Topic Editors

Department of Biomedicine, Neuroscience and Advanced Diagnostics (BiND), University of Palermo, 90127 Palermo, Italy
Division of Anatomy, Faculty of Dental Medicine, Universitatea de Medicina si Farmacie Carol Davila din Bucuresti, 020021 Bucharest, Romania

Human Anatomy and Pathophysiology

Abstract submission deadline
closed (31 December 2021)
Manuscript submission deadline
closed (31 March 2022)
Viewed by
129751

Topic Information

Dear Colleagues,

Anatomists are scientists that study how the human body is made for correlating structure with function and dysfunction at all levels, from macroscopic to microscopic, from ultrastructural to molecular ones.

Human anatomy provides researchers of many disciplines and areas with all the basic information to effectively plan their experiments and interpret their results.

Hence, this article collection intends to gather review and original papers about human anatomy, histology and embryology, as well as about other closely related medical fields—e.g., physiology, pharmacology, radiology, surgery, clinical medicine, etc.—that have an anatomical focus.

Furthermore, we would like to collect papers about phylogenesis, bioethics, and history of science, especially those that have an anatomical perspective. Sport, physical exercise, nutrition, and active aging can be academic fields of interest for an anatomist as well. Finally, bioengineering and regenerative medicine need knowledge in human anatomy for their advancements.

In conclusion, we welcome submissions from Applied Sciences, Biology, Medicina, Bioengineering and Pathophysiology that cover, but are not limited to, the following topics:

  • Advances in human anatomy, histology, and embryology teaching and research.
  • Advances in the pathophysiology of human organs or anatomical districts.
  • Bioengineering the human body.
  • Bioethical aspects in biomedical research about human anatomy and pathobiology.
  • Clinical, surgical, and radiological anatomy: new insights.
  • From human anatomy to pathophysiology: experimental models.
  • Effects of physical exercise on the maintenance and/or improvement of healthy status.
  • Extracellular vesicles: looking for new markers of health and disease.
  • History of anatomy and medicine: learning from our past.
  • How a healthy lifestyle can slow down senescence and contribute to active aging.
  • How cell stress can influence cell differentiation, tissue homeostasis, and organ remodeling during the whole lifespan of an individual.
  • Human body structures from a phylogenetic point of view.
  • Liquid biopsy as a new frontier of medicine, including the personalized one.
  • Microbiota/microbiome and its relationship with human body structures.
  • Molecular anatomy: the relationship between shape and function at the molecular level.
  • Neuroanatomy, neurobiology, neuropathology: new discoveries.
  • Nutrition, sport, and health: looking for a virtuous combination.
  • Stem cells, 3D cultures, and outgrowth in regenerative medicine.
  • Using the corpse: the usefulness of the cadaver in medical training.

Prof. Dr. Francesco Cappello
Prof. Dr. Mugurel Constantin Rusu
Topic Editors

Participating Journals

Journal Name Impact Factor CiteScore Launched Year First Decision (median) APC
Applied Sciences
applsci
2.5 5.3 2011 16.9 Days CHF 2400
Biology
biology
3.6 5.7 2012 18.7 Days CHF 2700
Bioengineering
bioengineering
3.8 4.0 2014 17.7 Days CHF 2700
Medicina
medicina
2.4 3.3 1920 19.6 Days CHF 1800
Pathophysiology
pathophysiology
2.7 3.1 1994 22.6 Days CHF 1400

Preprints.org is a multidiscipline platform providing preprint service that is dedicated to sharing your research from the start and empowering your research journey.

MDPI Topics is cooperating with Preprints.org and has built a direct connection between MDPI journals and Preprints.org. Authors are encouraged to enjoy the benefits by posting a preprint at Preprints.org prior to publication:

  1. Immediately share your ideas ahead of publication and establish your research priority;
  2. Protect your idea from being stolen with this time-stamped preprint article;
  3. Enhance the exposure and impact of your research;
  4. Receive feedback from your peers in advance;
  5. Have it indexed in Web of Science (Preprint Citation Index), Google Scholar, Crossref, SHARE, PrePubMed, Scilit and Europe PMC.

Published Papers (36 papers)

Order results
Result details
Journals
Select all
Export citation of selected articles as:
16 pages, 1580 KiB  
Article
Transthoracic Echocardiography-Based Prediction Model of Adverse Event Risk in Patients with COVID-19
by Elena Zelikovna Golukhova, Inessa Viktorovna Slivneva, Maxim Leonidovich Mamalyga, Damir Ildarovich Marapov, Mikhail Nikolaevich Alekhin, Mikhail Mikhailovich Rybka and Irina Vasilevna Volkovskaya
Pathophysiology 2022, 29(2), 157-172; https://doi.org/10.3390/pathophysiology29020014 - 26 Apr 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2377
Abstract
Cardiopulmonary disorders cause a significant increase in the risk of adverse events in patients with COVID-19. Therefore, the development of new diagnostic and treatment methods for comorbid disorders in COVID-19 patients is one of the main public health challenges. The aim of the [...] Read more.
Cardiopulmonary disorders cause a significant increase in the risk of adverse events in patients with COVID-19. Therefore, the development of new diagnostic and treatment methods for comorbid disorders in COVID-19 patients is one of the main public health challenges. The aim of the study was to analyze patient survival and to develop a predictive model of survival in adults with COVID-19 infection based on transthoracic echocardiography (TTE) parameters. We conducted a prospective, single-center, temporary hospital-based study of 110 patients with moderate to severe COVID-19. All patients underwent TTE evaluation. The predictors of mortality we identified in univariate and multivariable models and the predictive performance of the model were assessed using receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis and area under the curve (AUC). The predictive model included three factors: right ventricle (RV)/left ventricle (LV) area (odds ratio (OR) = 1.048 per 1/100 increase, p = 0.03), systolic pulmonary artery pressure (sPAP) (OR = 1.209 per 1 mm Hg increase, p < 0.001), and right ventricle free wall longitudinal strain (RV FW LS) (OR = 0.873 per 1% increase, p = 0.036). The AUC-ROC of the obtained model was 0.925 ± 0.031 (95% confidence interval (95% CI): 0.863–0.986). The sensitivity (Se) and specificity (Sp) measures of the models at the cut-off point of 0.129 were 93.8% and 81.9%, respectively. A binary logistic regression method resulted in the development of a prognostic model of mortality in patients with moderate and severe COVID-19 based on TTE data. It may also have additional implications for early risk stratification and clinical decision making in patients with COVID-19. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Human Anatomy and Pathophysiology)
Show Figures

Figure 1

6 pages, 1620 KiB  
Case Report
Anatomical Changes in a Case with Asymmetrical Bilateral Maxillary Sinus Hypoplasia
by Adrian Cosmin Ilie, Adelina Maria Jianu, Mugurel Constantin Rusu and Alexandru Nicolae Mureșan
Medicina 2022, 58(5), 564; https://doi.org/10.3390/medicina58050564 - 20 Apr 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 4472
Abstract
Background and Objectives: The maxillary sinus hypoplasia (MSH) is an occasional variation of the maxilla, occurring either unilaterally or bilaterally. Previous studies dealing with MSH have not detailed the consequent anatomical changes of the maxilla and adjacent fossae. Materials and Methods: [...] Read more.
Background and Objectives: The maxillary sinus hypoplasia (MSH) is an occasional variation of the maxilla, occurring either unilaterally or bilaterally. Previous studies dealing with MSH have not detailed the consequent anatomical changes of the maxilla and adjacent fossae. Materials and Methods: A 58-year-old female case was scanned in Cone Beam Computed Tomography and found to have asymmetrical bilateral MSH, who was then further evaluated anatomically. Results: The maxillary sinuses were hypoplastic and had mild mucosal thickenings. The orbital floors were curved. The uncinate process and the ethmoidal infundibulum were laterally displaced beneath the orbit floor. On each side, the lateral nasal wall protruded within the respective maxillary bone to reach above the vestibular cortical plate of the alveolar process. This expansion of the lateral nasal walls was limited to the premolar and first molar regions. The inferior turbinates were laterally curved. The perpendicular palatine plate was building a postero-lateral nasal wall in front of the pterygopalatine fossa. Conclusions: The classification systems of MSH should be detailed to indicate whether the normal uncinate process is medial or inferior to the orbit. The lateral expansion of the lateral nasal wall in MSH is limited to the anterior part of that wall. The laterally expanded nasal fossa could reach anterior to the pterygopalatine fossa in MSH. Seemingly, CBCT is a better tool than CT to evaluate the detailed anatomy of the modified anatomical structures in MSH; as such, it could be of help in a surgical approach. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Human Anatomy and Pathophysiology)
Show Figures

