Special Issue "10th Anniversary of Antioxidants—Review Collection"

A special issue of Antioxidants (ISSN 2076-3921).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 15 September 2022 | Viewed by 4177

Special Issue Editors

Prof. Dr. Alessandra Napolitano
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Guest Editor
Department of Chemical Sciences, University of Naples “Federico II”, Via Cintia 4, I-80126 Naples, Italy
Interests: polyphenol antioxidants of dietary origin; conjugates of polyphenols with sulphydryl compounds of biological relevance; antioxidants from marine sources; valorization of agri food wastes; synthesis and exploitation of biopolymers from natural polyphenols; chemistry and structural investigation of natural polymers from catechols including human epidermal pigments melanins; oxidation chemistry of catecholamines in relation to neurodegenerative disorders; design and preparation of polydopamine related biomaterials with peculiar adhesive properties
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Prof. Dr. Claus Jacob
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Division of Bioorganic Chemistry, School of Pharmacy, Saarland University, D-66123 Saarbruecken, Germany
Interests: bioorganic chemistry; catalytic sensor/effector agents; epistemology; intracellular diagnostics; nanotechnology; natural products; reactive sulfur and selenium species; redox regulation via the cellular thiolstat
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

This Special Issue is intended to celebrate the 10th anniversary of Antioxidants by gathering review articles representative of the importance that this field has reached over the last decade. Nowadays, the term antioxidants has acquired so many facets, covering natural antioxidants, synthetic compounds, oxidative stress conditions and associated diseases, redox modulation, antioxidant-based therapeutic approaches—in fact, it is actually impossible, if not futile, to draw up a comprehensive list. So, we may start from the historical definition by Halliwell and Gutteridge of an antioxidant as  “any substance that delays, prevents or removes oxidative damage to a target molecule” (Halliwell, B.; Gutteridge, J.M.C. Free Radicals in Biology and Medicine; Oxford University Press: Oxford, UK, 2015). For this Special Issue, we look forward to featuring review articles that contribute to updating and completing this viewpoint. The contributions we solicit in this issue are expected to review the recent advances in most diverse aspects of the field under an academic, industrial or clinical perspective. Moreover, the viewpoint of experts should guide the readers through the vast literature and indicate the right direction along which research should move in the near future. 

Prof. Dr. Alessandra Napolitano
Prof. Dr. Claus Jacob
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All submissions that pass pre-check are peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Antioxidants is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2200 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Published Papers (6 papers)

