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Special Issue "Bioactives from Bioprocessing: Sources and Production"

A special issue of Molecules (ISSN 1420-3049). This special issue belongs to the section "Natural Products Chemistry".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 31 March 2019

Special Issue Editors

Guest Editor
Dr. Luisella Verotta

Department of Environmental Science and Policy, University of Milan, via C. Golgi 19, I-20133 Milan, Italy
Website | E-Mail
Interests: secondary metabolites from plants; isolation and structure elucidation; green isolation techniques; saponins; phloroglucinols; polyphenols; synthesis and semi-synthesis of natural compounds of pharmaceutical relevance; medicinal chemistry; antimicrobial; antiprotozoal and non cytotoxic chemopreventive natural derived compounds; biopolymers for biomedical applications; valorization of agro-industrial waste biomasses for bioactive natural products
Guest Editor
Prof. Dr. Alessandra Napolitano

Department of Chemical Sciences, University of Naples “Federico II”, Via Cintia 4, I-80126 Naples, Italy
Website 1 | Website 2 | E-Mail
Interests: polyphenol antioxidants of dietary origin; conjugates of polyphenols with sulphydryl compounds of biological relevance; antioxidants from marine sources; valorization of agri food wastes; synthesis and exploitation of biopolymers from natural polyphenols; chemistry and structural investigation of natural polymers from catechols including human epidermal pigments melanins; oxidation chemistry of catecholamines in relation to neurodegenerative disorders; design and preparation of polydopamine related biomaterials with peculiar adhesive properties

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

The pharmaceutical, cosmetic, and food industries have been receiving a great deal of attention in the market due to increased interest by consumers for “healthy” products. Hence, pharmaceutical and food domains have a common interest in obtaining new natural bioactive components, which could be used as drugs, functional food ingredients, or nutraceuticals

There is a growing trend towards strategies to manufacture new chemical entities from biological sources, including the treatment of residues from agro-industrial processing, and obtaining novel bioactive compounds through revolutionary approaches by using biotechnology and bioprocessing of materials.

This Special Issue welcomes original research and reviews of literature examining the use of biotechnological applications and bioprocessing to obtain bioactive compounds from plant, microbial, and marine sources, and, in general, from biological materials, including wastes, through conventional and green technologies, as well as by yeast and fungi fermentation. Studies with multidisciplinary inputs, offering new methodologies or insights, are particularly welcome. Products refer to pharmaceuticals, nutraceuticals, cosmetics, polymers, and food.

Dr. Luisella Verotta
Prof. Dr. Alessandra Napolitano
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Molecules is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1800 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • bioactive compounds
  • functional foods
  • medicinal products
  • fermentation
  • microorganisms
  • solvent free and green technologies.
  • food processing techniques
  • agricultural wastes
  • food industry by-products
  • dietary supplements
  • biotechnology and bioeconomy
  • economic and industry opportunities

Published Papers (9 papers)