Figure 1

14 pages, 901 KiB  
Article
Hsa-Mir-320c, Hsa-Mir-200c-3p, and Hsa-Mir-449c-5p as Potential Specific miRNA Biomarkers of COPD: A Pilot Study
by Noemi Cerón-Pisa, Amanda Iglesias, Hanaa Shafiek, Aina Martín-Medina, Margalida Esteva-Socias, Josep Muncunill, Aarne Fleischer, Javier Verdú, Borja G. Cosío and Jaume Sauleda
Pathophysiology 2022, 29(2), 143-156; https://doi.org/10.3390/pathophysiology29020013 - 29 Mar 2022
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 2728
Abstract
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a chronic inflammatory disease commonly induced by cigarette smoke. The expression of miRNAs can be altered in patients with COPD and could be used as a biomarker. We aimed to identify a panel of miRNAs in bronchoalveolar [...] Read more.
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a chronic inflammatory disease commonly induced by cigarette smoke. The expression of miRNAs can be altered in patients with COPD and could be used as a biomarker. We aimed to identify a panel of miRNAs in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) to differentiate COPD patients from smokers and non-smokers with normal lung function. Accordingly, forty-five subjects classified as COPD, smokers, and non-smokers (n = 15 per group) underwent clinical, functional characterization and bronchoscopy with BAL. The mean age of the studied population was 61.61 ± 12.95 years, BMI 25.72 ± 3.82 Kg/m2, FEV1/FVC 68.37 ± 12.00%, and FEV1 80.07 ± 23.63% predicted. According to microarray analysis, three miRNAs of the most upregulated were chosen: miR-320c, miR-200c-3p, and miR-449c-5p. These miRNAs were validated by qPCR and were shown to be differently expressed in COPD patients. ROC analysis showed that these three miRNAs together had an area under the curve of 0.89 in differentiating COPD from controls. Moreover, in silico analysis of candidate miRNAs by DIANA-miRPath showed potential involvement in the EGFR and Hippo pathways. These results suggest a specific 3-miRNA signature that could be potentially used as a biomarker to distinguish COPD patients from smokers and non-smoker subjects. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Human Anatomy and Pathophysiology)
Show Figures

Figure 1

11 pages, 1454 KiB  
Article
Pregnancy Achievement by Medical Assisted Reproduction Is Correlated to the G Protein-Coupled Receptor 30 mRNA Abundance in Human Spermatozoa
by Sara C. Pereira, Inês F. Esperança, Soraia Pinto, Alberto Barros, Mário Sousa, Marco G. Alves and Pedro F. Oliveira
Appl. Sci. 2022, 12(7), 3240; https://doi.org/10.3390/app12073240 - 22 Mar 2022
Viewed by 1759
Abstract
Estrogens, specifically 17β-estradiol (E2), play an important role in male health, including male fertility. The G protein-coupled receptor for estrogen 30 (GPR30) is essential for mediating the rapid non-genomic effects of E2 on a variety of testicular cells, including spermatozoa, although [...] Read more.
Estrogens, specifically 17β-estradiol (E2), play an important role in male health, including male fertility. The G protein-coupled receptor for estrogen 30 (GPR30) is essential for mediating the rapid non-genomic effects of E2 on a variety of testicular cells, including spermatozoa, although its molecular effects remain largely unknown. In this work, we hypothesized that the GPR30 mRNA abundance in spermatozoa could be correlated to sperm quality. Sperm GPR30 mRNA could also be carried into the oocyte, potentially impacting embryo development and the success of a pregnancy. For this study, 81 sperm samples were collected from couples seeking fertility treatment and undergoing medically assisted reproduction treatments (ART), following the World Health Organization guidelines. GPR30 mRNA abundance in spermatozoa was assessed with a quantitative polymerase chain reaction. The resulting data show that there is no correlation between the abundance of the GPR30 transcript with paternal BMI, age, or sperm quality parameters. Interestingly, we observed that higher levels of GPR30 mRNA abundance in spermatozoa were related to the achievement of biochemical pregnancy and clinical pregnancy (p < 0.05) by couples undergoing treatment. These results highlight the role of the sperm’s RNA cargo in offspring development, suggesting that spermatozoa mRNA content can influence ART success. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Human Anatomy and Pathophysiology)
Show Figures

Figure 1

18 pages, 7595 KiB  
Review
The Need for Standardizing Diagnosis, Treatment and Clinical Care of Cholecystitis and Biliary Colic in Gallbladder Disease
by Gerard Doherty, Matthew Manktelow, Brendan Skelly, Paddy Gillespie, Anthony J. Bjourson and Steven Watterson
Medicina 2022, 58(3), 388; https://doi.org/10.3390/medicina58030388 - 5 Mar 2022
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 7895
Abstract
Gallstones affect 20% of the Western population and will grow in clinical significance as obesity and metabolic diseases become more prevalent. Gallbladder removal (cholecystectomy) is a common treatment for diseases caused by gallstones, with 1.2 million surgeries in the US each year, each [...] Read more.
Gallstones affect 20% of the Western population and will grow in clinical significance as obesity and metabolic diseases become more prevalent. Gallbladder removal (cholecystectomy) is a common treatment for diseases caused by gallstones, with 1.2 million surgeries in the US each year, each costing USD 10,000. Gallbladder disease has a significant impact on the logistics and economics of healthcare. We discuss the two most common presentations of gallbladder disease (biliary colic and cholecystitis) and their pathophysiology, risk factors, signs and symptoms. We discuss the factors that affect clinical care, including diagnosis, treatment outcomes, surgical risk factors, quality of life and cost-efficacy. We highlight the importance of standardised guidelines and objective scoring systems in improving quality, consistency and compatibility across healthcare providers and in improving patient outcomes, collaborative opportunities and the cost-effectiveness of treatment. Guidelines and scoring only exist in select areas of the care pathway. Opportunities exist elsewhere in the care pathway. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Human Anatomy and Pathophysiology)
Show Figures

Figure 1

13 pages, 2018 KiB  
Article
EXOC6 (Exocyst Complex Component 6) Is Associated with the Risk of Type 2 Diabetes and Pancreatic β-Cell Dysfunction
by Nabil Sulaiman, Mahmood Yaseen Hachim, Anila Khalique, Abdul Khader Mohammed, Saba Al Heialy and Jalal Taneera
Biology 2022, 11(3), 388; https://doi.org/10.3390/biology11030388 - 1 Mar 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 3198
Abstract
EXOC6 and EXOC6B (EXOC6/6B) components of the exocyst complex are involved in the secretory granule docking. Recently, EXOC6/6B were anticipated as a molecular link between dysfunctional pancreatic islets and ciliated lung epithelium, making diabetic patients more prone to severe SARS-CoV-2 complications. However, the [...] Read more.
EXOC6 and EXOC6B (EXOC6/6B) components of the exocyst complex are involved in the secretory granule docking. Recently, EXOC6/6B were anticipated as a molecular link between dysfunctional pancreatic islets and ciliated lung epithelium, making diabetic patients more prone to severe SARS-CoV-2 complications. However, the exact role of EXOC6/6B in pancreatic β-cell function and risk of T2D is not fully understood. Herein, microarray and RNA-sequencing (RNA-seq) expression data demonstrated the expression of EXOC6/6B in human pancreatic islets. Expression of EXOC6/6B was not affected by diabetes status. Exploration of the using the translational human pancreatic islet genotype tissue-expression resource portal (TIGER) revealed three genetic variants (rs947591, rs2488071 and rs2488073) in the EXOC6 gene that were associated (p < 2.5 × 10−20) with the risk of T2D. Exoc6/6b silencing in rat pancreatic β-cells (INS1-832/13) impaired insulin secretion, insulin content, exocytosis machinery and glucose uptake without cytotoxic effect. A significant decrease in the expression Ins1, Ins1, Pdx1, Glut2 and Vamp2 was observed in Exoc6/6b-silenced cells at the mRNA and protein levels. However, NeuroD1, Gck and InsR were not influenced compared to the negative control. In conclusion, our data propose that EXOC6/6B are crucial regulators for insulin secretion and exocytosis machinery in β-cells. This study identified several genetic variants in EXOC6 associated with the risk of T2D. Therefore, EXOC6/6B could provide a new potential target for therapy development or early biomarkers for T2D. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Human Anatomy and Pathophysiology)
Show Figures

Figure 1

8 pages, 1692 KiB  
Article
Analysis of the Common Femoral Artery and Vein: Anatomical Morphology, Vessel Relationship, and Factors Affecting Vessel Size
by Sang-hun Lee, Dong uk Yu, Tae kwon Kim, Jae-cheon Jeon, Sang chan Jin, Woo ik Choi and Jae ho Lee
Medicina 2022, 58(2), 325; https://doi.org/10.3390/medicina58020325 - 21 Feb 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2200
Abstract
Background and Objectives: We aimed to analyze the morphology of the common femoral artery (CFA) and common femoral vein (CFV) and the anatomical relationship between the two blood vessels, and to investigate the factors that influence the size of these blood vessels. [...] Read more.
Background and Objectives: We aimed to analyze the morphology of the common femoral artery (CFA) and common femoral vein (CFV) and the anatomical relationship between the two blood vessels, and to investigate the factors that influence the size of these blood vessels. Materials and Methods: This retrospective study included 584 patients who underwent abdominal and pelvic computed tomography from 1 February to 28 February 2021. We measured the vessels at three regions on both lower extremities (inguinal ligament, distal vessel bifurcation, midpoint) and analyzed and classified the degree of overlap between the CFA and CFV into three types, as well as the factors affecting vessel size. Results: After comparing the femoral vessels according to location, it was confirmed that the CFA and CFV were larger distally than proximally on both sides (p < 0.001). The degree of overlap increased distally (p < 0.001) but was less at the middle (p < 0.001) and distal (p = 0.011) regions on the right side. It was found that the size of CFA and CFV were related to age, sex, and body mass index (BMI) and that malignancy also affects the CFA size. Conclusions: The morphology of the CFA and CFV was conical and increased distally. The degree of overlap between the two blood vessels also increased distally but was less on the right than on the left. Age, sex, and BMI are significant factors affecting the sizes of the CFA and CFV, and malignancy is associated with the CFA size. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Human Anatomy and Pathophysiology)
Show Figures

