Special Issue "XVI European Congress of Psychology"

A special issue of Behavioral Sciences (ISSN 2076-328X).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (30 November 2019).

Special Issue Editors

Prof. Dr. Yury Zinchenko
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Faculty of Psychology, Lomonosov Moscow State University, President of Russian Psychological Society, Moscow, Russia
Interests: psychology: creating the future together; psychology and science; psychology and society; psychology and education; psychology and health; psychology and digital future; psychology and security
Prof. Dr. Christoph Steinebach
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
ZHAW Zurich University of Applied Sciences, School of Applied Psychology, President of European Federation of Psychologists’ Associations, Zurich, Switzerland
Interests: resilience; youth development; health promotion in youth, and counseling; mindfulness and peer support in youth; health promotion in youth, and team development

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

The European Congress of Psychology is a bi-annual event established by the European Federation of Psychologists’ Associations (EFPA), which unites more than 350,000 psychologists from Europe. Each time, the event is hosted in a big European city. This year, for the first time in ECP’s history, it will be held in Russia.

Since the first congress in Amsterdam in 1989, the ECP has grown in magnitude and reputation. By now, it is known all over the world as the place where European psychology is presented and where psychologists from Europe and from other continents can meet and share knowledge. Comprehending all areas of psychology and covering the whole of Europe, the ECP provides the participants—whether psychologists, students, educators, policy-makers, or others with an interest in psychology—with a unique opportunity to learn about the state of the art in psychology as a science and a profession. The ECP is not restricted to Europe, neither in scope nor in participation. In line with EFPA’s view of psychology as a global science and profession and with its aim to promote international knowledge sharing and collaboration, it explicitly welcomes participants from other parts of the world.

A national member association of EFPA, the Russian Psychological Society, under the auspices and in collaboration with EFPA, will organize the ECP2019.

Prof. Dr. Yury Zinchenko
Prof. Dr. Christoph Steinebach
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

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Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1400 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • European Congress of Psychology 2019
  • Psychology
  • European Federation of Psychologists’ Associations
  • Russian Psychological Society

Published Papers (91 papers)

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Article
The Fairytale Semantic Differential Technique: A Cross-Cultural Application
Behav. Sci. 2020, 10(7), 112; https://doi.org/10.3390/bs10070112 - 06 Jul 2020
Viewed by 1503
Abstract
The “Fairytale Semantic Differential” method, in which the respondent assesses several fairytale characters according to a set of personal characteristics, is designed for individual psychological work with children 4–10 years old. Personality characteristics, according to which the characters are evaluated, are formulated in [...] Read more.
The “Fairytale Semantic Differential” method, in which the respondent assesses several fairytale characters according to a set of personal characteristics, is designed for individual psychological work with children 4–10 years old. Personality characteristics, according to which the characters are evaluated, are formulated in terms understandable to child respondents, i.e., these are words that parents and teachers use when dealing with children of this age. An analysis of the child’s attitude to a certain fairytale character makes it possible to determine the individual properties of his/her moral value sphere. Quantitative indicators that can be calculated on the basis of the data collected by the questionnaire are discussed. These indicators characterize the child’s personality, his/her understanding of interpersonal relationships, the dimensionality of the categorial space of interpersonal perception, the content of these categories and its hierarchy, the level of cognitive development in this domain, and the degree of socialization. The results of an empirical study that was conducted in Moscow, Baku, and Tashkent are presented. Age and sex differences were found in the cognitive complexity of interpersonal perception and socialization. Also, an example of individual semantic space is presented. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue XVI European Congress of Psychology)
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Article
Perception of Foreign and National Political Leaders in Russia
Behav. Sci. 2020, 10(6), 103; https://doi.org/10.3390/bs10060103 - 19 Jun 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1548
Abstract
The present study aimed to determine the composition of factors that underlie the images of foreign and domestic political leaders among Russian youth and therefore play a major role in shaping social representations. The research was conducted within the theoretical and methodological framework [...] Read more.
The present study aimed to determine the composition of factors that underlie the images of foreign and domestic political leaders among Russian youth and therefore play a major role in shaping social representations. The research was conducted within the theoretical and methodological framework of the psychosemantic approach, which seeks to reconstruct systems of meanings, both individual and collective, through the investigation of implicit as well as explicit categories of perception. The study comprised two stages, in which participants were administered a psychosemantic questionnaire to evaluate political leaders according to some professional and personal characteristics. The first part was conducted in 2015–2016 with a student sample (n = 147) using a set of political leaders from various countries. In the second part, carried out in 2017–2018, the participants (n = 200) also filled out a questionnaire, this time evaluating modern Russian leaders. A principal component analysis was performed on each of the data sets, revealing that two categories—namely, morality and professional characteristics—are present in both factor structures, whereas other factors are different. Several important theoretical and practical implications are discussed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue XVI European Congress of Psychology)
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Article
Preference for Masculine or Feminine Gender Roles and Its Relationship to Well-Being in Transgender Persons: Comparing Pre-Treatment, Hormonal Therapy, and Post-Surgery Groups
Behav. Sci. 2020, 10(6), 100; https://doi.org/10.3390/bs10060100 - 11 Jun 2020
Viewed by 1657
Abstract
This article aims at identifying different preferences for gender roles in transgender persons and the associations of those preferences with well-being at the different stages of medical transition. A total of 148 Russian transgender subjects (64 in pre-treatment, 41 in hormonal therapy, and [...] Read more.
This article aims at identifying different preferences for gender roles in transgender persons and the associations of those preferences with well-being at the different stages of medical transition. A total of 148 Russian transgender subjects (64 in pre-treatment, 41 in hormonal therapy, and 43 in hormonal therapy after some surgery) and 120 Russian cisgender persons filled out the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-2. The transgender participants were less satisfied with their lives than the cisgender individuals, and less frequently preferred masculine gender roles, which were related to higher well-being in both groups. However, both preference for masculine gender roles and well-being were higher in the hormonal therapy group, and especially after surgery, regardless of whether they were females transitioning into males or vice versa. In the transwomen, having only hormonal therapy was associated with the poorest satisfaction, while those undergoing hormonal therapy after surgery were much more satisfied with their lives. Those differences are reasonable, considering the visible changes in the body and mood after hormonal therapy in transmen, and because results after surgery are more promising for transwomen than for transmen. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue XVI European Congress of Psychology)
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Article
Sociodemography, Geography, and Personality as Determinants of Car Driving and Use of Public Transportation
Behav. Sci. 2020, 10(6), 93; https://doi.org/10.3390/bs10060093 - 26 May 2020
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2075
Abstract
To address the sustainability challenges related to travel behavior, technological innovations will not be enough. Behavioral changes are also called for. The aim of the present study is to examine the influence of sociodemography, geography, and personality on car driving and use of [...] Read more.
To address the sustainability challenges related to travel behavior, technological innovations will not be enough. Behavioral changes are also called for. The aim of the present study is to examine the influence of sociodemography, geography, and personality on car driving and use of public transportation. Sociodemographic factors have been defined by age, gender, income, and education. Geographic factors have been studied through residential area (e.g., rural and urban areas). Personality has been studied through the Five-Factor-Model of personality—degree of Openness, Conscientiousness, Extraversion, Agreeableness, and Neuroticism. The analysis is based on a survey with 1812 respondents, representative for the Swedish population. Regarding sociodemographic factors, car driving is explained by being male, higher age, higher income, while use of public transportation is explained by lower age and higher education. The user profile of a car driver is the opposite to that of a public transport passenger when it comes to geographic factors; urban residential area explains public transportation while rural area explains car driving. Some personality factors are also opposites; a low degree of Openness and a high degree of Extraversion explain car driving, while a high degree of Openness and a low degree of Extraversion explain use of public transportation. Moreover, car driving is explained by a low degree of Neuroticism, while use of public transportation is explained by a low degree of Conscientiousness and a high degree of Agreeableness. Since sociodemography, geography, and personality influence how people process information and evaluate market propositions (e.g., products and services), the findings presented here are useful for policymakers and transportations planners who would like to change behavior from car driving to public transportation use. Caution should be taken in interpreting the relationship between personality traits and transportation modes, since the personality traits are measured by a short scale (i.e., Big Five Inventory (BFI)-10), with limitations in the factor structure for a representative sample of the Swedish population. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue XVI European Congress of Psychology)
Article
Survey for Assessment of a Person’s Legal Consciousness: Development and Preliminary Validation
Behav. Sci. 2020, 10(5), 89; https://doi.org/10.3390/bs10050089 - 12 May 2020
Viewed by 2015
Abstract
The results of the development and preliminary assessment of the psychometric properties of the questionnaire of legal consciousness of a person are presented. Theoretical justification is given for the structure of the questionnaire containing six subscales. One scale relates to the individual’s awareness [...] Read more.
The results of the development and preliminary assessment of the psychometric properties of the questionnaire of legal consciousness of a person are presented. Theoretical justification is given for the structure of the questionnaire containing six subscales. One scale relates to the individual’s awareness of constitutional rights and freedoms, enshrined in the Universal Declaration of Human Rights and the Constitution of the Russian Federation (personal, economic, political, cultural and social rights). The other five scales relate to the importance of constitutional rights and freedoms for the subject. The content validity of the tool was confirmed by expert assessments of professional lawyers—specialists in constitutional law—and the results obtained with semi-structured interviews (n = 30). The construct validity of the tool was established using exploratory factor analysis and tested by confirmatory factor analysis for student sample (n = 100). Cronbach’s alpha indicated high degree of internal consistency of the subscales. Currently, we continue improving the psychometric characteristics of the measure. The questionnaire obtained as a result of this work can be used to assess the level of a person’s legal consciousness development, and in particular, during the professional personnel selection for the state and civil service. The results of large-scale studies carried out with the help of this tool can be implemented in the activities of public authorities in order to improve the legislative process, taken into account by public organizations and authorities involved in the spread of legal education and legal culture in the framework of state policy on the development of legal consciousness and legal culture. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue XVI European Congress of Psychology)
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Article
Attachment and Images of Parents and of the Romantic Partner of Russian Young Men and Women
Behav. Sci. 2020, 10(5), 87; https://doi.org/10.3390/bs10050087 - 08 May 2020
Viewed by 2023
Abstract
The study investigated young adults’ perceptions of their parents and romantic partners with respect to the quality of attachment to the loved ones. The sample consisted of 78 young Russian men and women aged 19–25 involved in a romantic relationship for at least [...] Read more.
The study investigated young adults’ perceptions of their parents and romantic partners with respect to the quality of attachment to the loved ones. The sample consisted of 78 young Russian men and women aged 19–25 involved in a romantic relationship for at least for 12 months. The employed instruments were the Attachment to Close People Questionnaire (ACOQ), based on the Experiences in Close Relationships (ECR) questionnaire, the Adolescents’ Report of Parental Behavior Inventory, and Leary’s Interpersonal Behavior Measure. Regression analysis was used to analyze the data. The results indicated that the attachment to the mother contributed to attachment to the romantic partner more than the attachment to the father. The attachment security with the partner was associated with the image of the partner. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue XVI European Congress of Psychology)
Article
Impact of Films: Changes in Young People’s Attitudes after Watching a Movie
Behav. Sci. 2020, 10(5), 86; https://doi.org/10.3390/bs10050086 - 02 May 2020
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 4876
Abstract
Nowadays films occupy a significant portion of the media products consumed by people. In Russia, cinema is being considered as a means of individual and social transformation, which makes a contribution to the formation of the Russian audience’s outlook, including their attitudes towards [...] Read more.
Nowadays films occupy a significant portion of the media products consumed by people. In Russia, cinema is being considered as a means of individual and social transformation, which makes a contribution to the formation of the Russian audience’s outlook, including their attitudes towards topical social issues. At the same time, the question of the effectiveness of films’ impact remains an open question in psychological science. According to the empirical orientation of our approach to the study of mass media influence, our goal was to obtain new data on the positive impact of films based on specific experimental research. The task was to identify changes in the attitudes of young people, as the most active viewers, towards topical social issues after watching a specifically selected film. Using a psychosemantic technique that included 25 scales designed to identify attitudes towards elderly people, respondents evaluated their various characteristics before and after watching the film. Using a number of characteristics related to the motivational, emotional and cognitive spheres, significant changes were revealed. At the same time, significant differences were found in assessments of the elderly between undergraduate students and postgraduate students. After watching the film, postgraduate students’ attitudes towards elderly people changed in a positive way, while undergraduate students’ negative assessments only worsened. The revealed opposite trends can be explained by individual differences of respondents, which include age, educational status as an indicator of individual psychological characteristics, the experience of interaction with elderly people and, as a result, attitudes towards elderly people at the time before watching the movie. The finding that previous attitudes mediate the impact of the film complements the ideas of the contribution of individual differences to media effects. Most of the changes detected immediately after watching the movie did not remain over time. A single movie viewing did not have a lasting effect on viewers’ attitudes, and it suggests the further task of identifying mechanisms of the sustainability of changes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue XVI European Congress of Psychology)
Article
The Role of the Size of the Small Group and Informal Subgroups in Intragroup Conflicts
Behav. Sci. 2020, 10(5), 84; https://doi.org/10.3390/bs10050084 - 28 Apr 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2005
Abstract
This study examines the relationship between (a) the size of groups and the number of informal subgroups in them with conflicts in the context of the group, and (b) the size of the informal subgroups with conflicts in the context of the subgroup. [...] Read more.
This study examines the relationship between (a) the size of groups and the number of informal subgroups in them with conflicts in the context of the group, and (b) the size of the informal subgroups with conflicts in the context of the subgroup. A multidimensional model of intragroup conflict was used, which includes two dimensions: five levels of conflict (i.e., interpersonal (individual–individual), micro-group (individual–subgroup), group (individual–group), subgroup–subgroup, and subgroup–group) and two types of conflict (activity-oriented and subject-oriented). Each level of conflict contains two types. Forty-one small work groups (334 employees) took part in the study. In the group as a whole, both the size of the group and the number of informal subgroups in it have a positive relationship with subgroup–subgroup conflict in both types and subgroup–group subject-oriented conflict, and have a negative connection with micro-group subject-oriented conflict. In turn, the size of the subgroup is positively associated with the two types of subgroup–group conflict and negatively connected with the two types of micro-group conflict, as well as with interpersonal activity-oriented conflict at the level of the informal subgroup. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue XVI European Congress of Psychology)
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Article
Individual Features in the Typology of the Nervous System and the Brain Activity Dynamics of Freestyle Wrestlers Exposed to a Strong Physical Activity (a Pilot Study)
Behav. Sci. 2020, 10(4), 79; https://doi.org/10.3390/bs10040079 - 20 Apr 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2100
Abstract
Nowadays, knowledge of psychophysiological features, particularly on the nervous system’s characteristics, is essential in the sporting context, particularly for freestyle wrestling. The study aimed to investigate the peculiarities of the wrestlers’ nervous system—on the individual and electrophysiological levels in two functional states—in calm [...] Read more.
Nowadays, knowledge of psychophysiological features, particularly on the nervous system’s characteristics, is essential in the sporting context, particularly for freestyle wrestling. The study aimed to investigate the peculiarities of the wrestlers’ nervous system—on the individual and electrophysiological levels in two functional states—in calm wakefulness and during intense physical fatigue. Psychological (Well-being, Activity, Mood; Spielberger–Hanin; Leonhard’s questionnaires), as well as electrophysiological techniques (dynamics of the dominant and average frequencies of the main electroencephalogram (EEG) spectra—theta, alpha, low and high-frequency beta rhythms), were used in the study. It was shown that athletes were mainly characterized by the hyperthymic type of character accentuation and a low frequency of theta rhythm in a calm wakefulness state. After the acute physical load, wrestlers with high hyperthymia showed a moderate increase in theta, whereas other athletes showed a decrease in this parameter. Regardless of the level of hyperthymic accentuation, all wrestlers were characterized by an increase in the frequency of alpha rhythm after exercises in the left hemisphere. These results suggest the existence of a particular functional system in freestyle wrestlers, which allows the body’s regulatory systems to be adapted for the effective implementation of sports activity. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue XVI European Congress of Psychology)
Article
Speed of Processing and Personality: The Influence of Personality and Extrinsic Feedback on the Performance of Cognitive Tasks
Behav. Sci. 2020, 10(4), 76; https://doi.org/10.3390/bs10040076 - 08 Apr 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2266
Abstract
Background: Feedback is considered as an effective means of motivating, guiding, and reinforcing desired behaviours. However, the ways to interpret external feedback may be different among individuals with different personality traits; therefore, this would influence the effects of feedback on performance. Accordingly, the [...] Read more.
