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J. Manuf. Mater. Process., Volume 4, Issue 4 (December 2020) – 28 articles

Cover Story (view full-size image): Manufacturing companies are exposed to increased complexity and competition. To stay competitive, companies need to minimize the total cost of quality while ensuring high transparency about process–product relationships within the manufacturing system. In this context, the development of technologies such as advanced analytics and cyber-physical production systems offers a promising approach. This paper discusses and defines essential elements of virtual quality gates in the context of manufacturing systems. To support the planning and implementation of virtual quality gates, a morphological box is developed which can be used to identify and derive an individual approach for a virtual quality gate based on the specific characteristics and requirements of the respective manufacturing system. Moreover, the framework is exemplified by three case studies from various industries, and [...] Read more.
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Article
Difficult Cutting Property of NiTi Alloy and Its Mechanism
J. Manuf. Mater. Process. 2020, 4(4), 124; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmmp4040124 - 18 Dec 2020
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 945
Abstract
This paper describes the difficult machinability of nickel titanium alloy (NiTi alloy) and its mechanism. As a result of examining the difficult cutting machinability via a turning experiment, NiTi alloy cutting showed larger cutting force, higher cutting temperature, and severe tool wear with [...] Read more.
This paper describes the difficult machinability of nickel titanium alloy (NiTi alloy) and its mechanism. As a result of examining the difficult cutting machinability via a turning experiment, NiTi alloy cutting showed larger cutting force, higher cutting temperature, and severe tool wear with plastic deformation of the tool compared to Ti-6Al-4V. In addition, the discharged chips were tangled with the jaw chuck and the cutting tool. As a result of investigating the cause of these difficult machining properties by orthogonal cutting, it was found that the progression of severe flank wear is affected by the elastic recovery due to the super elasticity of the material. The verification of the results according to the shear plane theory suggest that the large deformation resistance of the material is the cause of the increase in cutting temperature. Furthermore, because the cutting temperature exceeds the shape memory transformation temperature, the generated chips are shape memory processed. It was also found that because the generated chips are super elastic, chips are not easily broken and they are lengthened, and are easily entangled with a cutting tool and a jaw chuck. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Progress in Precision Machining)
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Article
Evaluation of Optimization Parameters of Semi-Solid Metal 6063 Aluminum Alloy from Friction Stir Welding Process Using Factorial Design Analysis
J. Manuf. Mater. Process. 2020, 4(4), 123; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmmp4040123 - 17 Dec 2020
Viewed by 936
Abstract
The semi-solid-metal 6063 aluminum alloy was developed for the automotive industry. The objective of this research was to optimize parameters in friction stir welding process that can provide the highest tensile strength. The ANOVA factorial design was used to analyze rotation speed, welding [...] Read more.
The semi-solid-metal 6063 aluminum alloy was developed for the automotive industry. The objective of this research was to optimize parameters in friction stir welding process that can provide the highest tensile strength. The ANOVA factorial design was used to analyze rotation speed, welding speed, and tool geometry at different factor levels of experimentation. The results showed that the optimized tensile strength was 120.7 MPa from the cylindrical tool, rotation speed was from 1300 to 2100 rpm, and welding speed less than 75 mm/min in the coefficient of determination R2 was 95.09%, as can be considered from the regression equation. The examination of the stir-zone and thermal mechanical affected zone using SEM and EDX showed that the new recrystallization of the microstructure causes fine grain in the stir-zone, coarse grain in advancing-side thermal mechanical affected zone, and equiaxed grain in the retracting-side thermal-mechanical affect zone. The intermetallic compounds of β-Al5FeSi phase transformation phase were formed to three types, i.e., β″-Al5Fe, Mg2Si, and Al8Fe2Si phase were observed. Moreover, in the stir-zone and thermal-mechanical-affected zone, defects were found such as flash defects, void or cavity defects, crack defects, lack of penetration defects, tunnel defects, kissing bond defects, and dendrite formation defects affecting weldability. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Joining Processes and Techniques)
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Article
Experimental and Numerical Assessment of the Hot Sheet Formability of Martensitic Stainless Steels
J. Manuf. Mater. Process. 2020, 4(4), 122; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmmp4040122 - 16 Dec 2020
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 816
Abstract
Hot formed sheet components made of Martensitic Stainless Steels (MSS) can achieve ultra-high strengths in combination with very high corrosion resistance. This enables to manufacture complex lightweight sheet components with longer lifespan. Nevertheless, the hot formability of MSS sheets has not been accurately [...] Read more.
Hot formed sheet components made of Martensitic Stainless Steels (MSS) can achieve ultra-high strengths in combination with very high corrosion resistance. This enables to manufacture complex lightweight sheet components with longer lifespan. Nevertheless, the hot formability of MSS sheets has not been accurately evaluated considering high temperatures and complex stress and strain states. In this work, the hot sheet formability of three MSS alloys under thermomechanical process conditions was investigated. Initially, mechanical properties of this sheet material were determined by uniaxial tensile test. Finite Element Method (FEM) simulation of a hot deep drawing process was performed under consideration of thermo physical calculated material models using the software JMatPro® and Simufact Forming® 15.0. The resulting strains and cooling rates developed locally in the work piece during the forming process were estimated. The numerical results were validated experimentally. Round cups were manufactured by hot deep drawing process. The resulting maximum drawing depth and hardness were measured. In general, all three alloys developed very good formability at forming temperatures between 700 and 900 °C and increased hardness values. However, they are highly susceptible to chemical composition, austenitization temperature, dwell time, and flange gap. A statistic approach is given to explain the correlation between hardness and its influencing factors. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Metal Forming and Joining)
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Article
Research on Tool Wear Based on 3D FEM Simulation for Milling Process
J. Manuf. Mater. Process. 2020, 4(4), 121; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmmp4040121 - 16 Dec 2020
Viewed by 964
Abstract
In the process of metal cutting, the anti-wear performance of the tool determines the life of the tool and affects the surface quality of the workpiece. The finite element simulation method can directly show the tool wear state and morphology, but due to [...] Read more.