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Research

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Open AccessCommunication Increasing Antiradical Activity of Polyphenols from Lotus Seed Epicarp by Probiotic Bacteria Bioconversion
Molecules 2018, 23(10), 2667; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules23102667 (registering DOI)
Received: 9 October 2018 / Revised: 15 October 2018 / Accepted: 15 October 2018 / Published: 17 October 2018
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Abstract
Probiotic bacteria is able to metabolize polyphenols and produce functional compounds. In this study, we investigated the ability of probiotic bacteria including Lactobacillus, bifidobacteria and Enterococcus strains to increase the antioxidant capacity of polyphenols from lotus seed epicarp (PLSE) at full ripening
[...] Read more.
Probiotic bacteria is able to metabolize polyphenols and produce functional compounds. In this study, we investigated the ability of probiotic bacteria including Lactobacillus, bifidobacteria and Enterococcus strains to increase the antioxidant capacity of polyphenols from lotus seed epicarp (PLSE) at full ripening stage. The results showed that the six selected strains of probiotic bacteria grew well in De Man, Rogosa and Sharpe (MRS) broth with PLSE, and their resistant extent to PLSE varied from strain to strain. The metabolized PLSE was found to have good antioxidant properties on 3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid (ABTS+) and 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrazyl (DPPH) radicals in vitro. Five polyphenol compounds—chlorogenic acid, caffeic acid, catechin, epicatechin and hyperoside—were suggested as the major bioactive metabolism for the antiradical activity of PLSE metabolized by Lactobacillus reuteri DSM20016, Enterococcus faecalis M74 and Bifidobacterium breve ATCC 15701. Moreover, L. reuteri DSM20016 and E. faecalis M74 were found to have a high PLSE bioconversion rate. Our results suggested that both L. reuteri DSM20016 and E. faecalis M74 might have excellent potential for the bioconversion of PLSE to increase its antiradical activity. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Bioactives from Bioprocessing: Sources and Production)
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Open AccessArticle Potential of Grape Wastes as a Natural Source of Bioactive Compounds
Molecules 2018, 23(10), 2598; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules23102598
Received: 11 September 2018 / Revised: 3 October 2018 / Accepted: 4 October 2018 / Published: 11 October 2018
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Abstract
Grapes are widely used in the wine and juice industries, which can lead to massive amounts of waste, mostly grape peels and seeds. The antioxidant capacities, total phenolic and flavonoid contents and phenolic profiles of peels and seeds from 30 grape varieties were
[...] Read more.
Grapes are widely used in the wine and juice industries, which can lead to massive amounts of waste, mostly grape peels and seeds. The antioxidant capacities, total phenolic and flavonoid contents and phenolic profiles of peels and seeds from 30 grape varieties were systemically assessed. The antioxidant activities of fat-soluble, water-soluble and insoluble-bound fractions of grape peels and seeds were evaluated using ferric-reducing antioxidant power and Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity assays, and their total phenolic contents and total flavonoid contents were determined by the Folin-Ciocalteu method and AlCl3 colorimetry, respectively. It was found that the antioxidant capacities were diverse among different grape peels and seeds. Moreover, several phenolic compounds were identified and quantified, including gallic acid, cyanidin-3-glucoside, epicatechin, catechin gallate, ferulaic acid, rutin and resveratrol, which could contribute to the antioxidant capacities of these grape peels and seeds. Several grape wastes with strong antioxidant activity could be abundant sources of natural bioactive compounds, and have the potential for development into functional foods, food additives and pharmaceuticals. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Bioactives from Bioprocessing: Sources and Production)
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Open AccessArticle Beneficial Effects of Tomato Juice Fermented by Lactobacillus Plantarum and Lactobacillus Casei: Antioxidation, Antimicrobial Effect, and Volatile Profiles
Molecules 2018, 23(9), 2366; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules23092366
Received: 3 September 2018 / Revised: 13 September 2018 / Accepted: 14 September 2018 / Published: 16 September 2018
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Abstract
Tomato juice was fermented by Lactobacillus plantarum and Lactobacillus casei to produce an innovative high-bioactivity probiotic beverage. The levels of lycopene, total carotenoids, ascorbic acid, total phenolic and volatile compounds, 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), 2,2’-azinobis-3-ethylbenzotiazo-line-6-sulfonic acid (ABTS) radical scavenging capacities, ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP),
[...] Read more.
Tomato juice was fermented by Lactobacillus plantarum and Lactobacillus casei to produce an innovative high-bioactivity probiotic beverage. The levels of lycopene, total carotenoids, ascorbic acid, total phenolic and volatile compounds, 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), 2,2’-azinobis-3-ethylbenzotiazo-line-6-sulfonic acid (ABTS) radical scavenging capacities, ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP), and Escherichia coli flora, as well as the inhibition of copper-induced human low-density lipoproteins (LDL)-cholesterol oxidation assays, were measured. The results revealed that the ABTS and DPPH inhibition values, as well as the FRAP and total phenolic content, were significantly increased. LDL-cholesterol oxidation was markedly delayed after the addition of the fermented juice. The in vitro inhibitory effects of Escherichia coli flora were substantially increased after being fermented with Lactobacillus plantarum and Lactobacillus casei. The results associated with the volatile compounds indicated that fermentation with Lactobacillus plantarum and Lactobacillus casei is a meaningful strategy for modifying flavors. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Bioactives from Bioprocessing: Sources and Production)
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Open AccessArticle Inhibitory Effects of Bioassay-Guided Isolation of Anti-Glycation Components from Taraxacum coreanum and Simultaneous Quantification
Molecules 2018, 23(9), 2148; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules23092148
Received: 3 August 2018 / Revised: 16 August 2018 / Accepted: 23 August 2018 / Published: 27 August 2018
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Abstract
Inhibition of the formation of advanced glycation end products (AGEs) is an attractive strategy in diabetes treatment. Taraxacum coreanum extracts were suggested to have antidiabetic effects. However, studies on the components of T. coreanum are lacking, and there is no report on the
[...] Read more.