Background: Feedback is considered as an effective means of motivating, guiding, and reinforcing desired behaviours. However, the ways to interpret external feedback may be different among individuals with different personality traits; therefore, this would influence the effects of feedback on performance. Accordingly, the influencing effects of personality towards different styles of feedback on cognitive task performance were examined. Methods: Participants (N = 71) were given three Stroop tasks as a dependent variable, whereas the Trail Making Task was an independent variable; additionally, a personality test was used to record the personality traits of each participant. The relationship between personality and feedback-induced changes in Stroop performance was computed by means of Pearson correlation, followed by a mixed-effect model to demonstrate the effect of personality on the overall performance with feedback. Results: The statistical analysis indicated that performance from those with higher levels of extraversion generally profitted from feedback, irrespective of whether it was negative feedback (r = 0.201) or positive feedback (r = 0.205). Additionally, the moderating effect of personality on feedback and performance was demonstrated. Conclusions: The limitations of the sample size and other external influences may have reduced the representativeness of the research. Nonetheless, more potential influencing factors need to be included and explored in future research. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue XVI European Congress of Psychology)
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Article
The Relationship of Thinking Style and Motivation Features of Sales and Advertising Managers
Behav. Sci. 2020, 10(3), 68; https://doi.org/10.3390/bs10030068 - 15 Mar 2020
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 2256
Abstract
The thinking of a manager is conditioned by their motivational features which determine their personal professional success and the effectiveness of the organization’s activities. In this study, we assumed that two groups of sales and advertising managers had differences in the relationships between [...] Read more.
The thinking of a manager is conditioned by their motivational features which determine their personal professional success and the effectiveness of the organization’s activities. In this study, we assumed that two groups of sales and advertising managers had differences in the relationships between thinking style and their motivational qualities, as well as their individual need for achievement. We used the following sources: The methodology of A. Belousova for the diagnosis of thinking styles, the “scale of control over action” by J. Kuhl, and “the need for achievement” by Yu.A. Orlov. The selection consisted of 61 people, 25 to 30 years of age, of which 41 were men and 20 were women, from organizations engaged in the sale of a technical group of goods (also known as Group A) and advertising services (also known as Group B), in Rostov-on-Don. The Spearman rank correlation method was used for quantitative data processing. In group Group A, the analysis showed the presence of statistically significant connections. A critical style of thinking has a significant relationship with the level of clarity about the need for achievements and practical thinking is statistically significantly interrelated with control over action in a situation of failure. Whereas, in Group B, an initiative, managerial, and practical style of thinking has a significant correlation with the need for achievement. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue XVI European Congress of Psychology)
Article
Self-Regulation and Psychological Well-Being in Early Adolescence: A Two-Wave Longitudinal Study
Behav. Sci. 2020, 10(3), 67; https://doi.org/10.3390/bs10030067 - 10 Mar 2020
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2719
Abstract
This paper addresses the question of whether self-regulation capacities are a significant psychological resource of schoolchildren’s psychological well-being. The study contributes to the search of significant predictors of the students’ psychological well-being. Moscow secondary schools pupils (N = 239) participated in a two-wave [...] Read more.
This paper addresses the question of whether self-regulation capacities are a significant psychological resource of schoolchildren’s psychological well-being. The study contributes to the search of significant predictors of the students’ psychological well-being. Moscow secondary schools pupils (N = 239) participated in a two-wave longitudinal study, the procedure being made in the 4th grade and repeated in the 5th grade, six months after the first measurement. The results are presented describing the dynamics of manifestations of the psychological well-being and the conscious self-regulation of the schoolchildren during their transition from the primary to the middle school. Using the cross-lagged panel analysis allowed concluding that the level of conscious self-regulation of the learning activity of the 4th graders significantly predicts their psychological well-being not only in the 4th grade, but also in the 5th grade. The study revealed the specific regulatory predictors characteristic of different manifestations of the schoolchildren’ psychological well-being. The obtained results highlight the significance of research on the conscious self-regulation of learning activities as a resource for pupils’ psychological well-being, which is predictive for its maturation in the subsequent ages. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue XVI European Congress of Psychology)
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Article
Schwartz Value Clusters in Modern University Students
Behav. Sci. 2020, 10(3), 66; https://doi.org/10.3390/bs10030066 - 08 Mar 2020
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2568
Abstract
People differ in their value hierarchies, i.e., in the importance they attach to basic personal values. A large number of studies were performed to establish similarities and differences between national, ethnic, or professional groups in terms of Schwartz’s values structure. In addition to [...] Read more.
People differ in their value hierarchies, i.e., in the importance they attach to basic personal values. A large number of studies were performed to establish similarities and differences between national, ethnic, or professional groups in terms of Schwartz’s values structure. In addition to this sample-level approach, we found it useful to disclose a number of subgroups within those larger social groups, which are more homogeneous in themselves and reflect the individual-level types of personal values systems. The study was performed on university students (n = 1237) who were asked to fill in the SVS и PVQ Schwartz’s questionnaires. The sample was then treated with the K-means cluster analysis, which resulted in the division of the initial sample into three subgroups or clusters according to their values hierarchy being measured separately at the (1) Normative Ideals scale and (2) the scale of Behavioral Priorities. These clusters were equally common among male and female students, but they were unequally found in young people coming from different ethnic groups and regions, demonstrating the role of socio-cultural environment in building up personal values. The results may extend our capabilities for the prediction of the social, economic, and political behavior of the younger generation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue XVI European Congress of Psychology)
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Article
Effect of Mindfulness on Empathy and Self-Compassion: An Adapted MBCT Program on Filipino College Students
Behav. Sci. 2020, 10(3), 61; https://doi.org/10.3390/bs10030061 - 27 Feb 2020
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 4554
Abstract
Attending college is meaningful for many young adults. This period is marked by physical, emotional, and psychological changes that can have both positive and negative effects on college students. The last two decades have seen an alarming increase in the number of college [...] Read more.
Attending college is meaningful for many young adults. This period is marked by physical, emotional, and psychological changes that can have both positive and negative effects on college students. The last two decades have seen an alarming increase in the number of college students who suffer from mental health conditions, such as depression, suicide, anxiety, and alcohol abuse. It is recommended that actions to support the students’ wellbeing must be creative and evidence-based. Research suggests that a mindfulness-based intervention may be an effective strategy to address mental health conditions among college students. This study was done to examine the efficacy of an adapted mindfulness-based cognitive therapy (MBCT) program that was implemented in a classroom setting in the Philippines and to explore how mindfulness practice can affect empathy and self-compassion on senior Filipino college students aged 19–22 years old. Two classes were used to compare the effects of mindfulness intervention. One class underwent the adapted MBCT program while the other class underwent the same kind of class without mindfulness interventions. Self-report measures of the Five Facet Mindfulness Questionnaire, Perspective Taking subscale and Empathic Concern subscale of Interpersonal Reactivity Index, and Self-compassion scale—short form were administered before undergoing the adapted MBCT and after the program. After going through the adapted MBCT, college students’ mindfulness significantly improved. Empathy and self-compassion also significantly improved after undergoing the program. This corroborates previous studies done on mindfulness and its efficacy with adolescents and suggests how practicing mindfulness can improve empathy and self-compassion with Filipino college students. It provides a promising groundwork for the emerging interest and research in Asia, particularly in the Philippines, on how the practice of mindfulness can help with the mental health of college students. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue XVI European Congress of Psychology)
Article
Compressed Life Review: Extreme Manifestation of Autobiographical Memory in Eye-Tracker
Behav. Sci. 2020, 10(3), 60; https://doi.org/10.3390/bs10030060 - 26 Feb 2020
Viewed by 2654
Abstract
The compressed life review (CLR) is a mnemonic illusion of having “your entire life flashing before your eyes”. This research was guided by concerns over the retrospective methodology used in CLR studies. To depart from this methodology, I considered the long-term working memory [...] Read more.
The compressed life review (CLR) is a mnemonic illusion of having “your entire life flashing before your eyes”. This research was guided by concerns over the retrospective methodology used in CLR studies. To depart from this methodology, I considered the long-term working memory (WM), “concentric”, and “activation-based” models of memory. A novel theoretically rooted laboratory-based experimental technique aimed to elicit the CLR-like experience with no risk to healthy participants was developed. It consists of listening to superimposed audio recordings of previously trained verbal cues to an individually composed set of self-defining memories (SDMs). The technique evoked a self-reported CLR-like experience in 10 out of 20 participants. A significant similarity in eye movement patterns between a single SDM condition and a choir of SDM conditions in self-reported CLR experiencers was confirmed. In both conditions, stimuli caused relative visual immobilization, in contrast to listening to a single neutral phrase, and a choir of neutral phrases that led to active visual exploration. The data suggest that CLR-like phenomenology may be successfully induced by triggering short-term access to the verbally cued SDMs and may be associated with specific patterns of visual activity that are not reportedly involved with deliberate autobiographical retrieval. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue XVI European Congress of Psychology)
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Article
Interconnection between Driving Style, Traffic Locus of Control, and Impulsivity in Bulgarian Drivers
Behav. Sci. 2020, 10(2), 58; https://doi.org/10.3390/bs10020058 - 11 Feb 2020
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2501
Abstract
The need for research in the field of transport psychology in Bulgaria has become more tangible in recent years, due to both the increased public intolerance to aggressive driving and the very high number of injuries and fatalities in road accidents in the [...] Read more.
The need for research in the field of transport psychology in Bulgaria has become more tangible in recent years, due to both the increased public intolerance to aggressive driving and the very high number of injuries and fatalities in road accidents in the country. The main objective of this study is to investigate the interconnection between Driving style, Traffic locus of control, and the Impulsivity in Bulgarian drivers. A research is conducted in order to examine the relations between the constructs in Bulgarian sample (n = 456, male = 204; female = 252; average age = 37). The results show that there are significant correlations between impulsivity and all driving styles. Positive correlations were found with the maladaptive driving styles, while the adaptive driving style was negatively associated with impulsivity. Correlations between the traffic locus of control and the driving styles were also found. These results provide a very good opportunity for further research in this area as well as for the development of prevention and training programs in the field of road safety. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue XVI European Congress of Psychology)
Article
Ethno-National Attitudes as Intercultural Competence Predictors in University Students: Gender Differences
Behav. Sci. 2020, 10(2), 56; https://doi.org/10.3390/bs10020056 - 06 Feb 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2669
Abstract
The search for predictors of intercultural competence (ICC) development is one of the important challenges of modern psychology in connection with globalization in all the spheres of modern life, including university education. The purpose of the present research is to show that the [...] Read more.
The search for predictors of intercultural competence (ICC) development is one of the important challenges of modern psychology in connection with globalization in all the spheres of modern life, including university education. The purpose of the present research is to show that the ethno-national attitudes (ENA), which Khukhlaev et al. consider as an individual’s predisposition to assess the nationality/ethnicity can determine the severity of ICC features in male and female university students. The sample includes 219 (75% female) first–third year Russian university students. ICC was measured with the author’s modification of the intercultural sensitivity scale (ISS) by Khuhlaev and Chibisova. ISS is based on the Developmental Model of Intercultural Sensitivity, (DMIS) by Bennett and includes 4 subscales: Minimization, Absolutization, Ambivalence, Acceptance. ENA (Nationalistic, Patriotic, Neutral, Negativistic) were determined with the “Scale of ethno-national attitudes” by Khukhlaev, Kuznetsov, and Tkachenko. Descriptive statistics methods, Wilcoxon W-test, and multiple regression analysis were used for statistical analysis in the R software environment, version 3.5.2. The findings of our research showed that Nationalistic and Patriotic ENA are the strongest predictors of studied ICC scales and have an opposite negative impact on Acceptance and Absolutization in both male and female students. This fact should be taken into account in the context of ICC developments. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue XVI European Congress of Psychology)
Article
The Relationship between Executive Functions and Language Production in 5–6-Year-Old Children: Insights from Working Memory and Storytelling
Behav. Sci. 2020, 10(2), 52; https://doi.org/10.3390/bs10020052 - 05 Feb 2020
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2945
Abstract
This study examined the relationship between working memory capacity and narrative abilities in 5–6-year-old children. 269 children were assessed on their visual and verbal working memory and performed in a story retelling and a story creation (based on a single picture and on [...] Read more.
This study examined the relationship between working memory capacity and narrative abilities in 5–6-year-old children. 269 children were assessed on their visual and verbal working memory and performed in a story retelling and a story creation (based on a single picture and on a series of pictures) tasks. The stories were evaluated on their macrostructure and microstructure. The results revealed a significant relationship between both components (verbal and visual) of working memory and the global indicators of a story’s macrostructure—such as semantic completeness, semantic adequacy, programming and narrative structure—and with the indicators of a story’s microstructure, such as grammatical accuracy and number of syntagmas. Yet, this relationship was systematically stronger for verbal working memory, as compared to visual working memory, suggesting that a well-developed verbal working memory leads to lexically and grammatically more accurate language production in preschool children. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue XVI European Congress of Psychology)
Article
Student Disaffection: The Contribution of Greek In-service Kindergarten Teachers in Engaging Each Preschooler in Learning
Behav. Sci. 2020, 10(2), 51; https://doi.org/10.3390/bs10020051 - 05 Feb 2020
Viewed by 2262
Abstract
Engaging each student in learning comprises a continuous challenge and concern for the contemporary teacher. Educational research confirms the alarming increase of the disengaged students, relating student disaffection to adverse effects on students’ academic development. In the present research through one-on-one, semi-structured interviews, [...] Read more.
Engaging each student in learning comprises a continuous challenge and concern for the contemporary teacher. Educational research confirms the alarming increase of the disengaged students, relating student disaffection to adverse effects on students’ academic development. In the present research through one-on-one, semi-structured interviews, we investigate 80 Greek in-service kindergarten teachers’ opinions with regards to the significance of engaging the disengaged students in learning activities in preschool environments. The interviews based on Creswell’s (2009) interview model, incorporate open-ended and close-ended questions that offer a well-rounded view of the subject. Qualitative and quantitative data analysis of teachers’ opinions show that engaging each disengaged preschooler has multiple benefits on students’ academic development, class climate, and cohesion, and teacher’s self-efficacy, as well. Specifically, teachers’ engaging actions offer students the opportunity to develop their abilities, self-efficacy, and sense of belonging. The interviewees also recognise that increased student engagement levels decisively affect teachers—students’ interactions, offering at the same time clear feedback to the teacher. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue XVI European Congress of Psychology)
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Article
Professional Training of Future Preschool Teachers in the Field of Artistic and Aesthetic Education by Means of Contextual Learning Technologies
Behav. Sci. 2020, 10(2), 50; https://doi.org/10.3390/bs10020050 - 04 Feb 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2373
Abstract
The article deals with the development peculiarities of the subject artistic competence of future preschool teachers in the field of artistic and aesthetic education of children by means of contextual educational technologies. The students in question were being observed during the classes of [...] Read more.
The article deals with the development peculiarities of the subject artistic competence of future preschool teachers in the field of artistic and aesthetic education of children by means of contextual educational technologies. The students in question were being observed during the classes of Fundamentals of the Fine Arts with Methodology, the lessons of Decorative Arts with Methodology, as well as the Artistic Production and Design Fundamentals sessions. The purpose of the article is to reveal the methodology of contextual learning technologies’ implementation into the process of future preschool educators training and check their effectiveness in the realm of children’s artistic and aesthetic education experimentally. In the course of the research, we used such methods as analysis and synthesis of psychological, pedagogical, and art sources, as well as studying and generalization of the current state of future preschool teachers professional training in the field of artistic and aesthetic education. We also employed analysis, comparison, and classification with the aim of determining the essential characteristics, criteria, and levels of future preschool teachers’ subject competence in artistic and aesthetic education. Another approach that we turned to was that of pedagogical experiment with the further qualitative and quantitative analysis of its results using the Kolmogorov–Smirnov statistical criterion. The outcomes of the experiment brought about a need for the implementation of contextual learning technologies into the development of future preschool educators’ subject competence. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue XVI European Congress of Psychology)
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Article
Children’s Creativity and Personal Adaptation Resources
Behav. Sci. 2020, 10(2), 49; https://doi.org/10.3390/bs10020049 - 03 Feb 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2335
Abstract
The study provides insights into the aspects of creativity, the structure of psychometric intelligence, and personal adaptation resources of senior preschool children. Creativity and intelligence are presented as general adaptation resources. Existing studies of creative ability and creativity as integral individual characteristics in [...] Read more.
The study provides insights into the aspects of creativity, the structure of psychometric intelligence, and personal adaptation resources of senior preschool children. Creativity and intelligence are presented as general adaptation resources. Existing studies of creative ability and creativity as integral individual characteristics in the context of adaptation are analyzed. The aim is to identify varied sets of creativity and personal adaptation resource markers that differentiate groups of children in order to determine possible strategies for adaptation, preservation, and development of their creative abilities at the beginning of lyceum schooling. It embraces the use of the E. Torrance Test of Creative Thinking (TTCT) (figural version), the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children (WISC), and the G. Rorschach Test. A sample of the study consisted of 122 children, aged 6–7 and enrolled in a school. The average IQ score among the children was above 115 (M = 133.7, σ = 9.9). The entire sample was divided into four groups by the originality-elaboration ratio according to the TTCT. The correctness of the children’s division into the groups according to the markers of creativity and personal adaptation resources is confirmed by the discriminant analysis. We have identified the factor structure of creativity, intelligence, and personal adaptation resources in the entire sample of children and in each of the groups. In the group of preschoolers with high originality and elaboration, the resulting structure integrated the components of creativity with personal adaptation resources and intelligence scores. In the group of children with a low level of originality and elaboration, the markers of creativity, intelligence, and personal adaptation resources are not interlinked. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue XVI European Congress of Psychology)
Article
The Program “Reflexion 1”—the Condition of Intensive Formation of Metacognitive Skills in Elementary School
Behav. Sci. 2020, 10(2), 45; https://doi.org/10.3390/bs10020045 - 30 Jan 2020
Viewed by 2403
Abstract
Metacognitive skills associated with reflexive actions in solving problems are an essential condition for the successful mastering of school programs and a strong indicator of the intellectual development of primary school-aged children. The purpose of this empirical research is to study the influence [...] Read more.
