Special Issue "Natural Compounds as Antimicrobial Agents, 2nd Volume"

A special issue of Antibiotics (ISSN 2079-6382). This special issue belongs to the section "Novel Antimicrobial Agents".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (15 October 2020).

Special Issue Editors

Prof. Carlos M. Franco
Website
Guest Editor
Department of Analytical Chemistry, Nutrition and Bromatology, Faculty of Veterinary Science, University of Santiago de Compostela, 27002-Lugo, Spain
Interests: food safety; analytical chemistry; food microbiology; antimicrobial resistant bacteria; food-borne pathogens; transcriptomics; genotyping; chromatography; mass spectrometry; biofilms; antimicrobial detection; Microbiome
Special Issues and Collections in MDPI journals
Prof. Dr. Beatriz Vázquez Belda
Website
Guest Editor
Department of Analytical Chemistry, Nutrition and Bromatology, Faculty of Veterinary Science, University of Santiago de Compostela, 27002-Lugo, Spain
Interests: mycotoxin detection, Mycobioma, fungi, essential oils, fungi inhibition, analytical chemistry, food safety
Special Issues and Collections in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

The first volume of the Special Issue “Natural Compounds as antimicrobial Agents” was published in the past year. The huge amount of substances with antimicrobial properties that can be used or even discovered, both from animal origin or vegetal, as well as their varied applications, have led to a successful issue with more than 15 published papers and has encouraged us to open a second volume with the same topic.

As a continuation of the Special Issue published in 2019, this second volume will develop the use of these compounds for many different applications, from clinical aspects to their use in the food industry, or even in animal production. Further, there are still many compounds that have not been adequately studied. Sometimes several vegetal subproducts derived from human or animal consumption can be used as growth microbial modulators in certain applications, which suggests an added value for these foods or feed. Researchers from different parts of the world also know plant-derived substances specific to their latitudes for which there is sparse scientific literature and this is a good opportunity to share that knowledge with a wide scientific community through the open access journal Antibiotics. All these natural compounds share the advantages of soft legal regulations as well as better user perceptions regarding applications that are derived from a natural or traditional origin.

Thus, this Special Issue will cover, but is not limited to, the following topics:

  • New natural antimicrobial compounds
  • Antimicrobial effects
  • Clinical applications
  • Animal production applications
  • Antifungal properties
  • Antiviral properties
  • Food applications
  • New formulations
  • Antibacterial mechanisms
  • Antifungal mechanisms
  • MICs
  • Activity as disinfectants
  • Activity against biofilms
  • Effects on transcriptomics
  • Combination with other antimicrobials
  • Global microbiome changes

Prof. Dr. Carlos M. Franco
Prof. Dr. Beatriz Vázquez Belda
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Antibiotics is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1600 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Published Papers (4 papers)