Inhibition of the formation of advanced glycation end products (AGEs) is an attractive strategy in diabetes treatment. Taraxacum coreanum extracts were suggested to have antidiabetic effects. However, studies on the components of T. coreanum are lacking, and there is no report on the inhibitory effects of T. coreanum on the formation of AGEs. Therefore, T. coreanum extracts and fractions were tested for their inhibitory effects on α-glucosidase and AGEs formation in two systems (bovine serum albumin (BSA)–glucose and BSA–methylglyoxal (MGO)). Bioassay-guided isolation of compounds from T. coreanum led to six flavones (16) and four hydroxycinnamic acid derivatives (711). Compound 11 exhibited the highest inhibitory activity against α-glucosidase and AGEs formation and had the highest content in T. coreanum extract. All compounds except compound 9 showed a stronger inhibition than the positive control in the BSA-glucose and BSA-MGO system. In addition, T. coreanum showed a higher content of bioactive compounds and stronger inhibition of AGE formation and α-glucosidase activity than T. officinale. Our study demonstrated the preventive and therapeutic efficacy of T. coreanum and its potential use as a cost-effective phytopharmaceutical in complementary therapy against type-2 diabetes and its complications. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Bioactives from Bioprocessing: Sources and Production)
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Open AccessArticle Enrichment and Purification of Total Ginkgo Flavonoid O-Glycosides from Ginkgo Biloba Extract with Macroporous Resin and Evaluation of Anti-Inflammation Activities In Vitro
Molecules 2018, 23(5), 1167; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules23051167
Received: 11 April 2018 / Revised: 2 May 2018 / Accepted: 7 May 2018 / Published: 13 May 2018
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Abstract
In the present study, the performance and separation characteristics of six macroporous resins for the enrichment and purification of total ginkgo flavonoid O-glycosides (TGFs) (quercetin (I), kaempferol (II), isorhamnetin (III)) from Ginkgo Biloba extracts (EGB) are evaluated. The adsorption and desorption properties
[...] Read more.
In the present study, the performance and separation characteristics of six macroporous resins for the enrichment and purification of total ginkgo flavonoid O-glycosides (TGFs) (quercetin (I), kaempferol (II), isorhamnetin (III)) from Ginkgo Biloba extracts (EGB) are evaluated. The adsorption and desorption properties of TGFs are studied on macroporous resins, including D101, D201, AB-8, HPD400, D301, and D311. Along with the results, AB-8 resin exhibits the best adsorption and desorption capacity for these three ginkgo flavonoid O-glycosides among the six resins. Adsorption isotherms are created on AB-8 resin and fit well to the Langmuir (R2 > 0.96) and Freundlich (R2 > 0.92, 0.3 < 1/n < 0.7) models. After the treatment with gradient elution on AB-8 resin packed chromatography column, the contents of the three main ginkgo flavonoid O-glycosides (I, II, and III) increase from 8.93%, 9.88%, and 6.11% in the extracts to 30.12%, 35.21%, and 14.14%, respectively, in the product. The recoveries of compounds I, II, and III are 88.76%, 93.78%, and 60.90%, respectively. Additionally, the anti-inflammatory effects of TGFs are evaluated in LPS-treated RAW 264.7 macrophages, and the result demonstrates that TGFs could significantly inhibit LPS-induced NO release in vitro in a dose-dependent manner compared with the control group. These findings suggest that TGFs could potentially be natural antioxidants and anti-inflammatory ingredients that could be used in pharmaceutical products and functional food additives. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Bioactives from Bioprocessing: Sources and Production)
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Open AccessArticle Fucoxanthin and Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids Co-Extraction by a Green Process
Molecules 2018, 23(4), 874; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules23040874
Received: 13 March 2018 / Revised: 29 March 2018 / Accepted: 4 April 2018 / Published: 11 April 2018
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Abstract
By their autotrophic nature and their molecular richness, microalgae are serious assets in the context of current environmental and societal challenges. Some species produce both omega-3 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) and xanthophylls, two molecular families widely studied for their bioactivities in
[...] Read more.
By their autotrophic nature and their molecular richness, microalgae are serious assets in the context of current environmental and societal challenges. Some species produce both omega-3 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) and xanthophylls, two molecular families widely studied for their bioactivities in the fields of nutrition and cosmetics. Whereas most studies separately deal with the two families, synergies could be exploited with extracts containing both PUFAs and xanthophylls. The purpose of our work was to determine cost effective and eco-friendly parameters for their co-extraction. The effect of several parameters (solvent, solvent/biomass ratio, temperature, duration) were studied, using two microalgal species, the non-calcifying Haptophyta Tisochrysis lutea, and the diatom Phaeodactylum tricornutum, that presents a silicified frustule. Analyses of PUFAs and fucoxanthin (Fx), the main xanthophyll, allowed to compare kinetics and extraction yields between experimental protocols. Co-extraction yields achieved using 96% ethanol as solvent were 100% for Fx and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) in one hour from T. lutea biomass, and respectively 95% and 89% for Fx and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) in eight hours from P. tricornutum. These conditions are compatible with industrial applications. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Bioactives from Bioprocessing: Sources and Production)
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Open AccessArticle Extraction and Analysis of Gigantol from Dendrobium officinale with Response Surface Methodology
Molecules 2018, 23(4), 818; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules23040818
Received: 28 February 2018 / Revised: 30 March 2018 / Accepted: 31 March 2018 / Published: 3 April 2018
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Abstract
In order to optimize the extraction of gigantol from Dendrobium officinale, the influence of methanol concentration, ultrasonic temperature, and liquid ratio on extraction efficiency was analysed by the response surface analysis method. The results show that the extraction rate reached a maximum
[...] Read more.
In order to optimize the extraction of gigantol from Dendrobium officinale, the influence of methanol concentration, ultrasonic temperature, and liquid ratio on extraction efficiency was analysed by the response surface analysis method. The results show that the extraction rate reached a maximum when the methanol concentration was 92.98%, the solid-liquid ratio was 27.2 mL/g, and the extraction temperature was 41.41 °C. The content of gigantol of Dendrobium officinale in leaves was significantly higher than that in stems, reaching 4.7942 μg/g. The content of gigantol in Dendrobium huoshanensis Fengdou was significantly higher than that of other species of Fengdou. This experiment has practical significance for improving the utilization rate of Dendrobium officinale, and provides a reference for the study of the pharmacological and biological activity of gigantol. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Bioactives from Bioprocessing: Sources and Production)
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Review