Metacognitive skills associated with reflexive actions in solving problems are an essential condition for the successful mastering of school programs and a strong indicator of the intellectual development of primary school-aged children. The purpose of this empirical research is to study the influence of the author’s program of non-educational content, “Reflexion 1”, on the formation of reflexive actions in solving problems for children aged 9 years. Thirty-two classes were conducted (once a week, outside school hours) with the experimental group of students from September to May, according to the specified program. The results show that the lessons in the “Reflexion 1” program contribute to a significant increase in the number of children aged 9 years with substantial reflexive actions in solving problems. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue XVI European Congress of Psychology)
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Article
Emotional Attitude to Own Appearance and Appearance of the Spouse: Analysis of Relationships with the Relationship of Spouses to Themselves, Others, and the World
Behav. Sci. 2020, 10(2), 44; https://doi.org/10.3390/bs10020044 - 29 Jan 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2434
Abstract
The study analyzed the relationship of attitudes toward one’s appearance and appearance of the partner with attitude toward the own personality and that of the other persons’ in married men and women. The empirical object of the study included 52 married couples in [...] Read more.
The study analyzed the relationship of attitudes toward one’s appearance and appearance of the partner with attitude toward the own personality and that of the other persons’ in married men and women. The empirical object of the study included 52 married couples in a registered (26 couples) and unregistered (26 couples) marriage with a duration from 5 months to 26 years (M = 7.31; SD = 6.78). The age of the respondents was 20–45 years old (M = 30.26; SD = 7.31; all are residents of the Russian Federation; Russians). Methods included the following questionnaires: (1) “History of the couples’ relationships”; (2) “Estimated and informative interpretation of one’s appearance and its compliance with gender–age constructs”; (3) “Color test of relationships”; (4) “Method of diagnosing interpersonal relationships”; (5) “Fundamental Interpersonal Relations Orientation-Behavior questionnaire”. Empirical data were analyzed with Spearman correlation analysis, Mann–Whitney U-test, Kruskal–Wallis H-test. The results were as follows: (1) in men and women the attitude to their appearance is related to the attitude to themselves; attitude to the spouse’s appearance is associated with the attitude to him or her; (2) in women, the assessment of their appearance is related to the attitude to their appearance; in men, the assessment of their appearance is related to the attitude to appearance of their spouses; (3) women’s attitude to their appearance is associated with the need for inclusion, while in the men’s case it is associated with the need for love; (4) men who emotionally reject their mothers are dissatisfied with the appearance of their wives. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue XVI European Congress of Psychology)
Article
Formation of Future Educators’ Professional Training for Introducing Social Experience by Means of Innovative Technologies of Education to Senior Preschoolers
Behav. Sci. 2020, 10(2), 42; https://doi.org/10.3390/bs10020042 - 25 Jan 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2293
Abstract
The purpose of the paper is to reveal the peculiarities of the introduction of innovative education technologies in the process of training future pre-school teachers in the field of the socialization of preschoolers, and to verify their effectiveness by experimental means. During the [...] Read more.
The purpose of the paper is to reveal the peculiarities of the introduction of innovative education technologies in the process of training future pre-school teachers in the field of the socialization of preschoolers, and to verify their effectiveness by experimental means. During the research, the methods of analysis and synthesis of philosophical, psychological and pedagogical sources in the field of professional training of the future teacher were used: modeling and designing, to determine the theoretical and methodological foundations of the research and development of innovative technology for the training of future teachers to familiarize preschoolers with social environments; studying and generalizing the current state of the professional training of future teachers of pre-school institutions to familiarize preschoolers with social reality; comparison and classification to determine the essential characteristics, criteria and levels of readiness of future pre-school teachers for the socialization of preschoolers; pedagogical experiment with qualitative and quantitative analysis of results, in particular, the statistical criterion of K. Pearson (x2). The results of the diagnosis led to the need to implement innovative educational technologies into the process of the professional training of future teachers of pre-school educational institutions in three stages: diagnostic and propaedeutic, motivational, activity–creative. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue XVI European Congress of Psychology)
Article
If People Are Attached to Plants, Do They Love Other People? Case of the Russian Youth
Behav. Sci. 2020, 10(2), 40; https://doi.org/10.3390/bs10020040 - 22 Jan 2020
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2578
Abstract
People’s attachment to the plant world makes a great contribution to the maintenance of psychological well-being. At the same time, little is known regarding the contribution of attitudes to plants to people’s morality; the current study is aimed at filling this gap. We [...] Read more.
People’s attachment to the plant world makes a great contribution to the maintenance of psychological well-being. At the same time, little is known regarding the contribution of attitudes to plants to people’s morality; the current study is aimed at filling this gap. We assumed that the more positive the attitude to plants is, the higher the level of moral motives is. The survey was conducted on the Russian sample; 257 participants (students from Moscow universities, 199 female, Mage = 21.1, SDage = 2.5) were recruited. The following tools were used: a questionnaire People and Plants (PaP) consisting of five sub-scales (joy, esthetics, practice, closeness to nature, and ecology) and Moral Motives Model scale (MMM scale) including six sub-scales (self-restraint, not harming, social order, self-reliance (industriousness), helping/fairness, and social justice). It was found that all parameters of the positive attitudes to plants, except practice, were strongly positively connected with moral motives. Multi-regression analysis allowed developing certain models demonstrating the contribution of attachment to the plant world to people’s morality. The proscriptive motives (especially self-restraint) are more sensitive to attitudes to flora as compared to prescriptive motives; prescriptive motive self-reliance was not predicted by the attitude to flora at all. Moreover, the findings seem to be gender-sensitive (predictions are higher in females). The obtained results are discussed referring to the reverence for life ethics by Schweitzer, deep ecology by Næss, biophilia hypothesis by Wilson, and psychology of moral expansiveness by Crimston et al. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue XVI European Congress of Psychology)
Article
Life and Family Values Similarity in Inter-Ethnic and Inter-Faith Couples
Behav. Sci. 2020, 10(1), 38; https://doi.org/10.3390/bs10010038 - 19 Jan 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2582
Abstract
Inter-cultural families are an integral part of modern society, the institution of mutual influence of different cultures, of a person’s identity transformation. The studies of marital adjustment, values, and attitudes consistency in inter-cultural couples provide contradictory results. To resolve contradictions in this area, [...] Read more.
Inter-cultural families are an integral part of modern society, the institution of mutual influence of different cultures, of a person’s identity transformation. The studies of marital adjustment, values, and attitudes consistency in inter-cultural couples provide contradictory results. To resolve contradictions in this area, comparative studies of inter-cultural families of different types are important. The aim of the study is the comparative analysis of life and family values in inter-cultural couples, differing by the ethnic and religious affiliation of spouses. The participants: 69 couples: 20 mono-ethnic Russian, 30—inter-ethnic, inter-faith (Russians/Arabs); 19—inter-ethnic, with a common religion (Russian/Transcaucasian, Christians). The methods: Value Survey (Schwartz), Marital Role Expectations and Aspirations (Volkova), Marital Satisfaction Test (Stolin et al.), Mann–Whitney U-test, paired T-test. In inter-cultural couples, the spouses’ life-values coincidence is significantly less strong than in mono-cultural ones. However, in couples with common religious differences, their life values reflect not so much the contradictions, but the complementarity of traditional gender values. In general, the different cultures of spouses (both ethnic and religious) optimizes the process of comparing values and family attitudes. Despite a number of difficulties, spouses from inter-cultural couples generally have more consistent ideas about their family life. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue XVI European Congress of Psychology)
Article
Reliability and Validity of a Method for Assessment of Executive Functions in Drivers
Behav. Sci. 2020, 10(1), 37; https://doi.org/10.3390/bs10010037 - 19 Jan 2020
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2364
Abstract
The quality of drivers’ performance is one of the crucial components related to road safety. One of the key cognitive characteristics related to the ability to drive safely are executive functions. The main goal of the presented research is to propose a new [...] Read more.
The quality of drivers’ performance is one of the crucial components related to road safety. One of the key cognitive characteristics related to the ability to drive safely are executive functions. The main goal of the presented research is to propose a new method (Trace-route task) for assessment of executive functions in drivers. The present article discusses the results of two consecutive studies. Study one aims to determine the validity and reliability of the method used and includes 134 participants, equally divided in two groups—people with disturbances in executive functions and people from the general population. Study two aims to assess the ability of the method to distinguish drivers with risky behavior. It includes 1440 participants divided in two groups—people with and without actual risky driving behavior. The results from the studies show that people with different neurological or psychiatric diseases and drivers with different road violations demonstrate worse planning ability, working memory, decision making, and cognitive flexibility. This data show that the trace-route task method is a valid and reliable instrument for assessing executive functions and has the ability to distinguish people with risky driving behavior from those who drive safely. This study reveals that the proposed method can be used for implementation in the area of traffic psychology. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue XVI European Congress of Psychology)
Article
Fine Motor Precision Tasks: Sex Differences in Performance with and without Visual Guidance across Different Age Groups
Behav. Sci. 2020, 10(1), 36; https://doi.org/10.3390/bs10010036 - 16 Jan 2020
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 3867
Abstract
Previous studies have reported certain sex differences in motor performance precision. The aim of the present study was to analyze sex differences in fine motor precision performance for both hands under different test conditions. Fine motor tasks were performed by 220 Spanish participants [...] Read more.
Previous studies have reported certain sex differences in motor performance precision. The aim of the present study was to analyze sex differences in fine motor precision performance for both hands under different test conditions. Fine motor tasks were performed by 220 Spanish participants (ages: 12–95), tracing over the provided models – lines of 40 mm for both hands, two sensory conditions (PV—proprioceptive-visual; P—proprioceptive only) and three movement types (F—frontal, T—transversal, and S—sagittal). Differences in line length (the task focused on precision) were observed through MANOVA analysis for all test conditions, both sexes and different age groups. Sex differences in precision were observed in F and T movement types (statistically significance level and higher Cohens’ d were observed in condition with vision). No statistically significant differences were observed for both hands and sensory conditions in sagittal movement. Sex differences in fine motor precision were more frequently observed in the PV sensory condition in frontal movement and less in sagittal movement. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue XVI European Congress of Psychology)
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Article
Creativity and Personality Traits as Foreign Language Acquisition Predictors in University Linguistics Students
Behav. Sci. 2020, 10(1), 35; https://doi.org/10.3390/bs10010035 - 15 Jan 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 3135
Abstract
Foreign (second) language (FL/SL) proficiency is one of the most important competencies for a modern person, and is necessary for both professional and personal fulfillment. The purpose of this study is to consider and compare personality traits and creativity as predictors of success [...] Read more.
Foreign (second) language (FL/SL) proficiency is one of the most important competencies for a modern person, and is necessary for both professional and personal fulfillment. The purpose of this study is to consider and compare personality traits and creativity as predictors of success in foreign language acquisition (FLA). The sample includes 128 (105 female and 23 male) first- and second-year university linguistics students. Creativity is measured by the Abbreviated Torrance Test for Adults (ATTA). The FFM personality traits are measured by the Russian NEO Five-Factor Inventory adaptation by S. Biryukov and M. Bodunov. To assess the level of FL proficiency, we used a traditional academic achievement indicator (the semester’s final grades in English), as well as the English teachers’ assessment of the level of language proficiency of their students according to the “Foreign Language Proficiency Scale” (10 indicators and total score). Descriptive statistics methods and a multiple regression analysis were used to process the data in the R software environment, version 3.5.2. The findings of our research showed that creativity indicators have a stronger but contradictory impact on the level of FL proficiency compared to personality traits. We suggest that teachers, most likely, lack knowledge on the manifestations of student creativity in the process of FL learning. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue XVI European Congress of Psychology)
Article
The Contribution of Individual Psychological Features to the Determination of the Phenomenon of Work Alienation
Behav. Sci. 2020, 10(1), 34; https://doi.org/10.3390/bs10010034 - 15 Jan 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2444
Abstract
Using the questionnaire method on a sample of 92 Russian-speaking employees of the “person-person” professions type, the relationship of work alienation with personal characteristics was investigated. It was found that work alienation has associations with some personality traits. Also, the satisfaction of basic [...] Read more.
Using the questionnaire method on a sample of 92 Russian-speaking employees of the “person-person” professions type, the relationship of work alienation with personal characteristics was investigated. It was found that work alienation has associations with some personality traits. Also, the satisfaction of basic psychological needs at work is a significant predictor of work alienation. The study proved that work alienation is a relatively flexible construct for changes in the workplace that relate to autonomy, competence, and social relations. The results of the research can be used as an empirical justification of the model of the phenomenon as well as in the development of a differentiated approach to the prevention and intervention of work alienation, depending on the personality characteristics of employees. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue XVI European Congress of Psychology)
Article
Coping Strategies and Personality Profile Characteristics of People Whose Parents Were Alcohol Addicts
Behav. Sci. 2020, 10(1), 32; https://doi.org/10.3390/bs10010032 - 10 Jan 2020
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2666
Abstract
The relevance of this research is due to the wide prevalence of addictive behavior and the insufficient knowledge of the coping strategies of patients and their families. The purpose of this research was to investigate the resource factors and coping strategies of adults [...] Read more.
The relevance of this research is due to the wide prevalence of addictive behavior and the insufficient knowledge of the coping strategies of patients and their families. The purpose of this research was to investigate the resource factors and coping strategies of adults with alcohol-addicted parents and to make recommendations for psychological counseling for these people. The sample consisted of 52 subjects—who were participants in a twelve-step rehabilitation program for adult people whose parents had alcohol addictions—and 50 controls. We used guilt questionnaires (“The Guilt Inventory Questionnaire”, “The Interpersonal Guilt Questionnaire”), quantitative methods for evaluating the coping strategies used by participants (“coping strategies” (Lazarus, Folkman)), and a phenomenological analysis of the interviews with the participants. The results showed that adults with alcohol-addicted parents felt guilty in situations when they took care of somebody because their own parents did not model (and teach them) caretaking behavior. People whose parents were alcohol addicts tend to avoid accepting responsibility for their lives. The resource factors of people with alcohol-addicted parents included keeping a diary, participation in a rehabilitation program, and confidential communication with other people. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue XVI European Congress of Psychology)
Article
Migration and Adaptation as Indicators of Social Mobility Migrants
Behav. Sci. 2020, 10(1), 30; https://doi.org/10.3390/bs10010030 - 09 Jan 2020
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2682
Abstract
The economic and social changes in modern society have resulted in intensive and extensive migrant activity. The article contains a review of social, psychological, and gender aspects of migration from three countries of Central Asia (former Soviet republic)—Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, and Uzbekistan—in Russia (St. [...] Read more.
The economic and social changes in modern society have resulted in intensive and extensive migrant activity. The article contains a review of social, psychological, and gender aspects of migration from three countries of Central Asia (former Soviet republic)—Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, and Uzbekistan—in Russia (St. Petersburg). The main objective of our study was to identify socio-psychological mechanisms of migration from Central Asia—the general and specific peculiarities of the acculturation process of migrant workers. Participants in the study were labor migrants from Tajikistan, Kyrgyzstan, and Uzbekistan. The research was conducted in St. Petersburg. In total, 98 people aged from 19 to 42 years old took part in the research (median age = 32.26, SD = 3.44), among them, women made up 44% and men made up 56%. Three ethnic groups were represented in the sample: Kyrgyz people (34 persons), Tajik people (32 persons), and Uzbek people (32 persons). The research found both general and specific features related to certain ethnic groups. The research results showed that there were significant differences between the migrants from Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, and Uzbekistan by the following acculturation indicators: number of social contacts (friends) among representatives of their own ethnicity and among the Russian-speaking population, type of acculturation strategy, degree of life satisfaction, cultural and economic safety, and anxiety level. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue XVI European Congress of Psychology)
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Article
Formalized Computer-Aided Handwriting Psychology: Validation and Integration into Psychological Assessment
Behav. Sci. 2020, 10(1), 27; https://doi.org/10.3390/bs10010027 - 03 Jan 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 3086
Abstract
In contrast to traditional researches that involve a manual, non-quantitative, and subjective way of performing handwriting analysis, in the current research, a special computer-aided method of revised handwriting analysis is used. It includes the detection of personality traits via manual quantitative registration of [...] Read more.
In contrast to traditional researches that involve a manual, non-quantitative, and subjective way of performing handwriting analysis, in the current research, a special computer-aided method of revised handwriting analysis is used. It includes the detection of personality traits via manual quantitative registration of handwriting signs and their automated quantitative evaluation. This method is based on a mathematical–statistical model that integrates multiple international publications on the evaluation of handwriting signs. The first aim is the validation of the revised method against the 16 Personality Factor Questionnaire Revised (16PF-R), which is performed as a self-report personality test by test persons and was developed and researched empirically by Raymond B. Cattell et al. A second aim is the development of an integrated model for assessment including handwriting analysis: when both methods come to the same result on a certain scale, then the construct can be accepted with higher reliability; in contrast, when results are contradictory, they should be regarded as a limitation of each method and raise awareness in the researchers, as these contradictions are a precious source of additional information regarding the complexity, ambiguity, and context specificity of personality traits. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue XVI European Congress of Psychology)
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Article
Motivational Conflicts and the Psychological Structure of Perfectionism in Patients with Anxiety Disorders and Patients with Essential Hypertension
Behav. Sci. 2020, 10(1), 25; https://doi.org/10.3390/bs10010025 - 01 Jan 2020
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2576
Abstract
Many studies have shown connections between perfectionism, motivation, and anxiety disorders (AD), as well as essential hypertension (EH). The objective of this study is to examine the connections between motivation and the structure of perfectionism in AD patients and EH patients compared to [...] Read more.