Figure 1

5 pages, 1109 KiB  
Case Report
Tinnitus Associated with Mild Osteomyelitis of the Temporal Bone Reversed after Conservative Antibiotic Treatment: A Case Series
by Ping-Tao Tseng, Tien-Yu Chen, Chun-Chung Lui, Yen-Wen Chen and Jiann-Jy Chen
Medicina 2022, 58(2), 318; https://doi.org/10.3390/medicina58020318 - 20 Feb 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2198
Abstract
The symptomatology and diagnostic tools for osteomyelitis of the temporal bone have not been well documented. Diagnosis of early stage (i.e., mild form) osteomyelitis of the temporal bone may be delayed due to the limitations of traditional computed tomography’s (CT) imaging resolution. With [...] Read more.
The symptomatology and diagnostic tools for osteomyelitis of the temporal bone have not been well documented. Diagnosis of early stage (i.e., mild form) osteomyelitis of the temporal bone may be delayed due to the limitations of traditional computed tomography’s (CT) imaging resolution. With the advancement of high-resolution CT (HRCT) images, clinicians can now observe images that could not be observed with traditional CT imaging. In this neuro-image report, we present three patients with refractory/untreatable tinnitus. In their HRCT images, mild osteomyelitis of the temporal bone was revealed by mucosa thickening with bony sequestration of air cells, mild opacification of the air cells, and soft tissue density in the middle ear cavity, mild opacification, and bony sequestration attributed to mucosa thickening of the mastoid air cells (along with the cortical bone). All of the clinical presentations and findings in the pure tone audiometry of the reported patients improved after adequate antibiotic treatment. The current report highlights the potential benefit of HRCT to diagnose this in such patients. In addition, immediate and conservative antibiotic treatment is recommended for managing these patients shortly after the detection of mild osteomyelitis of the temporal bone. This treatment could reduce the risk of progression to the severe form. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Human Anatomy and Pathophysiology)
Show Figures

Figure 1

7 pages, 1492 KiB  
Case Report
Successful Resection of Retrobulbar Carcinosarcoma without Recurrence: A Case Report
by Chun-Hao Huang, Lung-Chi Lee, Hong-Wei Gao, Yi-Hao Chen and Ke-Hung Chien
Medicina 2022, 58(2), 317; https://doi.org/10.3390/medicina58020317 - 19 Feb 2022
Viewed by 2784
Abstract
Carcinosarcomas are biphasic tumors comprising carcinoma and sarcoma components that occur in many tissues but are rarely found in the orbit. A 70-year-old male presented to the ophthalmic clinic with progressive proptosis, having decreased vision in the left eye for 8 months. On [...] Read more.
Carcinosarcomas are biphasic tumors comprising carcinoma and sarcoma components that occur in many tissues but are rarely found in the orbit. A 70-year-old male presented to the ophthalmic clinic with progressive proptosis, having decreased vision in the left eye for 8 months. On examination, severe exophthalmos and lagophthalmos with limited extraocular movement were noted. Orbital computed tomography scans revealed a large, well-defined, heterogeneously enhanced mass in the left retrobulbar orbital cavity. The tumor was completely resected, and the pathological examination revealed a carcinosarcoma. The prognosis was excellent without local recurrence at 48 months postoperatively. Thus, when considering treatment for effective management of such tumors, tumor resection followed by radiotherapy or chemotherapy is highly recommended. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Human Anatomy and Pathophysiology)
Show Figures

Figure 1

5 pages, 4300 KiB  
Case Report
Curing Necrotic Angiodermatitis with an Intact Fish Skin Graft in a Patient Living with Diabetes
by Dured Dardari, Corinne Lequint, Anne Christine Jugnet, Tatiana Bénard, Marie Bouly and Alfred Penfornis
Medicina 2022, 58(2), 292; https://doi.org/10.3390/medicina58020292 - 15 Feb 2022
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 2507
Abstract
Background and Objectives: We describe a case of necrotic angiodermatitis. Materials and Methods: We used an intact fish skin graft to treat a patient living with diabetes, which was complicated by end-stage renal failure and arterial hypertension. The entire therapeutic procedure [...] Read more.
Background and Objectives: We describe a case of necrotic angiodermatitis. Materials and Methods: We used an intact fish skin graft to treat a patient living with diabetes, which was complicated by end-stage renal failure and arterial hypertension. The entire therapeutic procedure was carried out in ambulatory care without requiring the hospitalization of the patient. Results: The patient experienced a marked reduction in pain and complete epithelization of the lesion after 10 weeks of treatment. Conclusion: Our experience presents a new therapeutic approach to necrotic angiodermatitis. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Human Anatomy and Pathophysiology)
Show Figures

Figure 1

19 pages, 1861 KiB  
Review
UV Protection in the Cornea: Failure and Rescue
by Thomas Volatier, Björn Schumacher, Claus Cursiefen and Maria Notara
Biology 2022, 11(2), 278; https://doi.org/10.3390/biology11020278 - 10 Feb 2022
Cited by 11 | Viewed by 3687
Abstract
Ultraviolet (UV) irradiation induces DNA lesions in all directly exposed tissues. In the human body, two tissues are chronically exposed to UV: the skin and the cornea. The most frequent UV-induced DNA lesions are cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers (CPDs) that can lead to apoptosis [...] Read more.
Ultraviolet (UV) irradiation induces DNA lesions in all directly exposed tissues. In the human body, two tissues are chronically exposed to UV: the skin and the cornea. The most frequent UV-induced DNA lesions are cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers (CPDs) that can lead to apoptosis or induce tumorigenesis. Lacking the protective pigmentation of the skin, the transparent cornea is particularly dependent on nucleotide excision repair (NER) to remove UV-induced DNA lesions. The DNA damage response also triggers intracellular autophagy mechanisms to remove damaged material in the cornea; these mechanisms are poorly understood despite their noted involvement in UV-related diseases. Therapeutic solutions involving xenogenic DNA-repair enzymes such as T4 endonuclease V or photolyases exist and are widely distributed for dermatological use. The corneal field lacks a similar set of tools to address DNA-lesions in photovulnerable patients, such as those with genetic disorders or recently transplanted tissue. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Human Anatomy and Pathophysiology)
Show Figures

Figure 1

8 pages, 35462 KiB  
Case Report
Acute Respiratory Failure, Ischemic Modifications on Electrocardiogram: Alternative Etiology—A Case of Morgagni Hernia
by Agnes Zsuzsánna Szász, Enikő Dalma Székely-Vass, Gyopár Tunde Lovász, Annamária Magdás and Loránd Jozsef Ferencz
Medicina 2022, 58(2), 204; https://doi.org/10.3390/medicina58020204 - 28 Jan 2022
Viewed by 2551
Abstract
We discovered a rare pathology described in adulthood, followed by the development of a long asymptomatic evolution, which underlined the importance of multidisciplinary collaboration. We present the case of a 62-year-old female smoker patient, with a known previous medical history of chronic ischemic [...] Read more.
We discovered a rare pathology described in adulthood, followed by the development of a long asymptomatic evolution, which underlined the importance of multidisciplinary collaboration. We present the case of a 62-year-old female smoker patient, with a known previous medical history of chronic ischemic heart disease, hypertension, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), gastric ulcer and gastritis. The patient was rushed to the emergency room (ER) with acute respiratory failure, chest discomfort, ankle and facial edema and a chest X-ray showing a right lower pulmonary lobe consolidation, with an alarming ischemic electrocardiogram (ECG) modification without increasing myocardial cytolysis indicators. This led our medical team to investigate a possible cardiovascular event that might have been in development. After immediate admission, thoracic computer tomography (CT) imaging was carried out, which found a Morgagni diaphragmatic hernia, containing adipose tissue and the hepatic flexure of the colon with approximate dimensions of 50/100 mm. We faced differential diagnostic problems. We knew the subject’s existing cardiac and chronic respiratory tract pathologies from their previous medical history; therefore, multiple investigations and check-ups were carried out. A chest CT and surgery intervention were needed to resolve this case. Subsequently, the acute respiratory failure and alarming ischemic ECG modification disappeared. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Human Anatomy and Pathophysiology)
Show Figures

