issue will be very welcome!

Prof. Dr. Francesco Cappello
Dr. Maria Grazia Palmerini
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

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Keywords

  • anatomy
  • histology
  • embryology
  • physiology
  • biochemistry
  • cell biology
  • genetics
  • pharmacology
  • anthropology
  • cancerology
  • pathology
  • microbiology
  • advanced microscopy and imaging
  • aging
  • aquatic environments
  • artificial intelligence applied to biomedicine
  • biodiversity and modeling
  • biology of reproduction and infertility
  • biomedical and pharmaceutical biotechnology
  • cellular stress
  • environment and health
  • micro- and nanovesicles in biomedicine
  • neuroscience
  • nutrition and food supplements
  • plant biology
  • precision medicine
  • regenerative medicine
  • structural biology
  • urban biodiversity and climate change

Published Papers (2 papers)

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19 pages, 3304 KiB  
Article
Nanovesicular Mediation of the Gut–Brain Axis by Probiotics: Insights into Irritable Bowel Syndrome
by Radha Santonocito, Letizia Paladino, Alessandra Maria Vitale, Giuseppa D'Amico, Francesco Paolo Zummo, Paolo Pirrotta, Samuele Raccosta, Mauro Manno, Salvatore Accomando, Francesco D’Arpa, Francesco Carini, Rosario Barone, Francesca Rappa, Antonella Marino Gammazza, Fabio Bucchieri, Francesco Cappello and Celeste Caruso Bavisotto
Biology 2024, 13(5), 296; https://doi.org/10.3390/biology13050296 - 25 Apr 2024
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Abstract
Background: Dysbiosis, influenced by poor diet or stress, is associated with various systemic diseases. Probiotic supplements are recognized for stabilizing gut microbiota and alleviating gastrointestinal issues, like irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). This study focused on the tryptophan pathways, which are important for the [...] Read more.
Background: Dysbiosis, influenced by poor diet or stress, is associated with various systemic diseases. Probiotic supplements are recognized for stabilizing gut microbiota and alleviating gastrointestinal issues, like irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). This study focused on the tryptophan pathways, which are important for the regulation of serotonin levels, and on host physiology and behavior regulation. Methods: Nanovesicles were isolated from the plasma of subjects with chronic diarrhea, both before and after 60 days of consuming a probiotic mix (Acronelle®, Bromatech S.r.l., Milan, Italy). These nanovesicles were assessed for the presence of Tryptophan 2,3-dioxygenase 2 (TDO 2). Furthermore, the probiotics mix, in combination with H2O2, was used to treat HT29 cells to explore its cytoprotective and anti-stress effect. Results: In vivo, levels of TDO 2 in nanovesicles were enhanced in the blood after probiotic treatment, suggesting a role in the gut–brain axis. In the in vitro model, a typical H2O2-induced stress effect occurred, which the probiotics mix was able to recover, showing a cytoprotective effect. The probiotics mix treatment significantly reduced the heat shock protein 60 kDa levels and was able to preserve intestinal integrity and barrier function by restoring the expression and redistribution of tight junction proteins. Moreover, the probiotics mix increased the expression of TDO 2 and serotonin receptors. Conclusions: This study provides evidence for the gut–brain axis mediation by nanovesicles, influencing central nervous system function. Full article
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10 pages, 731 KiB  
Brief Report
Autoimmunity against Nucleus Ambiguous Is Putatively Possible in Both Long-COVID-19 and Vaccinated Subjects: Scientific Evidence and Working Hypothesis
by Silvestro Ennio D’Anna, Alessandra Maria Vitale, Giuseppa D’Amico, Celeste Caruso Bavisotto, Pasquale Ambrosino, Francesco Cappello, Mauro Maniscalco and Antonella Marino Gammazza
Biology 2024, 13(6), 359; https://doi.org/10.3390/biology13060359 - 21 May 2024
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Abstract
As reported by the World Health Organization (WHO), about 10–20% of people have experienced mid- to long-term effects following SARS-CoV-2 infection, collectively referred to as post-COVID-19 condition or long-COVID, including some neurovegetative symptoms. Numerous findings have suggested that the onset of these neurovegetative [...] Read more.
As reported by the World Health Organization (WHO), about 10–20% of people have experienced mid- to long-term effects following SARS-CoV-2 infection, collectively referred to as post-COVID-19 condition or long-COVID, including some neurovegetative symptoms. Numerous findings have suggested that the onset of these neurovegetative symptoms upon viral infection may be caused by the production of autoantibodies through molecular mimicry phenomena. Accordingly, we had previously demonstrated that 22 of the human proteins sharing putatively immunogenic peptides with SARS-CoV-2 proteins are expressed in the dorsal motor nucleus and nucleus ambiguous. Therefore, if molecular mimicry occurs following severe forms of COVID-19, there could be transitory or permanent damage in some vagal structures, resulting in a lower vagal tone and all the related clinical signs. We investigated the presence of autoantibodies against two proteins of vagal nuclei sharing a peptide with SARS-CoV-2 spike glycoprotein using an immunoassay test on blood obtained from patients with cardiorespiratory symptoms in patients affected by ongoing symptomatic COVID-19 (long-COVID), subjects vaccinated without a history of SARS-CoV-2 infection, and subjects not vaccinated without a history of SARS-CoV-2 infection. Interestingly, putative autoantibodies were present in both long-COVID-19 and vaccinated groups, opening interesting questions about pathogenic mechanisms of the disease. Full article
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