Many studies have shown connections between perfectionism, motivation, and anxiety disorders (AD), as well as essential hypertension (EH). The objective of this study is to examine the connections between motivation and the structure of perfectionism in AD patients and EH patients compared to healthy individuals. Projective and semi-projective tests (thematic apperception test (TAT) of Heckhausen, Multi-Motive Grid) were used to measure motivation, while a perfectionism questionnaire by Hewitt and Flett was used to determine perfectionism levels. The participants were 21 AD patients, 21 EH patients, and 33 healthy individuals. EH patients show higher level of other-oriented perfectionism, and AD patients demonstrate increased levels of self-oriented perfectionism compared to the healthy group. Both groups of patients are motivated by fear of failure rather than hope for success, and they also demonstrate an increased fear of rejection. AD patients have an increased fear of power of other people. In EH patients, the fear of power seems to play a significant role as it correlates with many other variables. In EH patients, the other-oriented perfectionism is connected to achievement motivation, whereas in AD patients the same is true for socially prescribed perfectionism. Overall, studying motivation and perfectionism in relation to various disorders seems to offer research prospects. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue XVI European Congress of Psychology)
Article
The Other-Race and Other-Species Effect during a Sex Categorization Task: An Eye Tracker Study
Behav. Sci. 2020, 10(1), 24; https://doi.org/10.3390/bs10010024 - 01 Jan 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2401
Abstract
Sex categorization from faces is a crucial ability for humans and non-human primates for various social and cognitive processes. In the current study, we performed two eye tracking experiments to examine the gaze behavior of participants during a sex categorization task in which [...] Read more.
Sex categorization from faces is a crucial ability for humans and non-human primates for various social and cognitive processes. In the current study, we performed two eye tracking experiments to examine the gaze behavior of participants during a sex categorization task in which participants categorize face pictures from their own-race (Caucasian), other-race (Asian) and other-species (chimpanzee). In experiment 1, we presented the faces in an upright position to 16 participants, and found a strong other-race and other-species effect. In experiment 2, the same faces were shown to 24 naïve participants in an upside-down (inverted) position, which showed that, although the other-species effect was intact, other-race effect disappeared. Moreover, eye-tracking analysis revealed that in the upright position, the eye region was the first and most widely viewed area for all face categories. However, during upside-down viewing, participants’ attention directed more towards the eye region of the own-race and own-species faces, whereas the nose received more attention in other-race and other-species faces. Overall results suggest that other-race faces were processed less holistically compared to own-race faces and this could affect both participants’ behavioral performance and gaze behavior during sex categorization. Finally, gaze data suggests that the gaze of participants shifts from the eye to the nose region with decreased racial and species-based familiarity. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue XVI European Congress of Psychology)
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Article
Russian Citizens’ Attitude toward Insurance Policies as a Factor of Individual Economic Security
Behav. Sci. 2020, 10(1), 23; https://doi.org/10.3390/bs10010023 - 31 Dec 2019
Viewed by 2168
Abstract
Today, insurance enables the functioning of the market system. In modern Russia, such a mechanism of protection against internal and external threats exists to ensure the economic security of each citizen. Indeed, individual insurance policies continue to gain importance as the most effective [...] Read more.
Today, insurance enables the functioning of the market system. In modern Russia, such a mechanism of protection against internal and external threats exists to ensure the economic security of each citizen. Indeed, individual insurance policies continue to gain importance as the most effective risk management tool to guarantee the safety of the health and property of private citizens. The goal of this study was to investigate Russian citizens’ attitudes towards insurance policies and investment bearing in mind the concept of personal economic security. Preparations for this study were focused on theoretical understandings of economic security problems, taking the field of insurance as an example. Our research consisted of four stages, with a total of 1794 participants. The results of this study can offer insight to improve the functioning of the insurance market in accordance with the framework of the Insurance Industry Development Strategy for the Russian Federation—2020. The obtained results can be used from both a political and economic standpoint in the development of a set of measures dealing with the control of financial institutions, promotion of financial literacy, preparation of courses for universities, and trainings for participants in the insurance market. Policyholders can also use this information to advocate for improved insurance programs for citizens. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue XVI European Congress of Psychology)
Article
The Study of Labor Interests of Young Workers in the Selection and Adaptation of Personnel
Behav. Sci. 2020, 10(1), 22; https://doi.org/10.3390/bs10010022 - 31 Dec 2019
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2357
Abstract
The issue of actualization of labor interests as a motivational driver and one of the sources of labor productivity has received little study in applied and organizational psychology. The study given in the paper fills some “blanks” of this problem. The leading approach [...] Read more.
The issue of actualization of labor interests as a motivational driver and one of the sources of labor productivity has received little study in applied and organizational psychology. The study given in the paper fills some “blanks” of this problem. The leading approach to research is the mechanism of motivation, including the phenomenon of interest in work proposed on the basis of theoretical analysis. Using the methods of a special survey, questioning, and interview guides, the analysis and comparative assessment of the labor interests of 50 candidates for the service manager position (entertainment and restaurant industry field) was conducted, as well as of 45 employees in this industry aged 18 to 25. The main results of the paper show the connection of labor interests with the company’s personnel management system, namely, with the processes of selection, adaptation, and training. It was revealed that the candidates selected for the service manager position were of primary group interest and financial incentive was secondary. At the same time, financial incentive contributed to the successful passage of the adaptation period. Occupational interests of employees depended on their education and job specifics. Career interests were influenced by the time spent with the company. The recommendations necessary for employers to create the conditions corresponding to the leading labor interests of employees were substantiated. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue XVI European Congress of Psychology)
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Article
Dynamics of Existential Personality Fulfillment in the Course of Psychotherapy
Behav. Sci. 2020, 10(1), 21; https://doi.org/10.3390/bs10010021 - 31 Dec 2019
Viewed by 2454
Abstract
The purpose of the study is to explore the clients’ perceptions of therapeutic changes due to their existential fulfillment experience and authenticity in their relationships with the world. The content of the study reveals the subjective perceptions and experiences of clients about the [...] Read more.
The purpose of the study is to explore the clients’ perceptions of therapeutic changes due to their existential fulfillment experience and authenticity in their relationships with the world. The content of the study reveals the subjective perceptions and experiences of clients about the changes in the understanding of themselves and the world in the course of existential psychotherapy. Consideration of the qualitative changes in a person’s life as a result of psychotherapy was based on the concept of existential fulfillment and de-sedimentation of “I-structure”. An opening up of opportunities for experiencing the fullness of human existence, as well as exploring ways of avoiding existential fulfillment, present themselves as key aspects in existential psychotherapy. Research methods are Existence Scale (A. Längle and C. Orgler); semantic differential for measuring therapeutic changes of clients in the course of existential psychotherapy; and factor analysis. Going through a psychotherapeutic experience has a positive effect on the dynamics of self-distancing indices, self-transcendence, freedom, and responsibility. The experience of existential personal fulfillment in psychotherapy leads to changes in human contact with oneself and the ability to successfully interact with the external environment. Experiencing the true existential level of living helps a person to be aware of their needs and to stay in contact with their feelings. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue XVI European Congress of Psychology)
Article
The Effectiveness of Various Types of Psychological Correction of Anxiety in Primary School
Behav. Sci. 2020, 10(1), 20; https://doi.org/10.3390/bs10010020 - 30 Dec 2019
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2347
Abstract
At various stages of the development and education of children, there are psychoemotional difficulties that create prerequisites for impairment of the development of the child’s personality. The timely detection of difficulties in schoolchildren and therapeutic efforts are important for the formation of a [...] Read more.
At various stages of the development and education of children, there are psychoemotional difficulties that create prerequisites for impairment of the development of the child’s personality. The timely detection of difficulties in schoolchildren and therapeutic efforts are important for the formation of a psychologically healthy personality. The study of the effectiveness of various remedial techniques for childhood anxiety has therefore become theoretically and practically significant. The purpose of our study is to determine the effectiveness of various types of such therapeutic efforts: social and psychological training, a method of biological feedback, and Sandplay for the indicators of childhood anxiety among younger schoolchildren. The study was conducted in the school of Magadan, northeast of Russia (9–10-year-old students, n = 43). We used a standardized method of Multidimensional Assessment of Child Anxiety which included 10 scales. The following therapeutic efforts were used: sociopsychological training (SPT), biofeedback method (BFB), individual and group Sandplay. Students of group I (n = 12) participated only in the SPT. Students of group II (n = 11) participated in the SPT and underwent a course of training in self-regulation using the BFB method. In therapy work with the students of group III (n = 20), the SPT, BFB, individual and group Sandplay were used. In group I, after the therapy sessions, a significant decrease in anxiety was observed in 3 of 10 scales (2, 6, 7; p < 0.05). In group II, it was seen in 5 scales (1, 3, 6, 7, 8; p < 0.05). In group III, significant improvements took place in 7 scales (1, 2, 5, 6, 7, 9, 10; p < 0.01–p < 0.05). The present study has shown the different efficacy of applying the remedial techniques separately and in combination. The use of the therapy methods, in the complex, enhances the impact on the types of child anxiety. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue XVI European Congress of Psychology)
Article
High School Dropout Rates of Japanese Youth in Residential Care: An Examination of Major Risk Factors
Behav. Sci. 2020, 10(1), 19; https://doi.org/10.3390/bs10010019 - 30 Dec 2019
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2636
Abstract
Youths in Japanese residential care institutions often face challenges with social adaptation and career trajectories. This study aimed to examine the risk factors that lead residential care youths in Japan to drop out of high school. Eighty-nine residential care facilities completed a questionnaire [...] Read more.
Youths in Japanese residential care institutions often face challenges with social adaptation and career trajectories. This study aimed to examine the risk factors that lead residential care youths in Japan to drop out of high school. Eighty-nine residential care facilities completed a questionnaire that focused on the characteristics of residing high school students, their educational status, experiences of maltreatment before residence, diagnosed disabilities, and the timing of admission. A sample composed of 773 youths was analyzed. Among the facilities, the high school dropout rate among youths in residential care was 19.3% (n = 149). Data revealed that the time of admission had the utmost significant effect. The risk of dropping out for youths admitted at junior high school age was significantly higher than for youths admitted before that age. Overall, residential care youths had a higher risk of not adapting to high school, and youths receiving short-term care demonstrated difficulty continuing high school. These results illustrate the importance of psychological treatment and educational support for youth who enter residential care during adolescence. Hence, attention should be focused on improving youth engagement in school to improve their social and career outcomes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue XVI European Congress of Psychology)
Article
Imbalance between Emotionally Negative and Positive Life Events Retrieval and the Associated Asymmetry of Brain Activity
Behav. Sci. 2020, 10(1), 18; https://doi.org/10.3390/bs10010018 - 30 Dec 2019
Viewed by 2256
Abstract
Sustained focusing on a negative assessment of life events can create negative background and changes in the emotional feedback to new information. In this regard, it is important to assess the balance between self-assessment of emotional memories and their reflection in brain activity. [...] Read more.
Sustained focusing on a negative assessment of life events can create negative background and changes in the emotional feedback to new information. In this regard, it is important to assess the balance between self-assessment of emotional memories and their reflection in brain activity. The study was aimed at exploring the brain activity using electroencephalographic (EEG) analysis in six frequency ranges from delta to beta2 during the retrieval of positive or negative emotional memory compared with the resting state. According to ANOVA results, the most informative for differentiation of emotions were the alpha2 and beta2 rhythms with greater synchronization effect for positive than for negative emotions. The memory retrieval, regardless of the valence of emotions, was accompanied by alpha1 desynchronization at the posterior cortex. Self-assessment of the memory intensity was not significantly different due to emotion valences. However, the scores of positive emotions were related positively with beta2 oscillations at the left anterior temporal site, whereas for negative emotions, at the right one. Thus, the emotional autobiographical memory is reflected by activation processes in the visual cortex and areas associated with multimodal information processing, whereas differentiation of the valence of emotions is presented by the high-frequency oscillations at the temporal cortex areas. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue XVI European Congress of Psychology)
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Article
EEG “Signs” of Verbal Creative Task Fulfillment with and without Overcoming Self-Induced Stereotypes
Behav. Sci. 2020, 10(1), 17; https://doi.org/10.3390/bs10010017 - 29 Dec 2019
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2209
Abstract
The study aimed to reveal task-related differences in story creation with and without the mental effort of overcoming self-induced stereotypes. Eighteen right-handed subjects (19.3 ± 1.1 years old) created stories. The subjects reported the formation of story plot stereotypes (as we call them: [...] Read more.
The study aimed to reveal task-related differences in story creation with and without the mental effort of overcoming self-induced stereotypes. Eighteen right-handed subjects (19.3 ± 1.1 years old) created stories. The subjects reported the formation of story plot stereotypes (as we call them: self-induced) during self-regulated creative production, which had to be overcome with the instruction to continue the story. Creative task fulfillment (without formed stereotypes—first stage of creation) was characterized by a decrease in the wave percentages of 9–10 Hz, 10–11 Hz and 11–12 Hz frequencies and EEG desynchronization (decreases in EEG spectral power) in the theta (4–8 Hz), alpha1 (8–10 Hz) and alpha2 (10–13 Hz) frequency bands in comparison with the REST (random episodic silent thought) state. The effortful creation task (with overcoming of self-induced stereotypes-second stage of creation) was characterized by increases in waves with frequencies of 9–10 Hz, 10–11 Hz, 11–12 Hz in temporal, occipital areas and pronounced EEG synchronization in alpha1,2 frequency bands in comparison with the free creation condition. It was also found, that the participants with the higher originality scores in psychological tests demonstrated increased percentage of high frequencies (11–12 Hz in comparison with those who had lower originality scores. Obtained results support the role of alpha and theta frequency bands dynamics in creative cognition. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue XVI European Congress of Psychology)
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Article
The Relationship between the Conscious Self-Regulation of Schoolchildren’s Learning Activity, Their Test Anxiety Level, and the Final Exam Result in Mathematics
Behav. Sci. 2020, 10(1), 16; https://doi.org/10.3390/bs10010016 - 26 Dec 2019
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2593
Abstract
This article presents the results of a study on the relationship between conscious self-regulation of learning activity, test anxiety and performance in the Unified State Exam in mathematics in a sample of Russian students (N = 231). The Self-Regulation Profile of Learning Activity [...] Read more.
This article presents the results of a study on the relationship between conscious self-regulation of learning activity, test anxiety and performance in the Unified State Exam in mathematics in a sample of Russian students (N = 231). The Self-Regulation Profile of Learning Activity Questionnaire (SRPLAQ, 2015) and Spielberger’s Test Anxiety Inventory (TAI) (Russian adaptation, 2004) were used to measure self-regulation and anxiety, respectively. The study also took into account the students’ results for the Unified State Exam in mathematics. The study revealed a negative correlation for the test anxiety indicators with both the exam results and regulatory characteristics. The cluster analysis identified groups of students that differed in their level of self-regulation development, anxiety indicators, and the math exam result. It appears that students who have the lowest exam results are characterized not only by high test anxiety rates, but also by lower self-regulation levels. The regression analysis within the groups showed that a higher exam result is largely associated with a person’s regulatory resources. Examination success is based not so much on the ability to cope with adverse functional states, but on the maturity and stability of an integrated system of conscious self-regulation, which determines students’ effectiveness in achieving educational goals. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue XVI European Congress of Psychology)
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Article
Crisis of Meaning and Subjective Well-Being: The Mediating Role of Resilience and Self-Control among Gifted Adults
Behav. Sci. 2020, 10(1), 15; https://doi.org/10.3390/bs10010015 - 26 Dec 2019
Viewed by 3196
Abstract
Meaning in life is positively associated with mental and physical health, while a crisis of meaning is a painful existential state that is defined as a perceived lack of meaning. An earlier study has shown that academically high-achieving adults mostly experience existential fulfilment, [...] Read more.
Meaning in life is positively associated with mental and physical health, while a crisis of meaning is a painful existential state that is defined as a perceived lack of meaning. An earlier study has shown that academically high-achieving adults mostly experience existential fulfilment, while intellectually gifted adults have a disproportionally high risk of suffering from a crisis of meaning, which can weaken their potential fulfilment in life. To uncover the underlying mechanisms of how an existential crisis affects gifted adults’ mental health, this study examines the longitudinal relationship between crisis of meaning and subjective well-being via two mediators: self-control and resilience. A multiple mediation model was tested with longitudinal data (two times of measurement) of two gifted groups: intellectually gifted adults (HIQ; N = 100; 55% female) and academically high-achieving adults (HAA; N = 52; 29% female). Results suggest group differences: HIQ had higher crisis of meaning and lower self-control than the HAA. HIQ’s resilience (but not their self-control) and HAA’s self-control (but not their resilience) mediated the relationship between crisis of meaning and subjective well-being. These findings give initial insights about the distinct psychological needs of gifted adults and their different paths toward subjective well-being. These insights can be applied in future giftedness research, talent development programs, or counseling to support gifted individuals in living up to their potential. Thus, HIQ could benefit particularly from supporting their ability to cope with adversity, while HAA could benefit particularly from strengthening their willpower to modify undesired emotions, behaviors, and desires. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue XVI European Congress of Psychology)
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Article
Strengthening Marriages in Egypt: Impact of Divorce on Women
Behav. Sci. 2020, 10(1), 14; https://doi.org/10.3390/bs10010014 - 25 Dec 2019
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2986
Abstract
Divorce rates have been increasing around the world, and the Middle East is not immune to this reality. This pilot study investigates the phenomenological experiences of divorce for 20 Egyptian females. The study is qualitative, using in-depth interviews asking 14 questions that address [...] Read more.
