The anti-oxidative phenolic compounds in plant extracts possess multiple pharmacological functions. However, the phenolic characterization and in vitro bio-activities in various parts of raspberry (Rubus idaeus
L.) have not been investigated systematically. In the present study, the phenolic profiles of leaves (LE), fruit pulp (FPE), and seed extracts (SE) in raspberry were analyzed by HR-HPLC-ESI-qTOF-MS/MS method, and their antioxidant activities and digestive enzymes inhibitory abilities were also investigated. The molecular docking analysis was used to delineate their inhibition mechanisms toward type II diabetes related digestive enzymes. Regardless of LE, FPE, or SE, 50% methanol was the best solvent for extracting high contents of phenolic compounds, followed by 50% ethanol and 100% methanol. The LE of raspberry displayed the highest total phenolic content (TPC) and total flavonoid content (TFC). A total of nineteen phenolic compounds were identified. The quantitative results showed that gallic acid, ellagic acid, and procyanidin C3 were the major constituents in the three extracts. The various parts extracts of raspberry all exhibited the strong antioxidant activities, especially for LE. Moreover, the powerful inhibitory effects of the three extracts against digestive enzymes (α
-glucosidase and α
-amylase) were observed. The major phenolic compounds of the three extracts also showed good inhibitory activities of digestive enzyme in a dose-dependent manner. The underlying inhibitory mechanisms of the main phenolic compounds against digestive enzymes were clarified by molecular docking analysis. The present study demonstrated that the various parts of raspberry had strong antioxidant activities and inhibitory effects on digestive enzymes, and can potentially prevent oxidative damage or diabetes-related problems.
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