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Open AccessFeature PaperReview Fermentation: A Boon for Production of Bioactive Compounds by Processing of Food Industries Wastes (By-Products)
Molecules 2018, 23(10), 2560; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules23102560
Received: 21 August 2018 / Revised: 22 September 2018 / Accepted: 25 September 2018 / Published: 8 October 2018
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Abstract
A large number of by-products or wastes are produced worldwide through various food industries. These wastes cause a serious disposable problem with the environment. So, now a day’s different approaches are used for alternative use of these wastes because these by-products are an
[...] Read more.
A large number of by-products or wastes are produced worldwide through various food industries. These wastes cause a serious disposable problem with the environment. So, now a day’s different approaches are used for alternative use of these wastes because these by-products are an excellent source of various bioactive components such as polyphenols, flavonoids, caffeine, carotenoids, creatine, and polysaccharides etc. which are beneficial for human health. Furthermore, the composition of these wastes depends on the source or type of waste. Approximately half of the waste is lignocellulosic in nature produced from food processing industries. The dissimilar types of waste produced by food industries can be fortified by various processes. Fermentation is one of the oldest approaches and there are three types of fermentation processes that are carried out such as solid state, submerged and liquid fermentation used for product transformation into value added products through microorganisms. Selections of the fermentation process are product specific. Moreover, various studies were performed to obtain or fortified different bioactive compounds that are present in food industries by-products or wastes. Therefore, the current review article discussed various sources, composition and nutritive value (especially bioactive compounds) of these wastes and their management or augmentation of value-added products through fermentation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Bioactives from Bioprocessing: Sources and Production)
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Open AccessReview Bioprocessing of Functional Ingredients from Flaxseed
Molecules 2018, 23(10), 2444; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules23102444
Received: 29 August 2018 / Revised: 21 September 2018 / Accepted: 22 September 2018 / Published: 24 September 2018
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Abstract
Flaxseeds (Linum usitatissimum L.) are oilseeds endowed with nutritional constituents such as lignans, lipids, proteins, fibre, carbohydrates, and micronutrients. Owing to their established high nutritional profile, flaxseeds have gained an established reputation as a dietary source of high value functional ingredients. Through
[...] Read more.
Flaxseeds (Linum usitatissimum L.) are oilseeds endowed with nutritional constituents such as lignans, lipids, proteins, fibre, carbohydrates, and micronutrients. Owing to their established high nutritional profile, flaxseeds have gained an established reputation as a dietary source of high value functional ingredients. Through the application of varied bioprocessing techniques, these essential constituents in flaxseeds can be made bioavailable for different applications such as nutraceuticals, cosmetics, and food industry. However, despite their food and health applications, flaxseeds contain high levels of phytotoxic compounds such as linatine, phytic acids, protease inhibitors, and cyanogenic glycosides. Epidemiological studies have shown that the consumption of these compounds can lead to poor bioavailability of essential nutrients and/or health complications. As such, these components must be removed or inactivated to physiologically undetectable limits to render flaxseeds safe for consumption. Herein, critical description of the types, characteristics, and bioprocessing of functional ingredients in flaxseed is presented. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Bioactives from Bioprocessing: Sources and Production)
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