Divorce rates have been increasing around the world, and the Middle East is not immune to this reality. This pilot study investigates the phenomenological experiences of divorce for 20 Egyptian females. The study is qualitative, using in-depth interviews asking 14 questions that address different aspects of struggling marriages and post-divorce life. Five main themes were derived using a conventional approach to content analysis. The themes are: Expectations before marriage, secret life, relational dynamics, mental health, and resilience. Several sub-themes were identified in each category. The themes and subthemes are discussed. What was surprising was that many women experienced a greater sense of resilience and level of empowerment as a result of their post-divorce process. Recommendations for future research are discussed, including a replication of the study with a more stratified sample group and inclusion of men prior to developing any interventions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue XVI European Congress of Psychology)
Article
Specific Features of Ethnic Identity in the Regions with Varying Degrees of Ethnic Diversity
Behav. Sci. 2020, 10(1), 13; https://doi.org/10.3390/bs10010013 - 25 Dec 2019
Viewed by 2041
Abstract
Ethnic diversity describes the plurality of ethnicities within a group of people coexisting in one territory. The permanent presence of other cultures’ representatives can trigger a sense of jeopardy; a feeling that the prevailing way of life, its norms, and its values are [...] Read more.
Ethnic diversity describes the plurality of ethnicities within a group of people coexisting in one territory. The permanent presence of other cultures’ representatives can trigger a sense of jeopardy; a feeling that the prevailing way of life, its norms, and its values are challenged by strangers, which results in hostility to ethnic minorities living in the same territory. In this context, the study aimed at investigating specific features of the individual’s ethnic identity determined by the degree of the ethnic diversity of their living environment is of relevance. In order to define regions for the study, the comparative analysis of the ethnic diversity of Russian regions was conducted. Two regions for the study were defined: the Sverdlovsk region as a territory with average ethnic diversity and the Republic of Bashkortostan as a highly diverse region in terms of ethnicity. The respondents from less ethno-diverse areas exhibit global self-identification, the awareness of being a part of the world, and territorial identity. Differences in the degree of sustainability and the intensity of ethnic self-identification of the subjects from regions with varying degrees of ethnic diversity were revealed. Significant distinctions in the meaning of ethnicity for the compared groups of the respondents were found. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue XVI European Congress of Psychology)
Article
Cubes or Pellets in Mental-Rotation Tests: Effects on Gender Differences and on the Performance in a Subsequent Math Test
Behav. Sci. 2020, 10(1), 12; https://doi.org/10.3390/bs10010012 - 23 Dec 2019
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2419
Abstract
In mental rotation, males consistently outperform females in performance and confidence. Both can affect math anxiety. In the present study, 107 undergraduate students (85 female) solved a mental-rotation test either with cube (C-MRT) or pellet (P-MRT) figures as stimulus material, then reported their [...] Read more.
In mental rotation, males consistently outperform females in performance and confidence. Both can affect math anxiety. In the present study, 107 undergraduate students (85 female) solved a mental-rotation test either with cube (C-MRT) or pellet (P-MRT) figures as stimulus material, then reported their confidence in their ability in the test, and solved a math test. Males performed better than females in both test versions: In the C-MRT, with a large effect, and in the P-MRT, with a small effect, and reported higher scores in their confidence. In math test performance, males scored higher than females when they solved the math test after the C-MRT but not after the P-MRT. The interactions of gender and stimulus material were not significant. Correlations between confidence and math test performance were large for males and not significant for females. Stereotype threat and lift effects are discussed as possible reasons for the varying effects of the stimulus material on the MRT performance of male and female participants. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue XVI European Congress of Psychology)
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Article
Individual Response to Stressors and Efficiency in Project Activities
Behav. Sci. 2020, 10(1), 10; https://doi.org/10.3390/bs10010010 - 20 Dec 2019
Viewed by 1970
Abstract
This article investigates the way a graded approach can be implemented in the organization of the project-based learning process in accordance with the personality characteristics of subjects. This study is based on the results analysis of the key features of project-based learning as [...] Read more.
This article investigates the way a graded approach can be implemented in the organization of the project-based learning process in accordance with the personality characteristics of subjects. This study is based on the results analysis of the key features of project-based learning as one of the methods for developing human resources. The assessment of subjects’ individual response to stressors at different project stages is justified to be relevant in order to improve project efficiency in the framework of the learning process. The assessment of the individual response of subjects to stressors was carried out according to the activation dynamics of cerebral hemispheres. The research target was to determine features of the subjects’ individual responses to the project activity stressors and to identify specifics of the individual responding at each of its stages. The study involved 56 final-year students of different majors. Aktivatsiometr ATs-9K, a device for comprehensive psychophysiological diagnosis designed by Yu. A. Tsagarelli, was used to monitor hemispheric activation. This hardware and software complex consists of a device diagnosing the activation of cerebral hemispheres based on the galvanic skin response and PC software for automatic data processing. The individual typological indicators of activation (13 measurements in a familiar environment) and activity-situational indicators of activation (seven single measurements at different stages of the project activity) were calculated. The stress response was diagnosed if the activity-situational activation indicators of the cerebral hemispheres exceeded the individual typological activation indices by more than 1.5 times. The results of the empirical study show different types of individual responses to stressors at different stages of the project activity. The analysis of the profiles of individual responses to stressors made it possible to differentiate subjects, and also identify groups of students with the maximum resources for each stage of activity. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue XVI European Congress of Psychology)
Article
Relationship Between Satisfaction and Concern with Own Appearance and Subjective Estimation of Economic Status
Behav. Sci. 2020, 10(1), 9; https://doi.org/10.3390/bs10010009 - 19 Dec 2019
Viewed by 1968
Abstract
This study is aimed to scrutinize the relationship between satisfaction and concern with an individual’s physical appearance and the subjective estimation of economic status, which is considered as one of main predictors of life satisfaction. Recent research has focused on the role of [...] Read more.
This study is aimed to scrutinize the relationship between satisfaction and concern with an individual’s physical appearance and the subjective estimation of economic status, which is considered as one of main predictors of life satisfaction. Recent research has focused on the role of real economic status on different aspects of human life, including satisfaction and concern with own appearance. In contrast with such studies, our investigation is focused on a subjective-comparative approach to economic status evaluation. According to this approach, the participants have to identify themselves either with the group “rather poor than rich” or with the group “rather rich than poor”. We hypothesize that satisfaction and concern with own appearance in youth varies as a factor of subjective evaluation of economic status. The participants were 41 male and 82 female undergraduate and graduate students of different majors, aged 20–35. Of the subjects, 62% estimated their economic status as “rather poor than rich” and 38% of participants identified themselves with the group “rather rich than poor”. The paper-pencil questionnaires “Attitudes towards Own Appearance: Satisfaction and Concern” and “Subjective Evaluation of Economic Status” were administered. Results indicates that subjective evaluation of economic status has a stronger association with satisfaction with one’s own physical appearance in comparison with concern over one’s own appearance. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue XVI European Congress of Psychology)
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Article
Routes for Specialization in Psychology throughout Europe
Behav. Sci. 2020, 10(1), 7; https://doi.org/10.3390/bs10010007 - 19 Dec 2019
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2045
Abstract
The specialization of psychology helps to delineate fields in the practice of psychology. When establishing professional qualification criteria, associations seek to promote, in their members, scientific skills and knowledge considered fundamental for the practice of psychology in a given area. The present study [...] Read more.
The specialization of psychology helps to delineate fields in the practice of psychology. When establishing professional qualification criteria, associations seek to promote, in their members, scientific skills and knowledge considered fundamental for the practice of psychology in a given area. The present study reports on a survey of the member associations of the European Federation of Psychologists Associations (EFPA). The survey inquired about: (a) the initial requisites for entering the profession and (b) additional requisites for specialization. Of the 37 associations contacted, 14 replied and we retrieved the information of 12 associations from their official websites. The results indicate that specialization is widespread throughout Europe and is independent of the regulation of the profession. In almost half of the countries considered, the specialization process is completed in universities—it is frequently associated with the postgraduate level of the EuroPsy—and relies on conventional learning methods. The number of existing specialties in psychology is very high, but the traditional areas (clinical and health, education, and social/organizational) are more prevalent. The results are discussed in light of the advantages, but also the challenges posed by the specialization in psychology. A continuous model of the specialization of psychology is proposed with two stages: broad and advanced psychology areas. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue XVI European Congress of Psychology)
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Article
Relationships Between Medical Doctors’ Personality Traits and Their Professional Risk Perception
Behav. Sci. 2020, 10(1), 6; https://doi.org/10.3390/bs10010006 - 19 Dec 2019
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 2276
Abstract
Medical decision-making is often related to risk and uncertainty, but existing research does not offer a comprehensive approach to this matter. We discuss the necessity to study cognitive representations of risks (CRRs), which we define as the subject’s images of risky situations, possible [...] Read more.
Medical decision-making is often related to risk and uncertainty, but existing research does not offer a comprehensive approach to this matter. We discuss the necessity to study cognitive representations of risks (CRRs), which we define as the subject’s images of risky situations, possible outcomes, and alternative decisions. The psychometric approach towards risk assessment often involves the evaluation of different risks, but we aim to create such a list from medical professionals’ expert knowledge. Via qualitative analysis, CRRs were obtained from interviews with practicing doctors from Russia (N = 24). The list includes 21 risks from real-life medical practice, with seven aspects for numerical evaluation each. Then, practicing doctors (N = 64) evaluated CRRs along with filling risk-related personality traits questionnaires: Personal Decision-Making Factors Questionnaire, Melbourne Decision Making Questionnaire, Ten Item Personality Measure, and Budner’s Intolerance of Ambiguity Scale. A correlational analysis showed interconnections between most CRRs aspects, with predictability and negative outcome probability seemingly being the central aspects of the risk assessment. CRRs aspects were also found to be gender- and experience-specific, with female doctors and younger specialists being more sensitive to professional risks. Personality traits in relation to CRRs aspects, medical experience and gender are also discussed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue XVI European Congress of Psychology)
Article
Psychological Mediation of Dysfunction and Hyperfunction of Respiratory Regulation
Behav. Sci. 2020, 10(1), 5; https://doi.org/10.3390/bs10010005 - 19 Dec 2019
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2671
Abstract
This research investigates the continuum between the dysfunction and the hyperfunction of breath regulation and presents the psychological mediation that supports or disrupts this regulation. The pilot study compared breathing regulation in patients with hyperventilation syndrome (HVS), free divers, and healthy volunteers. To [...] Read more.
This research investigates the continuum between the dysfunction and the hyperfunction of breath regulation and presents the psychological mediation that supports or disrupts this regulation. The pilot study compared breathing regulation in patients with hyperventilation syndrome (HVS), free divers, and healthy volunteers. To examine the ability of voluntary respiration regulation, breath holding involving “easy-going” and “struggling” phases was used. Psychological mediation was assessed through (a) respiratory experience interviews, (b) anxiety levels, and (c) psycho-semantic techniques. Free divers have a bigger “positive breathing vocabulary” and can endure the conflict between the physiological need to inhale and the voluntary motivation to hold their breath for longer. The connection between emotions and negative breathing experience in patients with HVS leads to less breathing control. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue XVI European Congress of Psychology)
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Article
Parents of Children with Developmental Difficulties and Parents of Typically Developed Children: What Happens in a Year?
Behav. Sci. 2020, 10(1), 4; https://doi.org/10.3390/bs10010004 - 18 Dec 2019
Viewed by 1998
Abstract
Parents of children with developmental difficulties (DD) face many challenges on an everyday basis and, compared to a parent of a typically developed child (TD), are at risk to experience lower well-being. Earlier, as a part of the CRO-WELL project, we explored differences [...] Read more.
Parents of children with developmental difficulties (DD) face many challenges on an everyday basis and, compared to a parent of a typically developed child (TD), are at risk to experience lower well-being. Earlier, as a part of the CRO-WELL project, we explored differences in the well-being of parents of children with DD and a matching group of parents of TD children. Results showed that both groups of parents were equally happy and satisfied with their lives in general, with only a difference in satisfaction with free time. The aim of the current study was to explore what happened in one-year’s time. Out of the initial sample of 41 parents by group, the second wave was completed by 19 parents of DD children and 27 parents of TD children. Results showed that parents of children with DD were less satisfied with life in general, as well as less happy and less satisfied with health, family, friends, and safety compared to parents of TD children. They also experienced three times more negative events than parents of TD children. Having a child with developmental difficulties reflects on many life domains and these results could serve as a guidepost in the design of support for families of children with developmental difficulties. All authors have read and agreed to the published version of the manuscript. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue XVI European Congress of Psychology)
Article
Russian Students’ Social Representations of Higher Education
Behav. Sci. 2020, 10(1), 2; https://doi.org/10.3390/bs10010002 - 18 Dec 2019
Viewed by 1970
Abstract
The ideas of the theory social representations proposed by Moscovici and developed in the structural approach by Abric were used in the research in order to reveal the structure and content of students’ social representations of higher education in a modern society. The [...] Read more.
The ideas of the theory social representations proposed by Moscovici and developed in the structural approach by Abric were used in the research in order to reveal the structure and content of students’ social representations of higher education in a modern society. The total sample size was 572 students: of which 197 were secondary school students (average age of 16.7), 189 were undergraduate students (average age of 20.8) and 186 were master students (average age of 29.3). The methodology of Vergès for the analysis of the structure of social representations was used. We tested the hypothesis that the structure of social representations of higher education has general and specific features correlated to the age and educational level of students. It was found that the social representations of schoolchildren, undergraduate students and master’s students differ in a number of elements and content characteristics. Generally social representations of students with different education levels had similar characteristics. Students of secondary schools expanded the core performance, in contrast to students of universities, presumably because of their fewer social experiences, providing large “distance” to higher education as an “object”. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue XVI European Congress of Psychology)
Article
Procrastination as a Threat to the Psychological Security of the Educational Environment
Behav. Sci. 2020, 10(1), 1; https://doi.org/10.3390/bs10010001 - 18 Dec 2019
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2475
Abstract
The present study provides an analysis of the concept of procrastination and its features, together with a discussion of the fundamental approaches to its investigation. It examines procrastination as a threat to the psychological security of the educational environment. The author presents the [...] Read more.
The present study provides an analysis of the concept of procrastination and its features, together with a discussion of the fundamental approaches to its investigation. It examines procrastination as a threat to the psychological security of the educational environment. The author presents the results of an empirical investigation of the characteristics of interpersonal relations in the educational environment, academic motivation, and general motivation of students with various degrees of procrastination. The subjects of the investigation were 95 students, of the average age of 18.2 years, in an institution of higher education dedicated to the humanities. The subjects were evaluated using the procrastination scale for student populations developed by C. Lay, the academic motivation scale of R.J. Vallerand, the self-evaluation survey of motivation of academic, intellectual, and professional activity developed by N.A. Bakshaeva and A.A. Verbitsky, and the “Survey of Interpersonal Relations in an Educational Environment” developed by G.S. Kozhukhar and V.V. Kovrov. The primary hypothesis of the study, that the interconnections of interpersonal relations in an educational environment with academic and general motivation would differ in the groups of students with different levels of procrastination, was confirmed. The differences in the evaluations of the quality of interpersonal relations, and indicators of academic and intellectual motivation of students with different levels of procrastination were of special particular significance. It was shown that, the higher the level of students’ procrastination, the greater the interaction between the negative aspects of interpersonal relations in the educational environment and the external academic motivation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue XVI European Congress of Psychology)
Article
Family and Child Characteristics Associated with Foster Care Breakdown
Behav. Sci. 2019, 9(12), 160; https://doi.org/10.3390/bs9120160 - 16 Dec 2019
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2053
Abstract
Studies examining the experience of children returned from foster care can reveal its causes and the severity of the psychological consequences, as well as the positive effect of psychological support on family functioning. Our research was aimed at the features of children and [...] Read more.
Studies examining the experience of children returned from foster care can reveal its causes and the severity of the psychological consequences, as well as the positive effect of psychological support on family functioning. Our research was aimed at the features of children and characteristics of foster families who refuse to continue parenting foster children. The study participants were comprised of families raising a foster child (Group One—182 families), and families who refused to continue parenting and returned the child (Group Two—19 families). The study was conducted using the “standardized interview for parents” and the “list of traumatic experiences of the child.” The results show that the strongest contributor to foster family breakdown was the degree of the child’s traumatic experience before placement (for Group One, 3.9 (1.15); Group Two, 6.1 (1.31), U = 395.0, p < 0.001) and the minimal participation of the family in an intervention program (the total number of program activities the family did not participate in; for Group One, 48.5 (28.27)%, Group Two, 95.5 (2.58)%, U = 67.5, p < 0.001). Our data expand ideas about the functioning of foster families who have taken children with significant traumatic experience and indicate the need to improve the quality of psychological and social support to foster families as an important factor in preventing secondary returns. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue XVI European Congress of Psychology)
Article
Strategies of Speech Interaction between Adults and Preschool Children with Typical and Atypical Development
Behav. Sci. 2019, 9(12), 159; https://doi.org/10.3390/bs9120159 - 16 Dec 2019
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2281
Abstract
The goal of this research is to study the speech strategies of adults’ interactions with 4–7-year-old children. The participants are “mother–child” dyads with typically developing (TD, n = 40) children, children with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs, n = 20), Down syndrome (DS, n [...] Read more.