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Review

Review
Role of Oxidative Stress and Antioxidants in Acquired Inner Ear Disorders
Antioxidants 2022, 11(8), 1469; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox11081469 - 27 Jul 2022
Viewed by 227
Abstract
Oxygen metabolism in the mitochondria is essential for biological activity, and reactive oxygen species (ROS) are produced simultaneously in the cell. Once an imbalance between ROS production and degradation (oxidative stress) occurs, cells are damaged. Sensory organs, especially those for hearing, are constantly [...] Read more.
Oxygen metabolism in the mitochondria is essential for biological activity, and reactive oxygen species (ROS) are produced simultaneously in the cell. Once an imbalance between ROS production and degradation (oxidative stress) occurs, cells are damaged. Sensory organs, especially those for hearing, are constantly exposed during daily life. Therefore, almost all mammalian species are liable to hearing loss depending on their environment. In the auditory pathway, hair cells, spiral ganglion cells, and the stria vascularis, where mitochondria are abundant, are the main targets of ROS. Excessive generation of ROS in auditory sensory organs is widely known to cause sensorineural hearing loss, and mitochondria-targeted antioxidants are candidates for treatment. This review focuses on the relationship between acquired hearing loss and antioxidant use to provide an overview of novel antioxidants, namely medicines, supplemental nutrients, and natural foods, based on clinical, animal, and cultured-cell studies. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue 10th Anniversary of Antioxidants—Review Collection)
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Review
Molecular Properties of β-Carotene Oxygenases and Their Potential in Industrial Production of Vitamin A and Its Derivatives
Antioxidants 2022, 11(6), 1180; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox11061180 - 16 Jun 2022
Viewed by 450
Abstract
β-Carotene 15,15′-oxygenase (BCO1) and β-carotene 9′,10′-oxygenase (BCO2) are potential producers of vitamin A derivatives, since they can catalyze the oxidative cleavage of dietary provitamin A carotenoids to retinoids and derivative such as apocarotenal. Retinoids are a class of chemical compounds that are vitamers [...] Read more.
β-Carotene 15,15′-oxygenase (BCO1) and β-carotene 9′,10′-oxygenase (BCO2) are potential producers of vitamin A derivatives, since they can catalyze the oxidative cleavage of dietary provitamin A carotenoids to retinoids and derivative such as apocarotenal. Retinoids are a class of chemical compounds that are vitamers of vitamin A or are chemically related to it, and are essential nutrients for humans and highly valuable in the food and cosmetics industries. β-carotene oxygenases (BCOs) from various organisms have been overexpressed in heterogeneous bacteria, such as Escherichia coli, and their biochemical properties have been studied. For the industrial production of retinal, there is a need for increased production of a retinal producer and biosynthesis of retinal using biocatalyst systems improved by enzyme engineering. The current review aims to discuss BCOs from animal, plants, and bacteria, and to elaborate on the recent progress in our understanding of their functions, biochemical properties, substrate specificity, and enzyme activities with respect to the production of retinoids in whole-cell conditions. Moreover, we specifically propose ways to integrate BCOs into retinal biosynthetic bacterial systems to improve the performance of retinal production. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue 10th Anniversary of Antioxidants—Review Collection)
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Review
Anti-Oxidative Therapy in Islet Cell Transplantation
Antioxidants 2022, 11(6), 1038; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox11061038 - 24 May 2022
Viewed by 466
Abstract
Islet cell transplantation has become a favorable therapeutic approach in the treatment of Type 1 Diabetes due to the lower surgical risks and potential complications compared to conventional pancreas transplantation. Despite significant improvements in islet cell transplantation outcomes, several limitations hamper long-term graft [...] Read more.
Islet cell transplantation has become a favorable therapeutic approach in the treatment of Type 1 Diabetes due to the lower surgical risks and potential complications compared to conventional pancreas transplantation. Despite significant improvements in islet cell transplantation outcomes, several limitations hamper long-term graft survival due to tremendous damage and loss of islet cells during the islet cell transplantation process. Oxidative stress has been identified as an omnipresent stressor that negatively affects both the viability and function of isolated islets. Furthermore, it has been established that at baseline, pancreatic β cells exhibit reduced antioxidative capacity, rendering them even more susceptible to oxidative stress during metabolic stress. Thus, identifying antioxidants capable of conferring protection against oxidative stressors present throughout the islet transplantation process is a valuable approach to improving the overall outcomes of islet cell transplantation. In this review we discuss the potential application of antioxidative therapy during each step of islet cell transplantation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue 10th Anniversary of Antioxidants—Review Collection)
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Review
Mitochondrial ROS, ER Stress, and Nrf2 Crosstalk in the Regulation of Mitochondrial Apoptosis Induced by Arsenite
Antioxidants 2022, 11(5), 1034; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox11051034 - 23 May 2022
Viewed by 652
Abstract
Long-term ingestion of arsenicals, a heterogeneous group of toxic compounds, has been associated with a wide spectrum of human pathologies, which include various malignancies. Although their mechanism of toxicity remains largely unknown, it is generally believed that arsenicals mainly produce their effects via [...] Read more.
Long-term ingestion of arsenicals, a heterogeneous group of toxic compounds, has been associated with a wide spectrum of human pathologies, which include various malignancies. Although their mechanism of toxicity remains largely unknown, it is generally believed that arsenicals mainly produce their effects via direct binding to protein thiols and ROS formation in different subcellular compartments. The generality of these mechanisms most probably accounts for the different effects mediated by different forms of the metalloid in a variety of cells and tissues. In order to learn more about the molecular mechanisms of cyto- and genotoxicity, there is a need to focus on specific arsenic compounds under tightly controlled conditions. This review focuses on the mechanisms regulating the mitochondrial formation of ROS after exposure to low concentrations of a specific arsenic compound, NaAsO2, and their crosstalk with the nuclear factor (erythroid-2 related) factor 2 antioxidant signaling and the endoplasmic reticulum stress response. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue 10th Anniversary of Antioxidants—Review Collection)
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Review
New Progress in the Molecular Regulations and Therapeutic Applications in Cardiac Oxidative Damage Caused by Pressure Overload
Antioxidants 2022, 11(5), 877; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox11050877 - 29 Apr 2022
Viewed by 579
Abstract
Chronic pressure overload is a key risk factor for mortality due to its subsequent development of heart failure, in which the underlying molecular mechanisms remain vastly undetermined. In this review, we updated the latest advancements for investigating the role and relevant mechanisms of [...] Read more.
Chronic pressure overload is a key risk factor for mortality due to its subsequent development of heart failure, in which the underlying molecular mechanisms remain vastly undetermined. In this review, we updated the latest advancements for investigating the role and relevant mechanisms of oxidative stress involved in the pathogenesis of pressure-overload-induced cardiomyopathy and cardiac dysfunction, focusing on significant biological sources of reactive oxygen species (free radical) production, antioxidant defenses, and their association with the cardiac metabolic remodeling in the stressed heart. We also summarize the newly developed preclinical therapeutic approaches in animal models for pressure-overload-induced myocardial damage. This review aims to enhance the current understanding of the mechanisms of chronic hypertensive heart failure and potentially improve the development of better therapeutic strategies for the associated diseases. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue 10th Anniversary of Antioxidants—Review Collection)
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Review
Superoxide Radicals in the Execution of Cell Death
Antioxidants 2022, 11(3), 501; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox11030501 - 04 Mar 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1032
Abstract
Superoxide is a primary oxygen radical that is produced when an oxygen molecule receives one electron. Superoxide dismutase (SOD) plays a primary role in the cellular defense against an oxidative insult by ROS. However, the resulting hydrogen peroxide is still reactive and, in [...] Read more.
Superoxide is a primary oxygen radical that is produced when an oxygen molecule receives one electron. Superoxide dismutase (SOD) plays a primary role in the cellular defense against an oxidative insult by ROS. However, the resulting hydrogen peroxide is still reactive and, in the presence of free ferrous iron, may produce hydroxyl radicals and exacerbate diseases. Polyunsaturated fatty acids are the preferred target of hydroxyl radicals. Ferroptosis, a type of necrotic cell death induced by lipid peroxides in the presence of free iron, has attracted considerable interest because of its role in the pathogenesis of many diseases. Radical electrons, namely those released from mitochondrial electron transfer complexes, and those produced by enzymatic reactions, such as lipoxygenases, appear to cause lipid peroxidation. While GPX4 is the most potent anti-ferroptotic enzyme that is known to reduce lipid peroxides to alcohols, other antioxidative enzymes are also indirectly involved in protection against ferroptosis. Moreover, several low molecular weight compounds that include α-tocopherol, ascorbate, and nitric oxide also efficiently neutralize radical electrons, thereby suppressing ferroptosis. The removal of radical electrons in the early stages is of primary importance in protecting against ferroptosis and other diseases that are related to oxidative stress. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue 10th Anniversary of Antioxidants—Review Collection)
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