Figure 1

10 pages, 1351 KiB  
Article
Kinematic Relations during Double Support Phase in Parkinsonian Gait
by Ondřej Sitek, Miriam Kalichová, Petr Hedbávný, Tomáš Boušek and Marek Baláž
Appl. Sci. 2022, 12(3), 949; https://doi.org/10.3390/app12030949 - 18 Jan 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1697
Abstract
The gait of Parkinson’s disease (PD) patients is shuffling, slow, and hesitant. We investigated peculiar gait relations during the double support phase (DSP) in PD patients and healthy controls. We used 3D motion capture (SIMI) to collect kinematic parameters of the natural gait [...] Read more.
The gait of Parkinson’s disease (PD) patients is shuffling, slow, and hesitant. We investigated peculiar gait relations during the double support phase (DSP) in PD patients and healthy controls. We used 3D motion capture (SIMI) to collect kinematic parameters of the natural gait of 11 PD patients (Hoehn and Yahr 2–3, 5 females, 6 males) tested on medication and the same-sized control sample (5 females, 6 males). The difference between groups was evaluated by the Mann-Whitney U test; for target parameters, the Spearman correlation was computed. Compared to the controls, the Parkinsonian step length index was significantly smaller (0.27 vs. 0.35, p < 0.05), step width index higher (0.12 vs. 0.09, p < 0.05), and the DSP duration was extended (0.165 s vs. 0.13 s, p < 0.05), whereas the single support phase was shortened (0.38 s vs. 0.4 s, p < 0.05). The Parkinsonians were faster during DSP initiation and slower during DSP termination (0.908 m·s−1 vs. 0.785 m·s−1, p < 0.05); the Parkinsonian speed was more constant. The patients showed significantly decreased range of motion (ROM) in the hip, ankle, and shoulder and adopted straighter posture during the gait. Understanding gait concatenations can update physiotherapy approaches to target the roots of movement problems instead of the consequences. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Human Anatomy and Pathophysiology)
Show Figures

Figure 1

30 pages, 814 KiB  
Review
Targeting Ocular Drug Delivery: An Examination of Local Anatomy and Current Approaches
by Emily Dosmar, Julia Walsh, Michael Doyel, Katlynn Bussett, Adekite Oladipupo, Sabri Amer and Katherine Goebel
Bioengineering 2022, 9(1), 41; https://doi.org/10.3390/bioengineering9010041 - 17 Jan 2022
Cited by 27 | Viewed by 6638
Abstract
Ocular drug delivery remains the focus of much modern research. Primary routes of administration include the surface, the intravitreal space, the subretinal space, and the subconjunctival space, each with its own series of unique challenges, limitations, and advantages. Each of these approaches requires [...] Read more.
Ocular drug delivery remains the focus of much modern research. Primary routes of administration include the surface, the intravitreal space, the subretinal space, and the subconjunctival space, each with its own series of unique challenges, limitations, and advantages. Each of these approaches requires careful consideration of the local anatomy, physical barriers, and key cells as well as the interface between the anatomy and the drug or drug system being delivered. While least invasive, the topical route poses a challenge with the many physical barriers that prevent drug penetration into the eye; while injection into the intravitreal, subretinal, and subconjunctival spaces are direct and targeted but limited due to the many internal clearance mechanisms and potential for damage to the eye. Polymeric-based, sustained-release drug delivery systems have been identified as a potential solution to many of these challenges; however, the design and successful implementation of a sustained-release system that is well-tolerated, bioactive, biocompatible, and degradable remains, in many cases, only in the early stages. The drugs and biomaterials in question also require special attention as small chemical changes could result in vastly different outcomes. This paper explores the anatomy and key cells of these four primary drug delivery routes as well as the interface between drug and drug delivery systems and the anatomy, reviewing the recent developments and current state of research in each area. Finally, this paper also examines the frequently used drugs and biomaterials found in ocular drug delivery and summarizes the primary interactions observed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Human Anatomy and Pathophysiology)
Show Figures

Figure 1

7 pages, 2244 KiB  
Case Report
Surgical and Anatomic Consideration in Endoscopic Dacryocystorhinostomy of a Patient with Damaged Sinonasal Anatomy Post–Caldwell-Luc Surgery: A Case Report
by Chia-Chen Hsu, Lung-Chi Lee, Bo-I Kuo, Che-Jui Lee and Fang-Yu Liu
Medicina 2022, 58(1), 78; https://doi.org/10.3390/medicina58010078 - 5 Jan 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 3556
Abstract
Background: The Caldwell-Luc (CL) procedure, an outdated operative procedure that is used to treat inflammatory sinus diseases, is rarely performed presently. However, physicians may encounter patients with a history of CL surgery who develop considerable postoperative changes that may lead to diagnostic confusion [...] Read more.
Background: The Caldwell-Luc (CL) procedure, an outdated operative procedure that is used to treat inflammatory sinus diseases, is rarely performed presently. However, physicians may encounter patients with a history of CL surgery who develop considerable postoperative changes that may lead to diagnostic confusion in imaging evaluation; increase the difficulty of future surgery, such as sinonasal surgery; and increase the incidence of future intraoperative complications. Case summary: A 67-year-old man with a surgical history of chronic sinusitis reported epiphora of the left eye for five years. Balloon dacryocystoplasty was attempted but failed. Endo-DCR (Endoscopic dacryocystorhinostomy) was indicated; however, preoperative CT (computed tomography) imaging and nasal endoscopic examination showed sinonasal anomalies and the loss of internal landmarks for localizing the lacrimal sac. Preoperative CT results indicated previous CL surgery. Endo-DCR was performed with the aid of nasal forceps and a 20-gauge vitreoretinal fiberoptic endoilluminator. A six-month follow-up revealed the complete resolution of symptoms and no signs of recurrence. Conclusions: Epiphora might be a delayed complication of the CL procedure. Before performing endo-DCR, ophthalmologists should be familiar with the sinonasal anatomy and carefully assess preoperative imaging to identify anatomical variations. Nasal forceps and transcanalicular illumination can assist in determining the precise location of the lacrimal sac during endo-DCR. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Human Anatomy and Pathophysiology)
Show Figures

Figure 1

16 pages, 2766 KiB  
Article
The Effects of Six-Month Subalpine Training on the Physical Functions and Athletic Performance of Elite Chinese Cross-Country Skiers
by Zhihong Sun, Yan Zhang, Datao Xu, Yaqi Fei, Qiner Qiu and Yaodong Gu
Appl. Sci. 2022, 12(1), 421; https://doi.org/10.3390/app12010421 - 2 Jan 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1783
Abstract
Purpose: This study investigated the changes in the blood indices, specific athletic abilities, and physical fitness of outstanding cross-country skiers, trained in the subalpine; Methods: Twenty-eight athletes (twenty males and eight females) from the National Cross-country Ski Training Team completed sub-alpine training during [...] Read more.
Purpose: This study investigated the changes in the blood indices, specific athletic abilities, and physical fitness of outstanding cross-country skiers, trained in the subalpine; Methods: Twenty-eight athletes (twenty males and eight females) from the National Cross-country Ski Training Team completed sub-alpine training during the 2020–2021 snow season. The athletes′ physical functions were evaluated by collecting blood from elbow veins and measuring blood biochemical indexes. To compare the treadmill roller-skiing athletic ability and physical fitness of athletes before and after subalpine; Results: Male and female athletes showed different trends in red blood cells (RBC), hemoglobin (Hb), cortisol (C), Creatine Kinase (CK) and blood urea (BU) (p < 0.05 or p < 0.01). Overall, the female athletes’ mean values of RBC, Hb, CK, and BU were lower than that of male athletes, while C was just the opposite. Comparing the athletic performance of athletes before and after the subalpine, it was found that blood lactate concentrations were significantly lower in both male and female athletes at the same load intensity (p < 0.05 or p < 0.01), whereas 10 km endurance running and 1 RM deep squat were significantly higher in both male and female athletes (p < 0.05 or p < 0.01). Conclusions: After 6 months of subalpine training, cross-country skiers improved their oxygen-carrying capacity and anabolism, and showed significant improvements in specific athletic ability, physical endurance, acid tolerance and 1 RM absolute strength for both male and female athletes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Human Anatomy and Pathophysiology)
Show Figures

Figure 1

5 pages, 18293 KiB  
Case Report
Fracture of the Bone Inducing Its Necrosis as the End Point in the Evolution of Untreated Neuroarthropathy
by Dured Dardari and Alfred Penfornis
Medicina 2022, 58(1), 11; https://doi.org/10.3390/medicina58010011 - 22 Dec 2021
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2395
Abstract
We describe here the case of a female patient with type I diabetes who developed active Charcot neuroarthropathy in the foot. Due to therapeutic noncompliance, talus necrosis was discovered 2 years after the presentation of neuroarthropathy. The impact of untreated neuroarthropathy on the [...] Read more.
We describe here the case of a female patient with type I diabetes who developed active Charcot neuroarthropathy in the foot. Due to therapeutic noncompliance, talus necrosis was discovered 2 years after the presentation of neuroarthropathy. The impact of untreated neuroarthropathy on the bone is commonly described as fracture and joint dislocation, but we describe the complete disappearance of the bony structure and its necrosis associated with active neuroarthropathy in a patient who refused offloading. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Human Anatomy and Pathophysiology)
Show Figures