The goal of this research is to study the speech strategies of adults’ interactions with 4–7-year-old children. The participants are “mother–child” dyads with typically developing (TD, n = 40) children, children with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs, n = 20), Down syndrome (DS, n = 10), and “experimenter–orphan” pairs (n = 20). Spectrographic, linguistic, phonetic, and perceptual analyses (n = 465 listeners) of children’s speech and mothers’ speech (MS) are executed. The analysis of audio records by listeners (n = 10) and the elements of nonverbal behavior on the basis of video records by experts (n = 5) are made. Differences in the speech behavior strategies of mothers during interactions with TD children, children with ASD, and children with DS are revealed. The different strategies of “mother–child” interactions depending on the severity of the child’s developmental disorders and the child’s age are described. The same features of MS addressed to TD children with low levels of speech formation are used in MS directed to children with atypical development. The acoustic features of MS correlated with a high level of TD child speech development do not lead to a similar correlation in dyads with ASD and DS children. The perceptual and phonetic features of the speech of children of all groups are described. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue XVI European Congress of Psychology)
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Article
Experimental Research into Conscious Self-Regulation in First-Graders with Developmental Delay
Behav. Sci. 2019, 9(12), 158; https://doi.org/10.3390/bs9120158 - 15 Dec 2019
Viewed by 2141
Abstract
The underdeveloped conscious self-regulation of actions plays a primary role in the disorder-related character of children with developmental delay (DD). This study aimed to analyze and systematize specific occurrences of conscious self-regulation in children’s DD-affected cognitive activity. Children aged 7–8 years were involved [...] Read more.
The underdeveloped conscious self-regulation of actions plays a primary role in the disorder-related character of children with developmental delay (DD). This study aimed to analyze and systematize specific occurrences of conscious self-regulation in children’s DD-affected cognitive activity. Children aged 7–8 years were involved in the study (n = 60), including children with DD (n = 40) and school children displaying typical development (n = 20). The dotting test, visual pattern test, and Toulouse–Pieron attention test are the practical methods used in the study. Mathematical methods of statistics were applied to analyze the study outcome. The experimental research identified and described four levels of conscious self-regulation development in the cognitive activity of children with different learning capacities. The findings proved that children of 7–8 years with DD have an underdeveloped level of conscious self-regulation of actions in terms of their cognitive activity, and that they differ from their peers regarding typical development in terms of their conscious self-regulation level and skills. Special intervention programs that develop conscious self-regulation in the performance and behavior of children with DD are required to realize their cognitive and personal capacities and provide them with high-quality education. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue XVI European Congress of Psychology)
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Article
Designing a Scale to Assess Dialectical Thinking: Link to ECERS-R Items
Behav. Sci. 2019, 9(12), 157; https://doi.org/10.3390/bs9120157 - 14 Dec 2019
Viewed by 2038
Abstract
Dialectical thinking is gaining wide circulation as part of personal and social preschool child development in modern society, which makes all the more urgent the task of designing a tool to evaluate the extent to which the educational environment in a pre-school establishment [...] Read more.
Dialectical thinking is gaining wide circulation as part of personal and social preschool child development in modern society, which makes all the more urgent the task of designing a tool to evaluate the extent to which the educational environment in a pre-school establishment supports the development of dialectical thinking in preschoolers. To implement this task, the researchers analyzed the ECERS-R as a means for assessing the quality of preschool education and concluded that this tool fails to focus on rating the environment in terms of the development of dialectical thinking. N.Ye. Veraksa and E.V. Sviridova designed a tool for assessing how well the educational environment supports dialectical thinking in preschoolers (the scale of dialectical thinking support (DTS scale). The research into the use of the DTS scale was conducted in 18 preparatory groups of three educational complexes in Moscow in February–April 2019. The comparison of the results on the DTS scale and those on the ECERS-R scale made it possible to conclude that the ECERS-R scale does not differentiate between the stimulation of dialectical thinking and formally logical thinking in preschool age children. The use of the newly designed tool was justified statistically. It is noted that the teacher activity in line with the ECERS-R scale scores of “Stimulating Communication with Children”, “Books and Illustrations”, “Using Speech to Develop Cognitive Skills” may be associated with decreased levels of support for children’s dialectical thinking in preschool educational institutions. In addition, a positive relationship was found to exist between the ECERS-R score of “Care-Giver and Children Interaction” and DTS scale. The results obtained make it possible to hypothesize that there are interrelations between the development of dialectic thinking in children, on the one hand, and voluntariness and the emotional sphere, on the other. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue XVI European Congress of Psychology)
Article
Examining the Convergent Validity of the Triarchic Psychopathy Measure Using a Sample of Incarcerated and on Probation Lithuanian Juveniles
Behav. Sci. 2019, 9(12), 156; https://doi.org/10.3390/bs9120156 - 14 Dec 2019
Viewed by 1931
Abstract
The Triarchic Psychopathy Measure (TriPM) is based on the triarchic psychopathy model proposed by Patrick, Fowles, and Krueger in 2009. This paper assesses the convergent validity of TriPM using a number of measures for a sample of adolescents who are either incarcerated or [...] Read more.
The Triarchic Psychopathy Measure (TriPM) is based on the triarchic psychopathy model proposed by Patrick, Fowles, and Krueger in 2009. This paper assesses the convergent validity of TriPM using a number of measures for a sample of adolescents who are either incarcerated or on probation. These included the Short-Term Assessment of Risk and Treatability: Adolescent Version (START: AV); the Subtypes of Antisocial Behavior Questionnaire (STAB); the Criminal Sentiments Scale-Modified (CSS-M); and the Measure of Criminal Social Identity (MCSI). The results showed significant differences between groups that are incarcerated and those on probation, with the incarcerated sample of juveniles exhibiting higher ratings in terms of Disinhibition and lower ratings for Boldness. The TriPM measures examined also show expected positive correlations with concurrent measures related to criminal behavior in both of the aforementioned samples of juveniles. A different pattern of correlations was observed between Boldness and STAB scales, with a large positive correlation found in the incarcerated sample, while no significant correlations were detected in the probation sample. The results support the usefulness of TriPM in assessing the psychopathy in samples of the juvenile offenders chosen for our research purposes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue XVI European Congress of Psychology)
Article
Classification of Participants Based on Increase–Decrease Rate Model of Reaction Time to Personality Trait Words
Behav. Sci. 2019, 9(12), 155; https://doi.org/10.3390/bs9120155 - 14 Dec 2019
Viewed by 2014
Abstract
In this experiment, we tried to measure personality by reaction time (RT) to stimuli of personality trait words. There were interindividual and intraindividual differences in the factors that caused the reaction time to fluctuate. The intraindividual differences for personality trait words were caused [...] Read more.
In this experiment, we tried to measure personality by reaction time (RT) to stimuli of personality trait words. There were interindividual and intraindividual differences in the factors that caused the reaction time to fluctuate. The intraindividual differences for personality trait words were caused by changes due to circumstances for the same participant. The increased stimulus reaction time (sRT) model for simple reaction time was used as an index to indicate personality traits. As a result, participants could be classified into two major hierarchical clusters. The participants in Cluster 1 showed innovative dominance. The participants in Cluster 2 were obedient and conservative. The independent variable was measured by the physiological index using sRT for classify the participants. Participants in Cluster 2 had a reduced stress response to the experiment and showed a tendency to be compliant. Moreover, immediately after the RT measurement session with a laptop computer started, participants in Cluster 1 showed decreased HEG and increased amylase values and had a somewhat negative attitude. The physiological dependent variable were measured by using salivary amylase and hemoencephalography (HEG). And, the psychological dependent variable was the Big Five personality inventory. All of them ware using to verify the participant’s classification. Participants in Cluster 2 had significantly higher conscientiousness than those in Cluster 1. Therefore, we suggest that it is possible to classify personality traits from RT by using sRT based on intraindividual differences. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue XVI European Congress of Psychology)
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Article
How Decisiveness, Self-Efficacy, Curiosity and Independent and Interdependent Self-Construals Are Related to Future Hopefulness among Senior Students
Behav. Sci. 2019, 9(12), 154; https://doi.org/10.3390/bs9120154 - 14 Dec 2019
Viewed by 2144
Abstract
Hope is a future-oriented reasoning that influences psychological assets of individuals. A hopeful standing towards the future can positively influence individual well-being. Different standings in terms of hopefulness may create variations in psychological assets of people. In the current study, we examined the [...] Read more.
Hope is a future-oriented reasoning that influences psychological assets of individuals. A hopeful standing towards the future can positively influence individual well-being. Different standings in terms of hopefulness may create variations in psychological assets of people. In the current study, we examined the associations of decisiveness, self-efficacy, curiosity and self-construals with hopefulness. A total of 278 senior university students were recruited for the study from Eastern Mediterranean University in Famagusta, North Cyprus. Participants filled six questionnaires; the Beck Hopelessness Scale, the Independent and Interdependent Self-Construal Scale, Multi-Domain Decisiveness Scale, Curiosity and Exploration Inventory II, the Dispositional Hope Scale and the General Self-Efficacy Scale. The data was analyzed by hierarchical multiple regression analysis on SPSS 23 software program. The results indicated that self-efficacy and decisiveness significantly predicted hopefulness, while curiosity did not predict hopefulness and only independent self-construal had the predictive effect on hopefulness. Based on these findings, the emerging adulthood nature of the study sample was discussed, and further recommendations were presented. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue XVI European Congress of Psychology)
Article
Parents’ Personality, Marriage Satisfaction, Stress, and Punishment of Children in the Family
Behav. Sci. 2019, 9(12), 153; https://doi.org/10.3390/bs9120153 - 12 Dec 2019
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2193
Abstract
The objective of the research is to ascertain whether emotional and volitional characteristics of the individual affect the frequency of punishment in the family (for example, prohibition to watch TY for some time, pocket money reduction, request for an apology). These types of [...] Read more.
The objective of the research is to ascertain whether emotional and volitional characteristics of the individual affect the frequency of punishment in the family (for example, prohibition to watch TY for some time, pocket money reduction, request for an apology). These types of punishments are legal in Russia. The research method is Perrez’s, Schoebi’s questionnaire on punishing behavior in education, and Chumakov’s questionnaire on volitional and emotional characteristics of a person (VEC). The data were divided into two groups (high or low level of development of volitional powers). Analysis of variance (ANOVA) was applied to compare groups. The dependent variables were marriage satisfaction, emotional stress, and frequency of punishment of children in the family. Results and conclusions found that the gaps between the groups were significant for marriage satisfaction F (1,105) = 17.77, p < 0.001 and emotional stress F (1,105) = 23.53, p < 0.001 but were not significant for the frequency of punishment. Marriage satisfaction in a group with high VEC parameters is higher than in the group with low parameters. The stress in the group with high VEC parameters is lower than in the group with low parameters. There is a correlation between marriage satisfaction and frequency of punishment as well as between stress and frequency of punishment. Thus, the emotional and volitional qualities of the parents’ personality indirectly influence the frequency of punishment of children in the family. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue XVI European Congress of Psychology)
Article
Profession Loss Crisis at an Old Age: Specific Features, Factors, and Mechanisms of Coping
Behav. Sci. 2019, 9(12), 152; https://doi.org/10.3390/bs9120152 - 11 Dec 2019
Viewed by 1995
Abstract
This article discusses the specific characteristics of profession loss crisis at an old age. Profession loss crisis is the last normative crisis of personal professional development that is caused by the completion of one’s professional biography after reaching a certain age. The research [...] Read more.
This article discusses the specific characteristics of profession loss crisis at an old age. Profession loss crisis is the last normative crisis of personal professional development that is caused by the completion of one’s professional biography after reaching a certain age. The research employs a psychobiographic method and a critical events method. These methods are based on the use of a formalized biographical questionnaire worked out by Norakidze V.G. and reconstructed by Zeer E.F. The authors have identified and provided a detailed description of the main factors that cause profession loss crisis: random events, adverse circumstances while implementing professional plans, etc. The article outlines the main strategies for coping with this crisis: changing jobs, re-training, the assistance of colleagues and administration, etc. The authors suggest technologies to minimize the effects of these factors and overcome profession loss crisis effectively. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue XVI European Congress of Psychology)
Article
Professional Longevity as a Problem of the Value-Semantic Regulation of Teacher Activity
Behav. Sci. 2019, 9(12), 151; https://doi.org/10.3390/bs9120151 - 10 Dec 2019
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1818
Abstract
The aim of this research is to establish proper external and internal conditions for conducting pedagogical activity that reveal the value basis of professional education. The research justifies the need to analyse the guidelines of a person’s professional self-identity, contents of professional activity [...] Read more.
The aim of this research is to establish proper external and internal conditions for conducting pedagogical activity that reveal the value basis of professional education. The research justifies the need to analyse the guidelines of a person’s professional self-identity, contents of professional activity motivation, peculiarities of maintaining the mental and physical health of a person, and the capacity of an educational institution’s organisational culture. A number of indicators of value mechanisms of a teacher’s professional longevity is revealed. A diagnostic program of the project, aimed at studying the value content of a teacher’s behaviour strategies during the process of professional activity, was designed. The content of the hypothesis is connected with the assumption of value-semantic inter-conditionality of professional longevity. The research revealed significant interrelations of professional longevity with some psychological factors of value-semantic nature. Analysis of the organisational culture of an educational institution as a factor providing (preventing) the professional longevity of a teacher was carried out. The dominant tendency of describing the interconnection between an educational institution’s organisational culture and the level of emotional burnout syndrome of teachers working within certain cultural models is revealed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue XVI European Congress of Psychology)
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Article
Learning Styles Determine Different Immigrant Students’ Results in Testing Settings: Relationship Between Nationality of Children and the Stimuli of Tasks
Behav. Sci. 2019, 9(12), 150; https://doi.org/10.3390/bs9120150 - 10 Dec 2019
Viewed by 1936
Abstract
Background: Literature presents little examination on the learning styles and sensorial preferences of immigrants during decoding of different tasks in testing contexts. Methods: In this cross-sectional study, non-native children (between 2nd and 12th grade) were divided into six groups determined by country of [...] Read more.
Background: Literature presents little examination on the learning styles and sensorial preferences of immigrants during decoding of different tasks in testing contexts. Methods: In this cross-sectional study, non-native children (between 2nd and 12th grade) were divided into six groups determined by country of origin and examined on different stimuli, visual and auditory, associated with four tasks that measure cognitive and linguistic specific abilities. Results: The multivariate analysis confirmed that the children’s nationality significantly explained achievement variability regarding picture recognition and auditory discrimination. η2 values indicated that there were moderate to larger effects for the nationality as a factor that explains the variance of performance. Conclusions: Results indicate that tasks’ stimuli can effectively assess and differentiate specific young minority groups in order to understand their actual level of preparation and their needs for further learning. The listening input, on the one hand, should be established as the main differentiator for all groups at the time of school entry, but, on the other hand, it should be avoided in Asian groups and Eastern European students during the first stages of second language (L2) learning in European contexts with romance languages as the target learning. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue XVI European Congress of Psychology)
Article
To Use or Not to Use: No Consensus on Whether and How to Apply Genetic Information in the Justice System
Behav. Sci. 2019, 9(12), 149; https://doi.org/10.3390/bs9120149 - 10 Dec 2019
Viewed by 2087
Abstract
Little is known about the public’s attitudes towards applying genetic information in the justice system. This study aimed to extend previous research to explore this among the general public and those with training in law. Data were collected from over 10,000 participants, including [...] Read more.
Little is known about the public’s attitudes towards applying genetic information in the justice system. This study aimed to extend previous research to explore this among the general public and those with training in law. Data were collected from over 10,000 participants, including 486 lawyers and law students. We analysed eight available relevant items from the International Genetic Literacy and Attitudes Survey (iGLAS). The majority of participants viewed genetic information as relevant to justice. For example, 65% believed that we should make provisions (legal and policy) to buffer the effects of genetic disadvantage on individuals, and almost 60% believed that genetic information should be taken into account in sentencing. At the same time, many participants (70%) disagreed that genetic influences on behaviour negate free will. The results of the correlational analyses suggest that people who consider genetic information relevant in one context tend to consider it relevant across all aspects of the justice system, including in sentencing, crime prevention and access to justice. Overall, the results suggest that views on the use of genetics by justice systems are complex and widely varied. Further research is needed to understand these complex views. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue XVI European Congress of Psychology)
Article
Digital Storytelling in Language Education
Behav. Sci. 2019, 9(12), 147; https://doi.org/10.3390/bs9120147 - 09 Dec 2019
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2359
Abstract
Modern technology provides lots of opportunities in order to connect classrooms with the world. Technology provides a greater and better source of information, yet solutions are needed to be mediated through the appropriate remedy. The emergence of new technology and digital resources during [...] Read more.
