Antioxidant Research in Germany

A special issue of Antioxidants (ISSN 2076-3921). This special issue belongs to the section "ROS, RNS and RSS".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 31 October 2024 | Viewed by 7134

Special Issue Editors


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Guest Editor
Division of Bioorganic Chemistry, School of Pharmacy, Saarland University, D-66123 Saarbruecken, Germany
Interests: bioorganic chemistry; catalytic sensor/effector agents; epistemology; intracellular diagnostics; nanotechnology; natural products; reactive sulfur and selenium species; redox regulation via the cellular thiolstat
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Guest Editor Assistant
Division of Bioorganic Chemistry, School of Pharmacy, Saarland University, D-66123 Saarbruecken, Germany
Interests: philosophy of science; history of science; scientific communication; philosophy of chemistry; pharmacy; history of pharmacy
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

This Special Issue intends to showcase the current state of antioxidant research with a special focus on Germany, where this field has recently developed considerably. Germany is renowned for its longstanding interest in natural products. Today, interests range from the isolation or synthesis of novel antioxidants to the elucidation of molecular mechanisms and potential roles in health and aging. Notably, antioxidants have gained the attention of German industries in recent years, and their potential extends beyond the more controversial applications in nutritional supplements. Exciting developments in the use of antioxidants in food preservation and cosmetics have been observed. As sustainable natural materials, antioxidants can open new avenues in a bio-driven circular economy.

As each country and region faces its own specific challenges in science and society and has its own history and traditions in research, we hope that a focus on one such region may stimulate new ideas and discussions applicable elsewhere.

In order to showcase this ongoing research in the field of antioxidants in Germany, we aim to assemble a representative list of contributions with a firework of topics, methods, techniques and new insights and challenges. The scope of this Special Issue is broad and invites diverse contributions in the forms of research papers, reviews and communications from scientists based in Germany and related to antioxidants.

So let us see how they do it in Germany and witness the progress and limitations associated with their national research strategy and outlook on antioxidants.

Prof. Dr. Claus Jacob
Guest Editor

Ahmad Yaman Abdin
Guest Editor Assistant

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All submissions that pass pre-check are peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Antioxidants is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2900 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • antioxidant
  • oxidative stress
  • redox regulation
  • redox balance
  • redox signaling
  • redox metabolism
  • redox homeostasis
  • reactive oxygen species
  • free radical
  • ROS
  • nitrosative stress
  • reactive nitrogen species
  • Nrf2
  • NADPH

Published Papers (4 papers)

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Research

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20 pages, 2478 KiB  
Article
Colorants and Antioxidants Deriving from Methylglyoxal and Heterocyclic Maillard Reaction Intermediates
by Leon Valentin Bork, Maximilian Baumann, Tobias Stobernack, Sascha Rohn and Clemens Kanzler
Antioxidants 2023, 12(9), 1788; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox12091788 - 21 Sep 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 902
Abstract
The Maillard reaction is well known for producing antioxidant compounds alongside colored substances. Low-molecular-weight antioxidant intermediates such as maltol (MAL) or norfuraneol (NF) are well described, but it is still unclear which of these Maillard intermediates are the precursors of antioxidant and colored [...] Read more.
The Maillard reaction is well known for producing antioxidant compounds alongside colored substances. Low-molecular-weight antioxidant intermediates such as maltol (MAL) or norfuraneol (NF) are well described, but it is still unclear which of these Maillard intermediates are the precursors of antioxidant and colored melanoidins—the so-called late stage Maillard reaction products. This study aimed to provide novel insights into the correlation between browning potential and antioxidant properties of reaction products formed during the heat treatment of prominent Maillard reaction intermediates. It was achieved by the incubation of binary reaction systems composed of methylglyoxal (MGO) or NF in combination with furfural (FF), MAL, and pyrrole-2-carbaldehyde (PA) at pH 5 and 130 °C for up to 120 min. Overall, it could be shown that the formation of colored products in the binary NF reaction systems was more efficient compared to those of MGO. This was reflected in an increased browning intensity of up to 400% and a lower conversion rate of NF compared to MGO. The colorants formed by NF and FF or PA (~0.34 kDa and 10–100 kDa) were also found to exhibit higher molecular weights compared to the analogue products formed in the MGO incubations (<0.34 kDa and 10–100 kDa). The incorporation of NF into these heterogenous products with FF and PA resulted in the preservation of the initial antioxidant properties of NF (p < 0.05), whereas no antioxidant products were formed after the incubation of MGO. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antioxidant Research in Germany)
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25 pages, 4127 KiB  
Article
Cardioprotective Effects of Dexmedetomidine in an Oxidative-Stress In Vitro Model of Neonatal Rat Cardiomyocytes
by Moritz Borger, Clarissa von Haefen, Christoph Bührer and Stefanie Endesfelder
Antioxidants 2023, 12(6), 1206; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox12061206 - 2 Jun 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1441
Abstract
Preterm birth is a risk factor for cardiometabolic disease. The preterm heart before terminal differentiation is in a phase that is crucial for the number and structure of cardiomyocytes in further development, with adverse effects of hypoxic and hyperoxic events. Pharmacological intervention could [...] Read more.
Preterm birth is a risk factor for cardiometabolic disease. The preterm heart before terminal differentiation is in a phase that is crucial for the number and structure of cardiomyocytes in further development, with adverse effects of hypoxic and hyperoxic events. Pharmacological intervention could attenuate the negative effects of oxygen. Dexmedetomidine (DEX) is an α2-adrenoceptor agonist and has been mentioned in connection with cardio-protective benefits. In this study, H9c2 myocytes and primary fetal rat cardiomyocytes (NRCM) were cultured for 24 h under hypoxic condition (5% O2), corresponding to fetal physioxia (pO2 32–45 mmHg), ambient oxygen (21% O2, pO2 ~150 mmHg), or hyperoxic conditions (80% O2, pO2 ~300 mmHg). Subsequently, the effects of DEX preconditioning (0.1 µM, 1 µM, 10 µM) were analyzed. Modulated oxygen tension reduced both proliferating cardiomyocytes and transcripts (CycD2). High-oxygen tension induced hypertrophy in H9c2 cells. Cell-death-associated transcripts for caspase-dependent apoptosis (Casp3/8) increased, whereas caspase-independent transcripts (AIF) increased in H9c2 cells and decreased in NRCMs. Autophagy-related mediators (Atg5/12) were induced in H9c2 under both oxygen conditions, whereas they were downregulated in NRCMs. DEX preconditioning protected H9c2 and NRCMs from oxidative stress through inhibition of transcription of the oxidative stress marker GCLC, and inhibited the transcription of both the redox-sensitive transcription factors Nrf2 under hyperoxia and Hif1α under hypoxia. In addition, DEX normalized the gene expression of Hippo-pathway mediators (YAP1, Tead1, Lats2, Cul7) that exhibited abnormalities due to differential oxygen tensions compared with normoxia, suggesting that DEX modulates the activation of the Hippo pathway. This, in the context of the protective impact of redox-sensitive factors, may provide a possible rationale for the cardio-protective effects of DEX in oxygen-modulated requirements on survival-promoting transcripts of immortalized and fetal cardiomyocytes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antioxidant Research in Germany)
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Review