Figure 1

7 pages, 924 KiB  
Article
Small Fiber Neuropathy in Sarcoidosis
by Natalia Gavrilova, Anna Starshinova, Yulia Zinchenko, Dmitry Kudlay, Valeria Shapkina, Anna Malkova, Ekaterina Belyaeva, Maria Pavlova, Piotr Yablonskiy and Yehuda Shoenfeld
Pathophysiology 2021, 28(4), 544-550; https://doi.org/10.3390/pathophysiology28040035 - 20 Dec 2021
Cited by 13 | Viewed by 4101
Abstract
Sarcoidosis (SC) is a granulomatous disease of an unknown origin. The most common SC-related neurological complication is a small fiber neuropathy (SFN) that is often considered to be the result of chronic inflammation and remains significantly understudied. This study aimed to identify the [...] Read more.
Sarcoidosis (SC) is a granulomatous disease of an unknown origin. The most common SC-related neurological complication is a small fiber neuropathy (SFN) that is often considered to be the result of chronic inflammation and remains significantly understudied. This study aimed to identify the clinical and histological correlates of small fiber neuropathy in sarcoidosis patients. The study was performed in 2018–2019 yy and included 50 patients with pulmonary sarcoidosis (n = 25) and healthy subjects (n = 25). For the clinical verification of the SFN, the “Small Fiber Neuropathy Screening List” (SFN-SL) was used. A punch biopsy of the skin was performed followed by enzyme immunoassay analysis with PGP 9.5 antibodies. Up to 60% of the sarcoidosis patients reported the presence of at least one complaint, and it was possible that these complaints were associated with SFN. The most frequent complaints included dysfunctions of the cardiovascular and musculoskeletal systems and the gastrointestinal tract. A negative, statistically significant correlation between the intraepidermal nerve fiber density (IEND) and SFN-SL score was revealed. In patients with pulmonary sarcoidosis, small fiber neuropathy might develop as a result of systemic immune-mediated inflammation. The most common symptoms of this complication were dysautonomia and mild sensory dysfunction. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Human Anatomy and Pathophysiology)
Show Figures

Figure 1

14 pages, 509 KiB  
Article
A New Criterion for Fluoroquinolone-Associated Disability Diagnosis: Functional Gastrointestinal Disorders
by Deanna N. Cannizzaro, Lydia F. Naughton, Maya Z. Freeman, Linda Martin, Charles L. Bennett and Cecilia Bove
Medicina 2021, 57(12), 1371; https://doi.org/10.3390/medicina57121371 - 16 Dec 2021
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 5739
Abstract
Background and Objectives: Fluoroquinolones (FQs) are a broad-spectrum class of antibiotics routinely prescribed for common bacterial infections despite recent recommendations to use them only for life-threatening cases. In addition to their antimicrobial properties, FQs act in the central nervous system as GABAA [...] Read more.
Background and Objectives: Fluoroquinolones (FQs) are a broad-spectrum class of antibiotics routinely prescribed for common bacterial infections despite recent recommendations to use them only for life-threatening cases. In addition to their antimicrobial properties, FQs act in the central nervous system as GABAA receptor inhibitors, which could potentially affect functionality of the vagus nerve at the forefront of gastrointestinal (GI) tract function. Alterations in neural control of digestion have been shown to be linked to Functional Gastrointestinal Disorders (FGIDs), which are usually diagnosed based on self-reported symptoms. The aim of this study was to assess the incidence of FGIDs following FQ use. Materials and Methods: Self-reports from the FDA Adverse Event Reporting System were analyzed together with ~300 survey responses from a social network derived sample to the Bowel Disease Questionnaire. Results: The results of this study suggested that six different FQs are associated with a wide range of GI symptoms not currently reported in the drugs’ labels. The responses from the survey suggested that ~70% of FQ users scored positive for FGID, with no positive correlation between drug type, duration of administration, dosage and frequency of administration. Conclusions: This study showed that GI disorders other than nausea, vomiting and diarrhea are more common than currently reported on the drug labels, and that FGIDs are possibly a common consequence of FQ use even after single use. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Human Anatomy and Pathophysiology)
Show Figures

Figure 1

21 pages, 5102 KiB  
Article
In Vitro Model for Simulating Drug Delivery during Balloon-Occluded Transarterial Chemoembolization
by Jorge Aramburu, Raúl Antón, Junichi Fukamizu, Daiki Nozawa, Makoto Takahashi, Kouji Ozaki, Juan Carlos Ramos, Bruno Sangro, José Ignacio Bilbao, Kosuke Tomita, Tomohiro Matsumoto and Terumitsu Hasebe
Biology 2021, 10(12), 1341; https://doi.org/10.3390/biology10121341 - 16 Dec 2021
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 4076
Abstract
Background: Balloon-occluded transarterial chemoembolization (B-TACE) has emerged as a safe and effective procedure for patients with liver cancer, which is one of the deadliest types of cancer worldwide. B-TACE consist of the transcatheter intraarterial infusion of chemotherapeutic agents, followed by embolizing particles, and [...] Read more.
Background: Balloon-occluded transarterial chemoembolization (B-TACE) has emerged as a safe and effective procedure for patients with liver cancer, which is one of the deadliest types of cancer worldwide. B-TACE consist of the transcatheter intraarterial infusion of chemotherapeutic agents, followed by embolizing particles, and it is performed with a microballoon catheter that temporarily occludes a hepatic artery. B-TACE relies on the blood flow redistribution promoted by the balloon-occlusion. However, flow redistribution phenomenon is not yet well understood. Methods: This study aims to present a simple in vitro model (IVM) where B-TACE can be simulated. Results: By visually analyzing the results of various clinically-realistic experiments, the IVM allows for the understanding of balloon-occlusion-related hemodynamic changes and the importance of the occlusion site. Conclusion: The IVM can be used as an educational tool to help clinicians better understand B-TACE treatments. This IVM could also serve as a base for a more sophisticated IVM to be used as a research tool. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Human Anatomy and Pathophysiology)
Show Figures

Figure 1

12 pages, 1900 KiB  
Article
Molecular Proof of a Clinical Concept: Expression of Estrogen Alpha-, Beta-Receptors and G Protein-Coupled Estrogen Receptor 1 (GPER) in Histologically Assessed Common Nevi, Dysplastic Nevi and Melanomas
by Magdalena Spałkowska, Grzegorz Dyduch, Elżbieta Broniatowska, Giovanni Damiani and Anna Wojas-Pelc
Medicina 2021, 57(11), 1228; https://doi.org/10.3390/medicina57111228 - 11 Nov 2021
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 2104
Abstract
Background and Objectives: Epidemiologic data show significant differences in melanoma incidence and outcomes between sexes. The role of hormonal receptors in the pathogenesis of melanocytic lesions remains unclear, thus we performed this study aiming to assess estrogen receptors expression in different melanocytic lesions. [...] Read more.
Background and Objectives: Epidemiologic data show significant differences in melanoma incidence and outcomes between sexes. The role of hormonal receptors in the pathogenesis of melanocytic lesions remains unclear, thus we performed this study aiming to assess estrogen receptors expression in different melanocytic lesions. Materials and Methods: We performed a cross-sectional study that included 73 consecutively excised melanocytic lesions. Estrogen receptor alpha (ERα), beta (ERβ), and G-protein coupled estrogen receptor (GPER) expression was analyzed in melanocytes and keratinocytes of common nevi, dysplastic nevi, melanoma, healthy skin margin, and in sebaceous and sweat gland cells. Results: ERβ expression was higher in dysplastic nevi margin melanocytes compared to common nevi (p = 0.046) and in dysplastic nevi keratinocytes compared to melanoma keratinocytes (p = 0.021). ERβ expression was significantly higher in margin melanocytes compared to melanoma melanocytes (p = 0.009). No difference in ERβ expression was shown between melanocytes of three types of lesions. GPER expression was higher in nuclei and cytoplasm of dysplastic nevi (p = 0.02 and p = 0.036 respectively) and at the margin compared to melanoma. GPER expression was lower in sebaceous glands of tissue surrounding common nevi (p = 0.025) compared to dysplastic nevi. GPER expression was higher in skin margin tissue melanocytes (p = 0.016 nuclear, p = 0.029 cytoplasmic) compared to melanoma melanocytes. There were no differences in ERα expression between the melanocytic lesions. Conclusion: Further large-scale studies are warranted to investigate the potential role of ERβ and GPER in the pathogenesis of melanocytic lesions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Human Anatomy and Pathophysiology)
Show Figures