Modern technology provides lots of opportunities in order to connect classrooms with the world. Technology provides a greater and better source of information, yet solutions are needed to be mediated through the appropriate remedy. The emergence of new technology and digital resources during the past few decades has significantly influenced the learning environment and educational prospects. However, one of the challenges of practitioners and researchers is preparing learners with the required skills for the effective use of modern technology in the process of learning. Researchers proposed that a combination of societal constructivism and technology-integrated learning is crucial for obtaining and accomplishing present-day academic goals. The present paper highlights the significance and intricacy of modern technology, specifically digital storytelling (DST), in education. It elaborates the most salient aspects of DST application in language education, considering phases and elements of effective digital stories, steps of composing a digital story, and a critical description on the implementation of DST and fosterage of academic performance. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue XVI European Congress of Psychology)
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Article
Security or Safety: Quantitative and Comparative Analysis of Usage in Research Works Published in 2004–2019
Behav. Sci. 2019, 9(12), 146; https://doi.org/10.3390/bs9120146 - 09 Dec 2019
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2162
Abstract
This article is devoted to the statistical analysis of security and safety frequency in the context of categories connected with social institutions and personality features in research works from 2004–2019. Research was based on the following methods: quantitative analysis of safety frequency in [...] Read more.
This article is devoted to the statistical analysis of security and safety frequency in the context of categories connected with social institutions and personality features in research works from 2004–2019. Research was based on the following methods: quantitative analysis of safety frequency in the context with coded “categories” related to social institutions and personality features; analysis was conducted with computer-assisted content analysis QDA Miner Lite v. 1.4 and Fisher’s F-test. An analysis of 1157 works showed that the terms “security” and “safety” were quantitatively more frequent when used with concepts related to social institutions than with concepts related to personality features. In our opinion, this qualitative trend shows the prevailing significance of social aspects of security over its personal (psychological) traits for research analysis and practical social aspects. The priority usage of the terms “security” and “safety” can be related to the securitization of society, (i.e., to the increased role and significance of social ways of providing security and protection from threats), primarily with the help of external law-enforcing actors such as the state, police, and army. Securitization counterweights the development of social and psychological mechanisms of security—developing motivation for safe behavior, personal self-regulation, and self-production of security as an internal feeling of protection. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue XVI European Congress of Psychology)
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Article
The Bulgarian Version of the Multidimensional Driving Style Inventory: Psychometric Properties
Behav. Sci. 2019, 9(12), 145; https://doi.org/10.3390/bs9120145 - 08 Dec 2019
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1792
Abstract
Road safety is one of the main priorities for the European Union. Different strategies and policies strive to increase the level of road safety across Europe and although this level has increased in the last couple of years the number of injuries and [...] Read more.
Road safety is one of the main priorities for the European Union. Different strategies and policies strive to increase the level of road safety across Europe and although this level has increased in the last couple of years the number of injuries and fatalities resulting from traffic accidents is still very high. The multidimensional driving style inventory (MDSI) is a self-reported instrument for the assessment of a person’s habitual driving style and its connection to risky driving behaviour and involvement in different traffic accidents. The instrument was originally developed in Israel and there are several previous adaptations in different countries such as Argentina and Romania. The main objective of this study is to develop a valid and reliable version of the MDSI in Bulgaria. A study was conducted to evaluate the construction validity of the instrument and to test the validity of the factors in a Bulgarian sample (n = 456, male = 204; female = 252; average age = 37). Eight factors representing a specific driving style—dissociative, anxious, risky, angry, high-velocity, distress reduction, patient and careful and irrational—identified by previous versions of the MDSI are included in this study. The overall number of items in the inventory is 57 with Cronbach’s alpha = 0.78. The current study in Bulgaria confirmed the structural organization of the initial version of the inventory. The results of the conducted study supported the reliability and validity of the Bulgarian version of the MDSI. The possible implementation of the instrument for the development of different programs for preventions and interventions is discussed here within. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue XVI European Congress of Psychology)
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Article
Dynamic Psychotherapy: The Therapeutic Process in the Treatment of Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder
Behav. Sci. 2019, 9(12), 141; https://doi.org/10.3390/bs9120141 - 05 Dec 2019
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2562
Abstract
Dynamic Psychotherapy (DP) was developed to overcome the limitations of traditional psychoanalysis, responding to a broader demand of patients who seek help to cope with specific problems in the short term, such as Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (OCD). OCD is a chronic disabling mental disorder [...] Read more.
Dynamic Psychotherapy (DP) was developed to overcome the limitations of traditional psychoanalysis, responding to a broader demand of patients who seek help to cope with specific problems in the short term, such as Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (OCD). OCD is a chronic disabling mental disorder that leads to substantial distress, functional disability and severe occupational and social impairments. Recognizing the literature gap in this field, and the improvements reported by dynamic therapists who have dealt with patients suffering from OCD, a study on the treatment of these patients was conducted in order to discuss the effects of this technique. The method involved a narrative literature review and the analysis of two clinical cases to discuss therapeutic processes, which include the specificities of OCD patients and the mechanisms adopted in the treatment through DP. The therapist’s active stance seemed to be essential to encourage the patient to face feared situations and identify the core conflict. Both patients who were treated through DP presented similarities, such as high anxiety, feelings of guilt and inhibition of aggressive and sexual impulses. Through emotional exploration, confrontation of defensive functioning and interpretative interventions of inner conflicts, patients had reached awareness of their hidden feelings and experiences, and their symptoms and feelings of guilt decreased. They also showed significant improvements in their interpersonal relationships. Although both treatments do not fit into short-term therapies, this technique has led to long-term results, providing evidence that DP may produce favorable outcomes in the treatment of OCD. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue XVI European Congress of Psychology)
Article
Creating Positive Work Experiences Through Task Self-Redesign
Behav. Sci. 2019, 9(12), 140; https://doi.org/10.3390/bs9120140 - 05 Dec 2019
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2134
Abstract
Complementing the traditional focus in work design on “top-down” organizational interventions, research into proactive work behavior suggests that “bottom-up” processes, based on the “micro-emancipatory” actions employees engage in, create more rewarding and meaningful work experiences. Based on current theorizing, this study tests a [...] Read more.
Complementing the traditional focus in work design on “top-down” organizational interventions, research into proactive work behavior suggests that “bottom-up” processes, based on the “micro-emancipatory” actions employees engage in, create more rewarding and meaningful work experiences. Based on current theorizing, this study tests a tripartite model of task self-redesign and positive work-related states of meaning, affective commitment, and work–home enrichment. The interactive effects of three modes of task influence are postulated: (a) the active use of existing potentials for task autonomy; (b) job crafting, as unauthorized and self-organized modifications of task features; (c) the individual renegotiation of tasks through idiosyncratic deals (i-deals) with superiors. Survey data from an occupationally heterogeneous convenience sample of N = 279 German-speaking employees were analyzed, using confirmatory factor analysis and moderated linear regression. The regression results confirmed that task i-deals consistently related to positive experiences, whereas autonomy only related to one, and task crafting had no significant main effect. A significant two-way interaction between i-deals and crafting was found only in relation to affective commitment. Supporting the suggested tripartite model, significant (synergistic) three-way interactions explained the additional variance in all three examined outcomes. These results offer some preliminary insights into the interplay of organizationally designed, individually crafted, and interpersonally negotiated work activities. Task autonomy, task-directed job crafting, and task i-deals appear to fulfill complementary roles in the self-directed creation of positive work experiences. Methodological limitations and further research needs are discussed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue XVI European Congress of Psychology)
Article
Socio-Psychological Safety of Schools in the Context of the Settlement Type and Socio-Economic Status of the Region
Behav. Sci. 2019, 9(12), 139; https://doi.org/10.3390/bs9120139 - 05 Dec 2019
Viewed by 1760
Abstract
Under current conditions, the scientific request for the study of both internal and external factors of socio-psychological safety becomes important. In the literature there are very contradictory data on the role of contextual factors in ensuring the socio-psychological safety of schools. In our [...] Read more.
Under current conditions, the scientific request for the study of both internal and external factors of socio-psychological safety becomes important. In the literature there are very contradictory data on the role of contextual factors in ensuring the socio-psychological safety of schools. In our work, we consider the role of socio-economic and geographical conditions in ensuring the socio-psychological safety of the educational environment of the school from the standpoint of environmental psychology. Research questions: How does the social and economic status of the region affect the subject level of the school’s socio-psychological safety? How does the type of settlement affect the personal level of the school’s socio-psychological safety? The economic, social, and geographical status of the region affects the socio-psychological safety of the school. Therefore, contextual factors influence, but do not determine the socio-psychological safety of the educational environment of the school. Multilevel approaches, which are intended for individual, psychosocial, and contextual factors, can contribute to the promotion of the theme of the socio-psychological safety of the school. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue XVI European Congress of Psychology)
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Article
Social-Psychological Satiety: Empirical Study of a New Phenomenon
Behav. Sci. 2019, 9(12), 138; https://doi.org/10.3390/bs9120138 - 04 Dec 2019
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1672
Abstract
This article is devoted to the development of a new phenomenon in the field of social psychology of the city—satiety with living conditions in a metropolis. The study involved 87 people aged 18–30 years. The aim of the study was to identify and [...] Read more.
This article is devoted to the development of a new phenomenon in the field of social psychology of the city—satiety with living conditions in a metropolis. The study involved 87 people aged 18–30 years. The aim of the study was to identify and analyze the expression of the satiety of young Moscovites with living conditions in the metropolis, and its dependence on the sources of experience of this state. It was shown that satiety as a state of the human psyche performs the function of a protective mechanism from an overabundance of various stimuli from the surrounding world. The satiety with living conditions in the metropolis is a complex state that is caused by a variety of phenomena of social life in the urban environment: Excessive communication, an abundance of information, overpopulation, forced informatization of the urban environment, high rate of life, etc. It was found that satiety with living conditions in a metropolis has different forms of expression, such as emotional experiences and behavioral reactions. The article outlines perspectives for further research on the phenomenon of satiety in living conditions in a megacity in the direction of types, factors, and mechanisms of satiety. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue XVI European Congress of Psychology)
Article
Change & Grow® Therapeutic Model for Addiction: Preliminary Results of an Interventional Study
by , and
Behav. Sci. 2019, 9(12), 137; https://doi.org/10.3390/bs9120137 - 04 Dec 2019
Viewed by 1862
Abstract
The last years have seen a paradigm shift concerning addictive disorders, indicating the necessity to study alternative therapeutic models. In this longitudinal study, the objective was to explore the impact of the Change & Grow® therapeutic model developed and used by VillaRamadas [...] Read more.
The last years have seen a paradigm shift concerning addictive disorders, indicating the necessity to study alternative therapeutic models. In this longitudinal study, the objective was to explore the impact of the Change & Grow® therapeutic model developed and used by VillaRamadas on certain psychological variables that frequently appear associated with addiction. A repeated measures (first and last weeks of treatment) design was used, and the psychological measurements were Beck’s Depression Inventory II (BDI-II), Suicide Ideation Questionnaire (SIQ), State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI), and Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA). Results include 26 (16 male and 10 female) patients. Age varied between 17 and 64 years (M = 35.62, SD = 12.60) and duration of treatment between 91 and 193 days (M = 147.35, SD = 27.05). The MoCA total result was significantly higher in the last week of treatment. The results of BDI-II, SIQ, and STAI (both state and trait) were all significantly lower. Neither duration of treatment nor self-reported motivation presented significant correlation values with the difference between measures for any of the variables. The Change & Grow® therapeutic model appears to have an impact on relevant psychological variables in patients admitted into treatment for addictive disorders. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue XVI European Congress of Psychology)
Article
Crafting Task and Cognitive Job Boundaries to Enhance Self-Determination, Impact, Meaning and Competence at Work
Behav. Sci. 2019, 9(12), 136; https://doi.org/10.3390/bs9120136 - 03 Dec 2019
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1972
Abstract
Job crafting refers to physical and cognitive changes in task or relational work boundaries, enacted by individuals to recreate their work experience in a more motivating and rewarding way, and to realize self-actualization, growth, and meaning at work. This study tests a model [...] Read more.
Job crafting refers to physical and cognitive changes in task or relational work boundaries, enacted by individuals to recreate their work experience in a more motivating and rewarding way, and to realize self-actualization, growth, and meaning at work. This study tests a model of individual, interpersonal, and organizational antecedents and motivational outcomes of situation-directed task and self-directed cognitive job crafting. Employee survey data (N = 1196) from a Chinese telecommunications company permitted confirmatory factor analysis and structural equation modeling. Antecedents were each measured with three-item versions of established scales, a two-dimensional scale on task and cognitive job crafting was newly developed, and a four-dimensional model of psychological empowerment captured motivational effects. Structural modeling confirmed a partial mediating role of job crafting between antecedents and empowerment. Individual growth requires strength and intellectual stimulation from one’s leader that is positively related to both tasks and cognitive crafting, while exposure to organizational constraints triggered task crafting only. Confirming differential motivational effects, task crafting predicted control-oriented empowerment dimensions of self-determination and impact, whereas cognitive crafting affected person-oriented dimensions of meaning and competence. Interpreted as a micro-emancipatory form of self-management, job crafting offers some new insights into leadership, coping, work design, work orientations, and motivation. Practical and research implications of this are discussed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue XVI European Congress of Psychology)
Article
Intolerance of Uncertainty and Mindfulness as Determinants of Anxiety and Depression in Female Students
Behav. Sci. 2019, 9(12), 135; https://doi.org/10.3390/bs9120135 - 03 Dec 2019
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 2797
Abstract
Bearing in mind the characteristics of an academic setting, as well as the developmental tasks young people inevitably face, there is a need to identify and study the factors that play an important role in the development and maintenance of psychological distress among [...] Read more.
Bearing in mind the characteristics of an academic setting, as well as the developmental tasks young people inevitably face, there is a need to identify and study the factors that play an important role in the development and maintenance of psychological distress among college students. One factor that has emerged as crucial for the development of both anxiety and depression is the intolerance of uncertainty. On the other hand, there appears to be mounting evidence that mindfulness is an important factor that can be beneficial for the psychological health of college students. Taking this into consideration, the purpose of the current study was to determine the contribution of the intolerance of uncertainty and mindfulness in explaining the symptoms of depression and anxiety in a sample of female college students (n = 282) whose average age was 21. The results indicated that students had moderate levels of anxiety and depression. Additionally, they were, on average, intolerant of uncertainty and mindfulness. Two hierarchical regression analyses revealed that the intolerance of uncertainty and mindfulness significantly predict both anxiety and depression in female students, and that mindfulness partially mediates the relationship between the intolerance of uncertainty and anxiety/depression. The results are discussed in the light of previous studies, and its clinical implications. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue XVI European Congress of Psychology)
Article
The Problem of Psychological Rehabilitation of Persons with Disorders of the Musculoskeletal System Acquired in Adulthood
Behav. Sci. 2019, 9(12), 133; https://doi.org/10.3390/bs9120133 - 30 Nov 2019
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1735
Abstract
The problem of improving the quality of life of people with lesions of the musculoskeletal system is relevant to modern society. However, the circumstances of disabled people in modern Russia are characterized by the presence of many problems, including psychological ones. The aim [...] Read more.
The problem of improving the quality of life of people with lesions of the musculoskeletal system is relevant to modern society. However, the circumstances of disabled people in modern Russia are characterized by the presence of many problems, including psychological ones. The aim of this study was to study the psychological characteristics of persons with acquired disorders of the musculoskeletal system and to determine the direction and content of psychological rehabilitation. In this study, we studied the characteristics of the emotional-volitional sphere of persons with musculoskeletal disorders (n = 30) acquired in adulthood, as well as scientific approaches to the study of rehabilitation and the main directions of rehabilitation of persons with musculoskeletal disorders. Clinical, psychological, and psychodiagnostic methods, alongside statistical methods of empirical data analysis, were used. It was found that persons with acquired disorders of the musculoskeletal system have a low adaptive capacity, a high level of neuropsychic stress, a low level of self-actualization and self-regulation and are not capable of the conscious planning of activities. The personal factors that intensify the manifestation of maladjustment are isolation and emotional stress when interacting with others. The article presents the main directions for rehabilitation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue XVI European Congress of Psychology)
Article
Visual Perception of Facial Emotional Expressions during Saccades
Behav. Sci. 2019, 9(12), 131; https://doi.org/10.3390/bs9120131 - 27 Nov 2019
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1694
Abstract
The regularities of visual perception of both complex and ecologically valid objects during extremely short photo expositions are studied. Images of a person experiencing basic emotions were displayed for as low as 14 ms amidst a saccade spanning 10 degrees of visual angle. [...] Read more.
The regularities of visual perception of both complex and ecologically valid objects during extremely short photo expositions are studied. Images of a person experiencing basic emotions were displayed for as low as 14 ms amidst a saccade spanning 10 degrees of visual angle. The observers had a main task to recognize the emotion depicted, and a secondary task to point at the perceived location of the photo on the screen. It is shown that probability of correct recognition of emotion is above chance (0.62), and that it depends on its type. False localizations of stimuli and their compression in the direction of the saccade were also observed. According to the acquired data, complex environmentally valid objects are perceived differently during saccades in comparison to isolated dots, lines or gratings. The rhythmic structure of oculomotor activity (fixation–saccade–fixation) does not violate the continuity of the visual processing. The perceptual genesis of facial expressions does not take place only during gaze fixation, but also during peak speed of rapid eye movements both at the center and in closest proximity of the visual acuity area. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue XVI European Congress of Psychology)
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Article
Features of Media Multitasking in School-Age Children
Behav. Sci. 2019, 9(12), 130; https://doi.org/10.3390/bs9120130 - 27 Nov 2019
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1761
Abstract
The paper addresses the phenomenon of media multitasking that is being widely spread among children and adolescents in the context of digital socialization. The previous research has revealed its strong connection with cognitive control, executive functions, and academic performance, yet the specificity and [...] Read more.
