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Open AccessArticle

HPLC-ESI-qTOF-MS/MS Characterization, Antioxidant Activities and Inhibitory Ability of Digestive Enzymes with Molecular Docking Analysis of Various Parts of Raspberry (Rubus ideaus L.)

by Lingfeng Wu 1, Yufeng Liu 2, Yin Qin 3, Lu Wang 1,* and Zhenqiang Wu 2,4,*
1
College of Food Science and Engineering, Hainan University, Haikou 570228, China
2
School of Biology and Biological Engineering, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou 510006, China
3
School of Pharmaceutical Engineering, Guizhou Institute of Technology, Guiyang 550003, China
4
Pan Asia (Jiangmen) Institute of Biological Engineering and Health, Jiangmen 529080, China
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Antioxidants 2019, 8(8), 274; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox8080274
Received: 30 June 2019 / Revised: 18 July 2019 / Accepted: 1 August 2019 / Published: 3 August 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antioxidant Activity of Polyphenolic Plant Extracts)
The anti-oxidative phenolic compounds in plant extracts possess multiple pharmacological functions. However, the phenolic characterization and in vitro bio-activities in various parts of raspberry (Rubus idaeus L.) have not been investigated systematically. In the present study, the phenolic profiles of leaves (LE), fruit pulp (FPE), and seed extracts (SE) in raspberry were analyzed by HR-HPLC-ESI-qTOF-MS/MS method, and their antioxidant activities and digestive enzymes inhibitory abilities were also investigated. The molecular docking analysis was used to delineate their inhibition mechanisms toward type II diabetes related digestive enzymes. Regardless of LE, FPE, or SE, 50% methanol was the best solvent for extracting high contents of phenolic compounds, followed by 50% ethanol and 100% methanol. The LE of raspberry displayed the highest total phenolic content (TPC) and total flavonoid content (TFC). A total of nineteen phenolic compounds were identified. The quantitative results showed that gallic acid, ellagic acid, and procyanidin C3 were the major constituents in the three extracts. The various parts extracts of raspberry all exhibited the strong antioxidant activities, especially for LE. Moreover, the powerful inhibitory effects of the three extracts against digestive enzymes (α-glucosidase and α-amylase) were observed. The major phenolic compounds of the three extracts also showed good inhibitory activities of digestive enzyme in a dose-dependent manner. The underlying inhibitory mechanisms of the main phenolic compounds against digestive enzymes were clarified by molecular docking analysis. The present study demonstrated that the various parts of raspberry had strong antioxidant activities and inhibitory effects on digestive enzymes, and can potentially prevent oxidative damage or diabetes-related problems. View Full-Text
Keywords: Rubus idaeus L.; phenolic compounds; HPLC-ESI-HR-qTOF-MS/MS; antioxidant activities; digestive enzymes inhibitors; molecular docking analysis Rubus idaeus L.; phenolic compounds; HPLC-ESI-HR-qTOF-MS/MS; antioxidant activities; digestive enzymes inhibitors; molecular docking analysis
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MDPI and ACS Style

Wu, L.; Liu, Y.; Qin, Y.; Wang, L.; Wu, Z. HPLC-ESI-qTOF-MS/MS Characterization, Antioxidant Activities and Inhibitory Ability of Digestive Enzymes with Molecular Docking Analysis of Various Parts of Raspberry (Rubus ideaus L.). Antioxidants 2019, 8, 274.

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