Figure 1

10 pages, 2209 KiB  
Article
Accessory Ossicles in the Region of the Foot and Ankle: An Epidemiologic Survey in a Jordanian Population
by Heba Kalbouneh, Omar Alajoulin, Jamil Shawaqfeh, Ayman Mustafa, Shehab Jaber, Shaima’ Zaben, Ja’far Zapen and Mohammad Alsalem
Medicina 2021, 57(11), 1178; https://doi.org/10.3390/medicina57111178 - 29 Oct 2021
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 5538
Abstract
Background and Objectives: The incidence of accessory bones in the region of foot and ankle is quite variable between studies and are often confused with avulsion fractures in trauma patients with musculoskeletal injuries. The aim of this study was to assess the [...] Read more.
Background and Objectives: The incidence of accessory bones in the region of foot and ankle is quite variable between studies and are often confused with avulsion fractures in trauma patients with musculoskeletal injuries. The aim of this study was to assess the incidence of accessory ossicles of the foot and ankle according to gender, side and coexistence, and to determine how frequently accessory ossicles were misdiagnosed as avulsion fractures. Materials and Methods: Oblique and/or lateral foot radiographs of 1000 adult patients referred from emergency departments to foot and ankle clinic were retrospectively reviewed for the presence of accessory ossicles. The Kappa statistic was used in order to assess the validity of radiographic interpretation for the presence of these bones. Results: Accessory ossicles were detected in 40.2% of the radiographs. The incidence rates for the accessory ossicles in order of frequency were: Os trigonum (15.4%), accessory navicular (13.7%), os peroneum (11.5%), os vesalianum (1.1%), os supranaviculare (0.7%), os subfibulare (0.6%), os talotibiale (0.4%), os calcaneus secundarius (0.3%), os supratalare (0.3%), os infranaviculare (0.3%), os intermetatarseum (0.2%), and os subtibiale (0.1%). Coexistence of two or three ossicles in the same foot was observed in 4.4% of the cases, mostly coexistence with os peroneum (2.9%), followed by accessory navicular (1.6%). 2.7% of accessory ossicles were initially misdiagnosed as avulsion fractures at emergency departments. Interrater agreement over identification of different accessory ossicles was found to be reasonably reliable, with a Kappa greater than 0.80 for all assessed bones. Conclusions: In clinical practice, a thorough knowledge of normal anatomical variants is essential to facilitate appropriate diagnosis and treatment and can help to prevent diagnostic errors. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Human Anatomy and Pathophysiology)
Show Figures

Figure 1

18 pages, 1950 KiB  
Review
Understanding the Role of Fibroblasts following a 3D Tumoroid Implantation for Breast Tumor Formation
by Girdhari Rijal
Bioengineering 2021, 8(11), 163; https://doi.org/10.3390/bioengineering8110163 - 27 Oct 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 3258
Abstract
An understanding of the participation and modulation of fibroblasts during tumor formation and growth is still unclear. Among many speculates, one might be the technical challenge to reveal the versatile function of fibroblasts in tissue complexity, and another is the dynamics in tissue [...] Read more.
An understanding of the participation and modulation of fibroblasts during tumor formation and growth is still unclear. Among many speculates, one might be the technical challenge to reveal the versatile function of fibroblasts in tissue complexity, and another is the dynamics in tissue physiology and cell activity. The histology of most solid tumors shows a predominant presence of fibroblasts, suggesting that tumor cells recruit fibroblasts for breast tumor growth. In this review paper, therefore, the migration, activation, differentiation, secretion, and signaling systems that are associated with fibroblasts and cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAFs) after implantation of a breast tumoroid, i.e., a lab-generated tumor tissue into an animal, are discussed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Human Anatomy and Pathophysiology)
Show Figures

Figure 1

13 pages, 1193 KiB  
Article
Comparison of the Efficacy of Dextrose Prolotherapy and Ozone in Patients with Knee Osteoarthritis: A Randomized Cross-Sectional Study
by Fatih Baygutalp, Mine Çelik, Muhammet Uğur Öztürk, Ahmet Murat Yayık and Ali Ahıskalıoğlu
Appl. Sci. 2021, 11(21), 9991; https://doi.org/10.3390/app11219991 - 26 Oct 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 3545
Abstract
This study aimed to compare the effectiveness of dextrose prolotherapy, ozone therapy, and home exercise programs in patients with knee osteoarthritis. Seventy-five patients with knee osteoarthritis were divided into three groups, with 25 in each group. At week 0 (baseline), week 3, and [...] Read more.
This study aimed to compare the effectiveness of dextrose prolotherapy, ozone therapy, and home exercise programs in patients with knee osteoarthritis. Seventy-five patients with knee osteoarthritis were divided into three groups, with 25 in each group. At week 0 (baseline), week 3, and week 6, 12.5% dextrose (intraarticular and periarticular) was administered to the dextrose prolotherapy group. At week 0 (baseline), week 1, and week 2 15 μg/mL ozone (intraarticular and periarticular) was administered to the ozone therapy group. Both groups were also given a home exercise program. The third group was given a home-based exercise therapy program for 12 weeks. All groups were evaluated for VAS, WOMAC, TUG, ROM-active, and ROM-passive values at weeks 0 (baseline), 6, and 12. Ozone therapy more effectively improved VAS scores than dextrose prolotherapy and VAS and WOMAC scores than home-based exercise therapy in the 6th week. Ozone therapy also more effectively improved VAS and WOMAC-stiffness scores than dextrose prolotherapy and VAS, WOMAC, and ROM-active scores than home-based exercise therapy in the 12th week. Both dextrose prolotherapy and ozone therapy are effective in knee osteoarthritis treatment. Ozone therapy should be used in suitable cases rather than dextrose prolotherapy. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Human Anatomy and Pathophysiology)
Show Figures

Figure 1

8 pages, 22791 KiB  
Case Report
Bilateral Proximal Tibiofibular Synostosis Caused by Osteochondroma in a 21-Year-Old Highly Active Male—First in Literature
by Lorenz Pisecky, Gerhard Großbötzl, Stella Stevoska, Christian Stadler, Maximilian Ziernhöld, Petar Noack, Tobias Gotterbarm and Matthias Luger
Medicina 2021, 57(10), 1126; https://doi.org/10.3390/medicina57101126 - 18 Oct 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 3301
Abstract
Background and Objectives: Up until now, only one case of unilateral proximal tibiofibular synostosis caused by osteochondroma has been reported. This report is the first well-documented bilateral case of proximal tibiofibular synostosis caused by an osteochondroma. Case Report: A 21-year-old, highly [...] Read more.
Background and Objectives: Up until now, only one case of unilateral proximal tibiofibular synostosis caused by osteochondroma has been reported. This report is the first well-documented bilateral case of proximal tibiofibular synostosis caused by an osteochondroma. Case Report: A 21-year-old, highly active male patient with bilateral proximal tibiofibular synostosis caused by an osteochondroma suffering from persistent knee pain is presented. As conservative methods had failed, the patient was treated by bilateral open resection of the connecting bone. Histopathological findings confirmed the preoperative diagnosis. The patient returned to sports three weeks after surgery and continued soccer training six weeks after surgery. Discussion: The case report presents the successful treatment of a bilateral proximal tibiofibular synostosis caused by an osteochondroma by bilateral open resection of the connecting bone. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Human Anatomy and Pathophysiology)
Show Figures

Figure 1

13 pages, 959 KiB  
Article
Bitter Taste Disrupts Spatial Discrimination of Piperine-Evoked Burning Sensations: A Pilot Study
by David T. Liu, Gerold Besser, Karina Bayer, Bernhard Prem, Christian A. Mueller and Bertold Renner
Biology 2021, 10(9), 886; https://doi.org/10.3390/biology10090886 - 8 Sep 2021
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2240
Abstract
This study aimed to investigate the perceptual similarity between piperine-induced burning sensations and bitter taste using piperine-impregnated taste strips (PTS). This pilot study included 42 healthy participants. PTS of six ascending concentrations (1 mg, 5 mg, 10 mg, 15 mg, 20 mg, and [...] Read more.
This study aimed to investigate the perceptual similarity between piperine-induced burning sensations and bitter taste using piperine-impregnated taste strips (PTS). This pilot study included 42 healthy participants. PTS of six ascending concentrations (1 mg, 5 mg, 10 mg, 15 mg, 20 mg, and 25 mg piperine/dL 96% ethanol) were presented at the anterior tongue, and participants rated perceived intensity and duration. Then, participants performed a spatial discrimination task in which they had to report which of the two strips presented to the anterior tongue contained an irritating stimulus when one strip was always a PTS while the other strip was impregnated with either a single taste quality (sweet or bitter) or a blank strip. Repeated measures one-way ANOVA revealed that burning sensations of higher concentrated PTS were perceived more intense and more prolonged compared to lower concentrated PTS. McNemar’s test showed that PTS were identified correctly significantly less often when presented with bitter strips compared to when presented with blank (p = 0.002) or sweet strips (p = 0.017). Our results showed that bitter taste disrupts the spatial discrimination of piperine-evoked burning sensations. PTS might serve as a basis for further studies on disease-specific patterns in chemosensory disorders. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Human Anatomy and Pathophysiology)
Show Figures