The paper addresses the phenomenon of media multitasking that is being widely spread among children and adolescents in the context of digital socialization. The previous research has revealed its strong connection with cognitive control, executive functions, and academic performance, yet the specificity and efficacy of media multitasking performance, especially among children while they carry out usual activities, remains insufficiently studied. A quasi-experimental study, including digital tasks of various types on a computer and smartphone, the dots task for executive functions, and a socio-psychological questionnaire, was conducted with the participants of three age groups: 7–10, 11–13, and 14–16 years old (N = 154). The results indicate that media multitasking is connected not with sex, but age; the older the participants are, the more likely they tend to work in a multitasking mode. Furthermore, preference for multitasking has been found to be positively related to higher user activity. Although the total task performance rate is insignificantly lower in the multitasking group as compared to the non-multitasking one, a significant negative effect of media multitasking on total performance time was revealed. The results of the study that indicate a strong connection of media multitasking with the intensity of Internet usage, cognitive functions, and performance time, suggest its considerable role in social and cognitive functioning of children and adolescents. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue XVI European Congress of Psychology)
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Article
Socio-Moral Development of Preschool Children: Aspects of Theory and Practice
Behav. Sci. 2019, 9(12), 129; https://doi.org/10.3390/bs9120129 - 27 Nov 2019
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2128
Abstract
This article deals with issues relating to the social and moral education and development of preschool children. The theoretical understanding of the current state of this field is reflected in the modern normative documents “On education in the Russian Federation”, the state educational [...] Read more.
This article deals with issues relating to the social and moral education and development of preschool children. The theoretical understanding of the current state of this field is reflected in the modern normative documents “On education in the Russian Federation”, the state educational standards. The analysis of theoretical and practice-oriented research in this area shows that the phrase “moral education” today is gradually being replaced by “social and moral education” and “social and moral development”. This trend is found in preschool pedagogy. It is the study of social and moral representations of preschool children that many relevant diagnostic methods are aimed at: to explain the actions of children and their relationships with each other and adults, and to assess these actions (i.e., to correlate the situation with the moral norm). The presented research was based on the method of research of moral representations of children of senior preschool age. The analysis of the results showed that children of senior preschool age willingly include themselves in the retelling of the actions described in situations but find it difficult to assess what is happening from a moral point of view. It is obvious that psychological and pedagogical work is necessary in this direction, taking into account the age characteristics of the children, as well as the social and moral guidelines relevant to the current situation in regard to the development of society. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue XVI European Congress of Psychology)
Article
Effects of Metacognitive Strategies on the Self-Regulated Learning Process: The Mediating Effects of Self-Efficacy
Behav. Sci. 2019, 9(12), 128; https://doi.org/10.3390/bs9120128 - 26 Nov 2019
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1991
Abstract
The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of metacognitive strategies on self-regulated learning processes, focusing on the mediating effects of self-efficacy. The surveys were conducted in December 2016 (Time 1) and January 2017 (Time 2). One hundred and five undergraduates [...] Read more.
The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of metacognitive strategies on self-regulated learning processes, focusing on the mediating effects of self-efficacy. The surveys were conducted in December 2016 (Time 1) and January 2017 (Time 2). One hundred and five undergraduates enrolled at a Japanese university participated in this survey study, consisting of two surveys conducted one month apart. The questionnaires measured the use of metacognitive strategies (i.e., planning strategy and monitoring strategy), self-efficacy, general learning behaviors (behavioral engagement and persistence), and the use of cognitive strategies (i.e., writing-repetition strategy and deep-processing strategy). First, cross-lagged structure equation modeling revealed that the use of planning strategy enhanced self-efficacy. Second, path analysis examined relationships between metacognitive strategies, general learning behaviors, and cognitive strategies. It revealed that (a) general learning behaviors were promoted by metacognitive strategies mediated by self-efficacy and (b) cognitive strategies were almost directly affected by the monitoring strategy. The current study reveals that general learning behaviors and cognitive strategies involve different processes than metacognitive strategies. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue XVI European Congress of Psychology)
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Article
Validation of a Rubric to Evaluate Open Educational Resources for Learning
Behav. Sci. 2019, 9(12), 126; https://doi.org/10.3390/bs9120126 - 25 Nov 2019
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1554
Abstract
Open Educational Resources (OERs) include different web formats, such as audio, video, images and text that can be modified, redistributed and used for learning about a specific topic, however, it became pertinent to create an OER evaluation tool with content validity. The present [...] Read more.
Open Educational Resources (OERs) include different web formats, such as audio, video, images and text that can be modified, redistributed and used for learning about a specific topic, however, it became pertinent to create an OER evaluation tool with content validity. The present work gives an account of the content validation process using a 41-criteria rubric, each one with three performance levels, developed from a documentary search on relevant aspects to be included in a learning object. Six expert judges were contacted and decided whether each criterion was essential, useful but not essential or not necessary. Based on this, the Content Validity Reason (CVR) was calculated, obtaining 32 validated criteria. Among some conclusions, it can be mentioned that the validation process of contents allowed the identification of those criteria that require modifications or, if necessary, can be discarded to increase the validity of the heading in its whole. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue XVI European Congress of Psychology)
Article
Teachers’ Views on the Participation of Parents in the Transition of their Children from Kindergarten to Primary School
Behav. Sci. 2019, 9(12), 124; https://doi.org/10.3390/bs9120124 - 22 Nov 2019
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1883
Abstract
Internationally, a great number of researchers have pointed out the significance of school–family relationship in the process of children’s transition to primary schools. However, only recently has it been a subject of research in Greece. The purpose of this particular research, which has [...] Read more.
Internationally, a great number of researchers have pointed out the significance of school–family relationship in the process of children’s transition to primary schools. However, only recently has it been a subject of research in Greece. The purpose of this particular research, which has a sample of 1602 pre-primary and primary school teachers, is to investigate teachers’ viewpoints on the role of parents in the process of their children’s transition to primary school. Data has been collected through the use of questionnaires. Statistical analysis has shown that the overwhelming majority of teachers consider cooperation with parents as necessary. They indicate that the most important factors for successful transition are parents’ level of trust in teachers, their views on schools and learning, and their support for the new situation their child experiences. As far as the most appropriate practices are concerned, almost all teachers mention updating parents at the beginning of the school year, while many suggest that parents and children visit primary schools and that common meetings of both kindergarten and primary school teachers with parents take place before school begins. It therefore seems that teachers acknowledge the role of parents in the process of transition and suggest appropriate practices for their participation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue XVI European Congress of Psychology)
Article
Do Students Really Use Internet Access for Learning in the Classroom?: Exploring Students’ Cyberslacking in an Indonesian University
Behav. Sci. 2019, 9(12), 123; https://doi.org/10.3390/bs9120123 - 22 Nov 2019
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2141
Abstract
University students, as ‘digital natives’, use the internet for learning in the classroom. However, the availability of internet access in the classroom becomes a challenge, because students also engage in non-academic internet access during lectures. The use of the internet during lectures for [...] Read more.
University students, as ‘digital natives’, use the internet for learning in the classroom. However, the availability of internet access in the classroom becomes a challenge, because students also engage in non-academic internet access during lectures. The use of the internet during lectures for non-academic purpose is called cyberslacking. Self-regulated learning (SRL) and media multi-tasking efficacy (MME) are considered to be important factors contributing to cyberslacking. The participants in this study were students in a private university in Indonesia (N = 423). The results show that only self-regulated learning made any significant contribution to cyberslacking in the classrooms. Further research should be conducted to consider external factors, such as instructors’ contributions, classrooms circumstances and the university policy towards internet usage. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue XVI European Congress of Psychology)
Article
The Study of Network Community Capacity to be a Subject: Digital Discursive Footprints
Behav. Sci. 2019, 9(12), 119; https://doi.org/10.3390/bs9120119 - 21 Nov 2019
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1320
Abstract
The article is devoted to the assessment of the network community as a collective subject, as a group of interconnected and interdependent persons performing joint activities. According to the main research hypothesis, various forms of group subjectness, which determine its readiness for joint [...] Read more.
The article is devoted to the assessment of the network community as a collective subject, as a group of interconnected and interdependent persons performing joint activities. According to the main research hypothesis, various forms of group subjectness, which determine its readiness for joint activities, are manifested in the discourse of the network community. Discourse constitutes a network community, mediates the interaction of its participants, represents ideas about the world, values, relationships, attitudes, sets patterns of behavior. A procedure is proposed for identifying discernible traces of the subjectness of a network community at various levels (lexical, semantic, content-analytical scales, etc.). The subjective structure of the network community is described based on experts’ implicit representations. The revealed components of the subjectness of network communities are compared with the characteristics of the subjectness of offline social groups. It is shown that the structure of the subjectness of network communities for some components is similar to the structure of the characteristics of the subjectness of offline social groups: the discourse of the network community represents a discussion of joint activities, group norms, and values, problems of civic identity. The specificity of network communities’ subjectness is revealed, which is manifested in the positive support of communication within the community, the identification and support of distinction between “us” and “them”. Two models of the relationship between discursive features and the construct “subjectness” are compared: additive-cumulative and additive. The equivalence of models is established based on the discriminativeness and the level of consistency with expert evaluation by external criteria. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue XVI European Congress of Psychology)
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Article
Social and Psychological Predictors of Youths’ Attitudes to Cryptocurrency
Behav. Sci. 2019, 9(12), 118; https://doi.org/10.3390/bs9120118 - 20 Nov 2019
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2207
Abstract
The objectives of the study were to verify the “Attitudes Toward Cryptocurrencies Questionnaire” and to identify predictors of attitudes toward Bitcoin. Sample: 262 participants aged 17 to 30, of which 45% were male. Methods: Associations, “Value Scale”, “The Moral Foundations Questionnaire”, “Money Beliefs [...] Read more.
The objectives of the study were to verify the “Attitudes Toward Cryptocurrencies Questionnaire” and to identify predictors of attitudes toward Bitcoin. Sample: 262 participants aged 17 to 30, of which 45% were male. Methods: Associations, “Value Scale”, “The Moral Foundations Questionnaire”, “Money Beliefs and Behaviors Scale” by A. Furnham, and “The Baseline Confidence Scale” by L. Haff. Confirmatory factor analysis proved the three-factor structure of the questionnaire. A linear regression analysis showed that beliefs in the potential of cryptocurrency as a payment instrument are directly related to people-centered care and value of freedom, and are inversely related to sanctity; they are associated positively with confidence in the financial system and negatively with confidence in the government. Age and gender also matter. Worries about the introduction of cryptocurrency are directly related to a negative attitude to money, the value of self-confidence, age, and confidence in the financial system and government, and are inversely related to trust in people and money anxiety. Willingness to use cryptocurrency in perspective directly depends on trust in the power of money, orientation towards independence in actions, age, and gender, and is inversely dependent on confidence in the government. The data state that the intention to use cryptocurrency is directly related to the desire for financial autonomy and distrust of social institutions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue XVI European Congress of Psychology)
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Article
Older Adults’ Perceptions of Psychotherapy in Cyprus
Behav. Sci. 2019, 9(11), 116; https://doi.org/10.3390/bs9110116 - 19 Nov 2019
Viewed by 1330
Abstract
The purpose of the study was to explore older adults’ views and perceptions of psychotherapy in Cyprus. A total of 25 older adults, aged between 65–89, participated in semi-structured interviews. Thematic analysis identified three main themes: Familiar term/Unfamiliar process; existential crises during this [...] Read more.
The purpose of the study was to explore older adults’ views and perceptions of psychotherapy in Cyprus. A total of 25 older adults, aged between 65–89, participated in semi-structured interviews. Thematic analysis identified three main themes: Familiar term/Unfamiliar process; existential crises during this stage; and the issue of stigma in psychotherapy. Participants indicated a basic understanding of what psychotherapy entails, but did not associate psychotherapy with serious mental illness. Participants identified a number of existential issues that are potentially major life stressors for an elderly person and referred to the historical stigma that has an impact on their own perceptions about psychotherapy. However, participants seemed to view their ability to overcome psychological difficulties on their own as a proof of personal strength. Psychologists and other health professionals also need to be mindful of how they describe psychological concepts and treatment, as older adults may not understand what they are being told or may be afraid of what treatment involves based on historical context. This study highlights the importance of using strategies that may have the potential to empower this population in order to proactively attend to their mental health, including community-based education and national mental health campaigns. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue XVI European Congress of Psychology)
Article
Feminization and Stress in the Veterinary Profession: A Systematic Diagnostic Approach and Associated Management
Behav. Sci. 2019, 9(11), 114; https://doi.org/10.3390/bs9110114 - 14 Nov 2019
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1512
Abstract
Within the field of veterinary medicine the gender distribution has changed, since most graduates are now females. Studies show that female veterinarians represent a vulnerable group for stress and stress-related illnesses. The goal of the study was to identify typical profiles of stress [...] Read more.
Within the field of veterinary medicine the gender distribution has changed, since most graduates are now females. Studies show that female veterinarians represent a vulnerable group for stress and stress-related illnesses. The goal of the study was to identify typical profiles of stress management strategies and to clarify if vets are well-equipped to cope with occupational stressors. Within a cross-sectional design 78 female veterinarians from Austria and Germany were surveyed using a self-report test-battery assessing twenty different coping styles. Statistical analysis included one sample t-tests and Cohen’s d as a concurrent effect size measure. The results showed that female veterinarians are significantly more likely to use negative coping styles for their stress e.g., rumination (t(74) = 6.733, p = < 0.001, d = 0.726) or escapism (t(72) = 2.173, p = 0.033, d = 0.281) when compared to the norm population. Amongst other studies these findings contribute to a systematic diagnosis which is necessary for the development and implementation of standardized stress management interventions for the veterinary education and training e.g., courses for improving communication and stress management skills and regular supervision or intervision (exchange with professional peers). Due to existing stigmatization concerning mental health, low-barrier counseling services should be provided for veterinarians who already feel stressed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue XVI European Congress of Psychology)

Review

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Review
The Relationship between Self-Compassion and Sleep Quality: An Overview of a Seven-Year German Research Program
Behav. Sci. 2020, 10(3), 64; https://doi.org/10.3390/bs10030064 - 06 Mar 2020
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2779
Abstract
Poor sleep quality is highly prevalent in modern societies and negatively linked to various health outcomes. While previous research has demonstrated preliminary evidence for self-compassion as a tool for improving sleep quality, this review provides a meta-analysis of respective published and unpublished results [...] Read more.
Poor sleep quality is highly prevalent in modern societies and negatively linked to various health outcomes. While previous research has demonstrated preliminary evidence for self-compassion as a tool for improving sleep quality, this review provides a meta-analysis of respective published and unpublished results of our own research group using German samples. A total of nine studies are included (N = 956 participants), consisting of both correlational and experimental data. Across these studies, there was a medium correlation between self-compassion and subjective sleep quality, r = 0.303, 95% CI (0.244; 0.360). In three experimental studies, a small increase in participants’ self-reported sleep quality emerged, in comparison to control conditions, Hedges’ s g = 0.484, 95% CI (0.148; 0.821). Limitations on study level concern both the small sample sizes and short-term analyses of intervention effects. As a conclusion, this review supports both the correlational and causal relationship between self-compassion and increased subjective sleep quality across diverse operationalizations and samples. Future research should focus on the moderating effects of intervention type, duration of intervention effects, and type of target population. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue XVI European Congress of Psychology)
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Other

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Brief Report
Why Do We Watch? The Role of Emotion Gratifications and Individual Differences in Predicting Rewatchability and Movie Recommendation
Behav. Sci. 2020, 10(1), 8; https://doi.org/10.3390/bs10010008 - 19 Dec 2019
Viewed by 2391
Abstract
Background: The present study’s main aim was to determine the predictors of movie rewatchability and recommendations. Methods: Using a sample of 318 participants, we first tested the structure of a gratification scale from watching a movie. Then, we examined the role of age, [...] Read more.
Background: The present study’s main aim was to determine the predictors of movie rewatchability and recommendations. Methods: Using a sample of 318 participants, we first tested the structure of a gratification scale from watching a movie. Then, we examined the role of age, need for cognition, need for affect, extraversion, and emotional gratifications, in predicting individuals’ interest in rewatching the movie and in making recommendations. Results: As in the original proposal of the emotional gratification scale, the following dimensions were identified: fun, thrill, empathic sadness, release of emotions, social sharing, contemplative experiences, and character engagement, with acceptable model fit and reliability, convergent and divergent validity. Social sharing, contemplate experiences, need for affect and age were significant predictors of movie recommendation; whereas social sharing, thrill, extraversion, and age contributed most to explaining rewatching interest. Conclusion: This study highlights the importance of considering distinct gratifications and individual differences in predicting rewatching and movie recommendation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue XVI European Congress of Psychology)
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