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17 pages, 5646 KiB  
Review
Natural Products in Renal-Associated Drug Discovery
by Wasco Wruck, Afua Kobi Ampem Genfi and James Adjaye
Antioxidants 2023, 12(8), 1599; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox12081599 - 11 Aug 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1567
Abstract
The global increase in the incidence of kidney failure constitutes a major public health problem. Kidney disease is classified into acute and chronic: acute kidney injury (AKI) is associated with an abrupt decline in kidney function and chronic kidney disease (CKD) with chronic [...] Read more.
The global increase in the incidence of kidney failure constitutes a major public health problem. Kidney disease is classified into acute and chronic: acute kidney injury (AKI) is associated with an abrupt decline in kidney function and chronic kidney disease (CKD) with chronic renal failure for more than three months. Although both kidney syndromes are multifactorial, inflammation and oxidative stress play major roles in the diversity of processes leading to these kidney malfunctions. Here, we reviewed various publications on medicinal plants with antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties with the potential to treat and manage kidney-associated diseases in rodent models. Additionally, we conducted a meta-analysis to identify gene signatures and associated biological processes perturbed in human and mouse cells treated with antioxidants such as epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG), the active ingredient in green tea, and the mushroom Ganoderma lucidum (GL) and in kidney disease rodent models. We identified EGCG- and GL-regulated gene signatures linked to metabolism; inflammation (NRG1, E2F1, NFKB1 and JUN); ion signalling; transport; renal processes (SLC12A1 and LOX) and VEGF, ERBB and BDNF signalling. Medicinal plant extracts are proving to be effective for the prevention, management and treatment of kidney-associated diseases; however, more detailed characterisations of their targets are needed to enable more trust in their application in the management of kidney-associated diseases. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antioxidant Research in Germany)
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25 pages, 3662 KiB  
Review
Oxylipins and Reactive Carbonyls as Regulators of the Plant Redox and Reactive Oxygen Species Network under Stress
by Madita Knieper, Andrea Viehhauser and Karl-Josef Dietz
Antioxidants 2023, 12(4), 814; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox12040814 - 27 Mar 2023
Cited by 10 | Viewed by 2083
Abstract
Reactive oxygen species (ROS), and in particular H2O2, serve as essential second messengers at low concentrations. However, excessive ROS accumulation leads to severe and irreversible cell damage. Hence, control of ROS levels is needed, especially under non-optimal growth conditions [...] Read more.
Reactive oxygen species (ROS), and in particular H2O2, serve as essential second messengers at low concentrations. However, excessive ROS accumulation leads to severe and irreversible cell damage. Hence, control of ROS levels is needed, especially under non-optimal growth conditions caused by abiotic or biotic stresses, which at least initially stimulate ROS synthesis. A complex network of thiol-sensitive proteins is instrumental in realizing tight ROS control; this is called the redox regulatory network. It consists of sensors, input elements, transmitters, and targets. Recent evidence revealed that the interplay of the redox network and oxylipins–molecules derived from oxygenation of polyunsaturated fatty acids, especially under high ROS levels–plays a decisive role in coupling ROS generation and subsequent stress defense signaling pathways in plants. This review aims to provide a broad overview of the current knowledge on the interaction of distinct oxylipins generated enzymatically (12-OPDA, 4-HNE, phytoprostanes) or non-enzymatically (MDA, acrolein) and components of the redox network. Further, recent findings on the contribution of oxylipins to environmental acclimatization will be discussed using flooding, herbivory, and establishment of thermotolerance as prime examples of relevant biotic and abiotic stresses. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antioxidant Research in Germany)
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