Figure 1

13 pages, 702 KiB  
Review
Neuroinflammation in Autism and Supplementation Based on Omega-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids: A Narrative Review
by Aleksandra Veselinović, Snježana Petrović, Vladica Žikić, Miško Subotić, Vladimir Jakovljević, Nevena Jeremić and Vesna Vučić
Medicina 2021, 57(9), 893; https://doi.org/10.3390/medicina57090893 - 28 Aug 2021
Cited by 13 | Viewed by 6963
Abstract
Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) is a complex neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by persistent deficits in social communication and social interaction across multiple contexts and restricted, repetitive patterns of behavior, interests and activities. The maternal status of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) regulates microglial activity and [...] Read more.
Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) is a complex neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by persistent deficits in social communication and social interaction across multiple contexts and restricted, repetitive patterns of behavior, interests and activities. The maternal status of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) regulates microglial activity and neuroinflammatory pathways during a child’s brain development. In children with ASD, the metabolism of PUFA is thought to be deficient or abnormal, leading to increased production of proinflammatory cytokines, increased oxidative stress and an imbalance in the formation and action of neurotransmitters. In addition, nutritional deficits in omega-3 PUFA may affect gut microbiota and contribute to ASD by the gut–brain axis. The aim of this study was to review the possible role of neuroinflammation in ASD development and the effect of omega-3 PUFA supplementation in children with ASD. Due to a wide heterogeneity across RCTs, no definitive conclusion about omega-3 PUFA effects in ASD can be drawn. Supplementation with PUFA could be considered as one of the aspects in regulating the biological status of the organism and could provide added value to standard medical and psychological interventions for reducing behavioral deficits. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Human Anatomy and Pathophysiology)
Show Figures

Figure 1

12 pages, 2764 KiB  
Article
Reduced External Iliac Venous Blood Flow Rate Is Associated with Asymptomatic Compression of the Common Iliac Veins
by Yuan-Hsi Tseng, Chien-Wei Chen, Min-Yi Wong, Teng-Yao Yang, Yu-Hui Lin, Bor-Shyh Lin and Yao-Kuang Huang
Medicina 2021, 57(8), 835; https://doi.org/10.3390/medicina57080835 - 18 Aug 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2905
Abstract
Background and Objectives: Compression of the common iliac veins (CIV) is not always associated with lower extremity symptoms. This study analyzed this issue from the perspective of patient venous blood flow changes using quantitative flow magnetic resonance imaging. Materials and Methods: After we [...] Read more.
Background and Objectives: Compression of the common iliac veins (CIV) is not always associated with lower extremity symptoms. This study analyzed this issue from the perspective of patient venous blood flow changes using quantitative flow magnetic resonance imaging. Materials and Methods: After we excluded patients with active deep vein thrombosis, the mean flux (MF) and mean velocity (MV) of the popliteal vein, femoral vein, and external iliac vein (EIV) were compared between the left and right sides. Results: Overall, 26 of the patients had unilateral CIV compression, of which 16 patients had symptoms. No significant differences were noted in the MF or MV of the veins between the two sides. However, for the 10 patients without symptoms, the EIV MF of the compression side was significantly lower than the EIV MF of the non-compression side (p = 0.04). The receiver operating characteristic curve and chi-squared analyses showed that when the percentage difference of EIV MF between the compression and non-compression sides was ≤−18.5%, the relative risk of associated lower extremity symptoms was 0.44 (p = 0.016). Conclusions: If a person has compression of the CIV, a decrease in EIV blood flow rate on the compression side reduces the rate of symptom occurrence. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Human Anatomy and Pathophysiology)
Show Figures

Figure 1

13 pages, 1844 KiB  
Article
Preference and Demand for Digital Pathology and Computer-Aided Diagnosis among Korean Pathologists: A Survey Study Focused on Prostate Needle Biopsy
by Soo Jeong Nam, Yosep Chong, Chan Kwon Jung, Tae-Yeong Kwak, Ji Youl Lee, Jihwan Park, Mi Jung Rho and Heounjeong Go
Appl. Sci. 2021, 11(16), 7380; https://doi.org/10.3390/app11167380 - 11 Aug 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1890
Abstract
Digital pathology systems (DPSs) have been globally implemented, and computer-assisted diagnosis (CAD) software has been actively developed in recent years. This study aimed to investigate perceptions of digital pathology and the demand for CAD. An online survey involving members of the Korean Society [...] Read more.
Digital pathology systems (DPSs) have been globally implemented, and computer-assisted diagnosis (CAD) software has been actively developed in recent years. This study aimed to investigate perceptions of digital pathology and the demand for CAD. An online survey involving members of the Korean Society of Pathologists was conducted, and a demonstration clip of the diagnostic assistant software for a prostate needle biopsy was shown to them to provide a simple experience with CAD. One hundred sixty-four Korean pathologists (13.6% of 1210 Korean pathologists) participated. The majority (77.4%) answered affirmatively regarding the necessity of implementing a DPS, and 26.8% had plans to implement or increase the use of DPSs in the following 2–3 years at their medical institutions. Pathologists felt that multidisciplinary care or conference accessibility (56.7%), remote consultation (49.4%), and big data building (32.9%) were useful parts of DPSs. Most pathologists (81.7%) responded that CAD software would assist with the diagnostic process. In a prostate needle biopsy, pathologists used the software to improve the measurement of tumor volume and/or length and core length but not to suggest a diagnostic name or Gleason grade. Korean pathologists who participated in the survey had highly positive perceptions of digital pathology and maintained a positive attitude toward the use of CAD software. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Human Anatomy and Pathophysiology)
Show Figures

Figure 1

10 pages, 3319 KiB  
Article
Cor Triatriatum Sinistrum Combined with Changes in Atrial Septum and Right Atrium in a 60-Year-Old Woman
by Horst Claassen, Christian Busch, Matthias Stefan May, Martin Schicht, Michael Scholz, Marko Schulze, Friedrich Paulsen and Andreas Wree
Medicina 2021, 57(8), 777; https://doi.org/10.3390/medicina57080777 - 30 Jul 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2247
Abstract
Background and Objectives: A rare case of cor triatriatum sinistrum in combination with anomalies in the atrial septum and in the right atrium of a 60-year-old female body donor is described here. Materials and Methods: In addition to classical dissection, ultrasound [...] Read more.
Background and Objectives: A rare case of cor triatriatum sinistrum in combination with anomalies in the atrial septum and in the right atrium of a 60-year-old female body donor is described here. Materials and Methods: In addition to classical dissection, ultrasound and magnetic resonance imaging, computer tomography and cinematic rendering were performed. In a reference series of 59 regularly formed hearts (33 men, 26 women), we looked for features in the left and right atrium or atrial septum. In addition, we measured the atrial and ventricular wall thickness in 15 regularly formed hearts (7 men, 8 women). Results: In the case described, the left atrium was partly divided into two chambers by an intra-atrial membrane penetrated by two small openings. The 2.5 cm-high membrane originated in the upper level of the oval fossa and left an opening of about 4 cm in diameter. Apparently, the membrane did not lead to a functionally significant flow obstruction due to the broad intra-atrial communication between the proximal and distal chamber of the left atrium. In concordance with this fact, left atrial wall thickness was not elevated in the cor triatriatum sinistrum when compared with 15 regularly formed hearts. In addition, two further anomalies were found: 1. the oval fossa was deepened and arched in the direction of the left atrium; 2. the right atrium showed a membrane-like structure at its posterior and lateral walls, which began at the lower edge of the oval fossa. It probably corresponds to a strongly developed eustachian valve (valve of the inferior vena cava). Conclusions: The case described suggests that malformations in the development of the atrial septum and in the regression of the valve of the right sinus vein are involved in the pathogenesis of cor triatriatum sinistrum. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Human Anatomy and Pathophysiology)
Show Figures

Figure 1

12 pages, 1131 KiB  
Article
Quantitative Assessment of Choroidal Parameters in Patients with Various Types of Diabetic Macular Oedema: A Single-Centre Cross-Sectional Analysis
by Diana Anna Dmuchowska, Patryk Sidorczuk, Barbara Pieklarz, Joanna Konopińska, Zofia Mariak and Iwona Obuchowska
Biology 2021, 10(8), 725; https://doi.org/10.3390/biology10080725 - 29 Jul 2021
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2083
Abstract
Diabetic macular oedema (DME) is an outcome of multiple, complex and not fully understood mechanisms. The aim of this study was to define the role of choroidopathy in the pathogenesis of various DME types. The retrospective cross-sectional single-centre study included 140 eyes from [...] Read more.
Diabetic macular oedema (DME) is an outcome of multiple, complex and not fully understood mechanisms. The aim of this study was to define the role of choroidopathy in the pathogenesis of various DME types. The retrospective cross-sectional single-centre study included 140 eyes from 105 patients with DME and 76 eyes from 52 non-diabetic controls. The eyes were stratified according to the type of DME: cystoid, diffuse, and with subretinal fluid. Optical coherence tomography-based choroidal parameters: thickness, volume, choroidal vascularity index (CVI), luminal area (LA), stromal area (SA), and total choroidal area (TCA) were compared. Eyes with DME, regardless of the type thereof, had lower choroidal thickness, volume, and CVI values than the controls. Further, the eyes with some specific DME types differed significantly from the controls in terms of LA and SA. While the eyes with various DME types did not differ significantly in terms of their choroidal thickness, volume and CVI, some between-group differences were found in LA, SA and TCA. Diabetic choroidopathy seems to play a role in the development of DME but is less likely involved in the pathogenesis of specific types thereof. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Human Anatomy and Pathophysiology)
Show Figures