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Research

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Open AccessArticle
Anthelminthic Activity of Assassin Bug Venom against the Blood Fluke Schistosoma mansoni
Antibiotics 2020, 9(10), 664; https://doi.org/10.3390/antibiotics9100664 - 01 Oct 2020
Abstract
Helminths such as the blood fluke Schistosoma mansoni represent a major global health challenge due to limited availability of drugs. Most anthelminthic drug candidates are derived from plants, whereas insect-derived compounds have received little attention. This includes venom from assassin bugs, which contains [...] Read more.
Helminths such as the blood fluke Schistosoma mansoni represent a major global health challenge due to limited availability of drugs. Most anthelminthic drug candidates are derived from plants, whereas insect-derived compounds have received little attention. This includes venom from assassin bugs, which contains numerous bioactive compounds. Here, we investigated whether venom from the European predatory assassin bug Rhynocoris iracundus has antischistosomal activity. Venom concentrations of 10–50 µg/mL inhibited the motility and pairing of S. mansoni adult worms in vitro and their capacity to produce eggs. We used EdU-proliferation assays to measure the effect of venom against parasite stem cells, which are essential for survival and reproduction. We found that venom depleted proliferating stem cells in different tissues of the male parasite, including neoblasts in the parenchyma and gonadal stem cells. Certain insect venoms are known to lyse eukaryotic cells, thus limiting their therapeutic potential. We therefore carried out hemolytic activity assays using porcine red blood cells, revealing that the venom had no significant effect at a concentration of 43 µg/mL. The observed anthelminthic activity and absence of hemolytic side effects suggest that the components of R. iracundus venom should be investigated in more detail as potential antischistosomal leads. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Natural Compounds as Antimicrobial Agents, 2nd Volume)
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Open AccessArticle
A Trypsin Inhibitor from Moringa oleifera Flowers Modulates the Immune Response In Vitro of Trypanosoma cruzi-Infected Human Cells
Antibiotics 2020, 9(8), 515; https://doi.org/10.3390/antibiotics9080515 - 14 Aug 2020
Abstract
Trypanosoma cruzi causes the lethal Chagas disease, which is endemic in Latin America. Flowers of Moringa oleifera (Moringaceae) express a trypsin inhibitor (MoFTI) whose toxicity to T. cruzi trypomastigotes was previously reported. Here, we studied the effects of MoFTI on the viability of [...] Read more.
Trypanosoma cruzi causes the lethal Chagas disease, which is endemic in Latin America. Flowers of Moringa oleifera (Moringaceae) express a trypsin inhibitor (MoFTI) whose toxicity to T. cruzi trypomastigotes was previously reported. Here, we studied the effects of MoFTI on the viability of human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) as well as on the production of cytokines and nitric oxide (NO) by T. cruzi-infected PBMCs. Incubation with MoFTI (trypsin inhibitory activity: 62 U/mg) led to lysis of trypomastigotes (LC50 of 43.5 µg/mL) but did not affect the viability of PBMCs when tested at concentrations up to 500 µg/mL. A selectivity index > 11.48 was determined. When T. cruzi-infected PBMCs were treated with MoFTI (43.5 or 87.0 µg/mL), the release of the pro-inflammatory cytokine TNF-α and INF-γ, as well as of NO, was stimulated. The release of the anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10 also increased. In conclusion, the toxicity to T. cruzi and the production of IL-10 by infected PBMCs treated with MoFTI suggest that this molecule may be able to control parasitemia while regulating the inflammation, preventing the progress of Chagas disease. The data reported here stimulate future investigations concerning the in vivo effects of MoFTI on immune response in Chagas disease. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Natural Compounds as Antimicrobial Agents, 2nd Volume)
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Open AccessArticle
Antimicrobial Activity of Five Apitoxins from Apis mellifera on Two Common Foodborne Pathogens
Antibiotics 2020, 9(7), 367; https://doi.org/10.3390/antibiotics9070367 - 30 Jun 2020
Abstract
Antimicrobial resistance is one of today’s major public health challenges. Infections caused by multidrug-resistant bacteria have been responsible for an increasing number of deaths in recent decades. These resistant bacteria are also a concern in the food chain, as bacteria can resist common [...] Read more.
Antimicrobial resistance is one of today’s major public health challenges. Infections caused by multidrug-resistant bacteria have been responsible for an increasing number of deaths in recent decades. These resistant bacteria are also a concern in the food chain, as bacteria can resist common biocides used in the food industry and reach consumers. As a consequence, the search for alternatives to common antimicrobials by the scientific community has intensified. Substances obtained from nature have shown great potential as new sources of antimicrobial activity. The aim of this study was to evaluate the antimicrobial activity of five bee venoms, also called apitoxins, against two common foodborne pathogens. A total of 50 strains of the Gram-negative pathogen Salmonella enterica and 8 strains of the Gram-positive pathogen Listeria monocytogenes were tested. The results show that the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) values were highly influenced by the bacterial genus. The MIC values ranged from 256 to 1024 µg/mL in S. enterica and from 16 to 32 µg/mL in L. monocytogenes. The results of this study demonstrate that apitoxin is a potential alternative agent against common foodborne pathogens, and it can be included in the development of new models to inhibit the growth of pathogenic bacteria in the food chain. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Natural Compounds as Antimicrobial Agents, 2nd Volume)
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Review

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Open AccessReview
Efficacy and Mechanisms of Flavonoids against the Emerging Opportunistic Nontuberculous Mycobacteria
Antibiotics 2020, 9(8), 450; https://doi.org/10.3390/antibiotics9080450 - 27 Jul 2020
Abstract
Nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) are the causative agent of severe chronic pulmonary diseases and is accountable for post-traumatic wound infections, lymphadenitis, endometritis, cutaneous, eye infections and disseminated diseases. These infections are extremely challenging to treat due to multidrug resistance, which encompasses the classical and [...] Read more.
Nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) are the causative agent of severe chronic pulmonary diseases and is accountable for post-traumatic wound infections, lymphadenitis, endometritis, cutaneous, eye infections and disseminated diseases. These infections are extremely challenging to treat due to multidrug resistance, which encompasses the classical and existing antituberculosis agents. Hence, current studies are aimed to appraise the antimycobacterial activity of flavonoids against NTM, their capacity to synergize with pharmacological agents and their ability to block virulence. Flavonoids have potential antimycobacterial effects at minor quantities by themselves or in synergistic combinations. A cocktail of flavonoids used with existing antimycobacterial agents is a strategy to lessen side effects. The present review focuses on recent studies on naturally occurring flavonoids and their antimycobacterial effects, underlying mechanisms and synergistic effects in a cocktail with traditional agents. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Natural Compounds as Antimicrobial Agents, 2nd Volume)
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