Figure 1

10 pages, 1032 KiB  
Article
Testosterone Levels in Adolescents and Young Men with Type 1 Diabetes and Their Association with Diabetic Nephropathy
by Jeongwoo Kang, Han Saem Choi, Young Ha Choi, Jun Suk Oh, Kyungchul Song, Junghwan Suh, Ahreum Kwon, Ho-Seong Kim and Hyun Wook Chae
Biology 2021, 10(7), 615; https://doi.org/10.3390/biology10070615 - 2 Jul 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2770
Abstract
The association between serum testosterone levels and type 1 diabetes (T1D), especially in adolescents and young adults, has not been fully investigated. We aimed to compare testosterone levels between adolescents/young men with T1D and controls and to determine the factors affecting testosterone levels. [...] Read more.
The association between serum testosterone levels and type 1 diabetes (T1D), especially in adolescents and young adults, has not been fully investigated. We aimed to compare testosterone levels between adolescents/young men with T1D and controls and to determine the factors affecting testosterone levels. We enrolled 47 men with T1D and 32 controls aged 15–29 years. We evaluated anthropometric measurements, lipid profiles, diabetic complications, and levels of serum luteinizing hormone, follicle-stimulating hormone, hemoglobin A1c, 24-h urine albumin, insulin autoantibody, and total serum testosterone. We assessed the correlation between serum testosterone levels and clinical characteristics. Total testosterone levels were higher in T1D patients than in controls (694.6 ± 182.2 vs. 554.1 ± 147.3 ng/dL, p = 0.001), and 24-h urine albumin level positively correlated with total testosterone levels (correlation coefficient 0.415, p = 0.004). T1D patients with nephropathy showed higher total testosterone levels than those without nephropathy (778.4 ± 198.9 vs. 655.4 ± 162.5 ng/dL, p = 0.029). However, diabetic nephropathy and testosterone levels were not significantly associated after adjusting for confounders (β ± SE 77.5 ± 55.2, p = 0.169). Further longitudinal studies are imperative to confirm a causal relationship between testosterone levels and T1D. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Human Anatomy and Pathophysiology)
Show Figures

Figure 1

12 pages, 2195 KiB  
Case Report
Complications Following Masseteric Nerve Neurectomy with Radiofrequency for the Treatment of Temporomandibular Disorders—A Case Series and Literature Review
by Il-San Cho, Jung Hwan Jo and Ji Woon Park
Appl. Sci. 2021, 11(13), 5824; https://doi.org/10.3390/app11135824 - 23 Jun 2021
Viewed by 2092
Abstract
This article describes two cases of masseteric nerve neurectomy with radiofrequency done with the intention to treat temporomandibular disorders and related symptoms; the patients then visited our clinic complaining of side-effects after the procedure. A literature review was conducted to find scientific evidence [...] Read more.
This article describes two cases of masseteric nerve neurectomy with radiofrequency done with the intention to treat temporomandibular disorders and related symptoms; the patients then visited our clinic complaining of side-effects after the procedure. A literature review was conducted to find scientific evidence relevant to masseteric nerve neurectomy with radiofrequency. A 21-year-old male patient visited with the chief complaint of swelling of both cheeks, dizziness, and generalized lethargy occurring after masseteric nerve neurectomy using radiofrequency. His mouth opening range was restricted. Magnetic resonance imaging indicated post-procedural inflammation with hemorrhage within both masseter muscles. A 28-year-old male patient visited with the chief complaint of occlusal discomfort and disocclusion after masseteric nerve neurectomy using radiofrequency. His occlusion was abnormal with only both second molars occluding. Overbite was −1 mm. Cone-beam computed tomography indicated degenerative joint disease of both condyles. In case 1, pharmacotherapy and physical therapy relieved overall symptoms. In case 2, although exacerbation of symptoms repeatedly occurred, long-term stabilization splint and physical therapy alleviated the temporomandibular disorders symptoms. However, the occlusion remained unstable. Scientific evidence of masseteric nerve neurectomy using radiofrequency for the treatment of temporomandibular disorders is still lacking. Therefore, conservative treatment should remain as the first line approach for temporomandibular disorders. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Human Anatomy and Pathophysiology)
Show Figures

Figure 1

14 pages, 329 KiB  
Review
Recent Advances in Experimental Burn Models
by Dandan Hao and Mahtab Nourbakhsh
Biology 2021, 10(6), 526; https://doi.org/10.3390/biology10060526 - 12 Jun 2021
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 4189
Abstract
Experimental burn models are essential tools for simulating human burn injuries and exploring the consequences of burns or new treatment strategies. Unlike clinical studies, experimental models allow a direct comparison of different aspects of burns under controlled conditions and thereby provide relevant information [...] Read more.
Experimental burn models are essential tools for simulating human burn injuries and exploring the consequences of burns or new treatment strategies. Unlike clinical studies, experimental models allow a direct comparison of different aspects of burns under controlled conditions and thereby provide relevant information on the molecular mechanisms of tissue damage and wound healing, as well as potential therapeutic targets. While most comparative burn studies are performed in animal models, a few human or humanized models have been successfully employed to study local events at the injury site. However, the consensus between animal and human studies regarding the cellular and molecular nature of systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS), scarring, and neovascularization is limited. The many interspecies differences prohibit the outcomes of animal model studies from being fully translated into the human system. Thus, the development of more targeted, individualized treatments for burn injuries remains a major challenge in this field. This review focuses on the latest progress in experimental burn models achieved since 2016, and summarizes the outcomes regarding potential methodological improvements, assessments of molecular responses to injury, and therapeutic advances. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Human Anatomy and Pathophysiology)
17 pages, 4795 KiB  
Article
Characterization of Cytokines and Proliferation Marker Ki67 in Chronic Rhinosinusitis with Nasal Polyps: A Pilot Study
by Rudolfs Janis Viksne, Gunta Sumeraga and Mara Pilmane
Medicina 2021, 57(6), 607; https://doi.org/10.3390/medicina57060607 - 11 Jun 2021
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 3028
Abstract
Background and Objectives: Chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS) is a condition that affects as much as 10.9% of the population and, along with presence of nasal polyps, is associated with significant morbidity and decreased quality of life. Studies on molecular pathways that have been activated [...] Read more.
Background and Objectives: Chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS) is a condition that affects as much as 10.9% of the population and, along with presence of nasal polyps, is associated with significant morbidity and decreased quality of life. Studies on molecular pathways that have been activated in nasal polyp tissue are mainly based on cytokine concentration detection. Therefore, our aim is to investigate the complex appearance, relative distribution and interlinks of IL-1, IL-4, IL-6, IL-7, IL-8, IL-10, IL-12 and Ki 67 in chronic rhinosinusitis with nasal polyps (CRSwNP) affected human nasal mucosa. Materials and Methods: Samples of nasal polyps were obtained from 12 patients with previously diagnosed CRSwNP and no prior surgery. Control group consisted of samples from 17 otherwise healthy individuals with isolated nasal septum deviation. Tissues were stained for IL-1, IL-4, IL-6, IL-7, IL-8, IL-10, IL-12 and Ki67 immunohistochemically. Non-parametric statistic, Mann–Whitney U test and Spearman’s rank correlation coefficient were used. Results: All factors, except connective tissue cytokine IL-10 and proliferation marker Ki-67, had increased presence in connective tissue and decreased presence in epithelium of nasal polyps when compared to controls. Very strong and strong positive correlations between factors were observed. Conclusions: Decreased appearance of IL-1α, IL-4, IL-6, IL-7, IL-8, IL-10, IL-12 positive structures in the nasal epithelium with selective increase of IL-1α and IL-12 in nasal subepithelial connective tissue characterize the cytokine endotype with dysfunctional epithelial barrier and local stimulation of immune response in the connective tissue in case of chronic rhinosinusitis with polyps. Decrease of IL-6 in both—epithelium and connective tissue with strong correlation between it and IL-7 and IL-10 in connective tissue suggests significant stimulation of this regulatory cytokine and, possibly, the important role in pathogenesis of the development in nasal polyps. Correlations between Ki67 and cytokines indicate possible involvement of IL-4, IL-7 and IL-12 in regulation of cellular proliferation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Human Anatomy and Pathophysiology)
Show Figures

Figure 1

14 pages, 2072 KiB  
Review
Management of Patients under Treatment with Monoclonal Antibodies and New Biological Therapies
by Marta Amigo-Basilio, Covadonga Álvarez-González, Carlos Cobo-Vázquez, Isabel Leco-Berrocal, Luis Miguel Sáez-Alcaide and Cristina Méniz-García
Appl. Sci. 2021, 11(11), 4865; https://doi.org/10.3390/app11114865 - 25 May 2021
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 5181
Abstract
Objective: The aim of this study is to know the biological therapy drugs that are related to adverse events, what dental treatments are associated with the appearance of these events, their severity, and how they are resolved. Study design: Analysis of cases described [...] Read more.
Objective: The aim of this study is to know the biological therapy drugs that are related to adverse events, what dental treatments are associated with the appearance of these events, their severity, and how they are resolved. Study design: Analysis of cases described in the literature on patients undergoing treatment with biological therapies who have developed adverse effects associated with these drugs. Results: Of the 62 articles reviewed, 49 describe 68 cases of MRONJ, most of which appeared in the jaw and received surgical and/or conservative treatment. Conclusions: Biological therapies can potentially develop adverse effects in the oral cavity, so strict monitoring by the dentist is necessary. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Human Anatomy and Pathophysiology)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Back to TopTop