In the process of metal cutting, the anti-wear performance of the tool determines the life of the tool and affects the surface quality of the workpiece. The finite element simulation method can directly show the tool wear state and morphology, but due to the limitations of the simulation time and complex boundary conditions, it has not been commonly used in tool life prediction. Based on this, a tool wear model was established on the platform of a finite element simulation software for the cutting process of titanium alloy TC4 by end milling. The key technique is to embed different types of tool wear models into the finite element model in combination with the consequent development technology. The effectiveness of the tool wear model was validated by comparing the experimental results with the simulation results. At the same time, in order to quickly predict the tool life, an empirical prediction formula of tool wear was established, and the change course of tool wear under time change was obtained. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Tool Wear Prediction in Manufacturing)
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Article
Influence of Softening Mechanisms on Base Materials Plastic Behaviour and Defects Formation in Friction Stir Lap Welding
J. Manuf. Mater. Process. 2020, 4(4), 120; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmmp4040120 - 13 Dec 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1005
Abstract
The AA6082-T6 and AA5754-H22 aluminium alloys were selected as the base materials to fabricate similar and dissimilar friction stir lap welds. Three lap configurations, AA6082/AA5754, AA5754/AA6082 and AA6082/AA6082, were produced using three pin profiles and tested to analyse the role of the plastic [...] Read more.
The AA6082-T6 and AA5754-H22 aluminium alloys were selected as the base materials to fabricate similar and dissimilar friction stir lap welds. Three lap configurations, AA6082/AA5754, AA5754/AA6082 and AA6082/AA6082, were produced using three pin profiles and tested to analyse the role of the plastic behaviours of the base materials on the welding conditions. The macrostructural characterisation was carried out to understand the material flow response and hook defect formation. The mechanical characterisation of the joints was done by microhardness and lap tensile shear testing. The finite element analysis and phase simulation were conducted to predict the phase dissolution temperatures and the softening kinetics. The welding torque and axial forces registered were analysed to quantify differences in the alloy’s flowability during welding. The analysis of the welding machine outputs enabled to conclude that higher axial forces were registered when the AA5754 alloy was placed at the top of the dissimilar lap joint, showing that the non-heat-treatable alloy has lower flowability than the heat-treatable alloy. These results were associated with the flow-softening of the AA6082 alloy in plastic deformation at high temperatures. The coupled experimental and numerical analysis revealed that the plastic behaviour of the base materials strongly influenced the material flow and, in this way, the hook defect formation and the shear tensile properties of the welds. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Friction Stir Welding and Related Technologies)
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Communication
Laser Powder Bed Fusion with Intentionally-Seeded Porosity for Prototyping of Powder Metallurgy Parts
J. Manuf. Mater. Process. 2020, 4(4), 119; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmmp4040119 - 11 Dec 2020
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1053
Abstract
Laser powder bed fusion (LPBF) additive manufacturing technology was used to produce functional prototypes of powder metallurgy (PM) components from high carbon content, iron-based water-atomized powders. The melt pool modeling and design of experiment approaches were combined in order to determine the LPBF [...] Read more.
Laser powder bed fusion (LPBF) additive manufacturing technology was used to produce functional prototypes of powder metallurgy (PM) components from high carbon content, iron-based water-atomized powders. The melt pool modeling and design of experiment approaches were combined in order to determine the LPBF operation window allowing to print parts with components similar to the PM in terms of density, microstructure and mechanical properties. The size, morphology and distribution of processing-induced pores were evaluated using computed tomography, while a microstructure analysis was carried out using X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy, and the mechanical properties were evaluated using tensile and unnotched Charpy testing. It was demonstrated that LPBF technology could effectively be used for the just-in-time manufacture of high-fidelity functional prototypes of PM parts from iron-based powders. Full article
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Article
Probing Magnetic Pulse Welding of Thin-Walled Tubes
J. Manuf. Mater. Process. 2020, 4(4), 118; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmmp4040118 - 11 Dec 2020
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1151
Abstract
Magnetic pulse welding is a solid-state joining technology, based on the use of electromagnetic forces to deform and to weld workpieces. Since no external heat sources are used during the magnetic pulse welding process, it offers important advantages for the joining of dissimilar [...] Read more.
Magnetic pulse welding is a solid-state joining technology, based on the use of electromagnetic forces to deform and to weld workpieces. Since no external heat sources are used during the magnetic pulse welding process, it offers important advantages for the joining of dissimilar material combinations. Although magnetic pulse welding has emerged as a novel technique to join metallic tubes, the dimensional consistency of the joint assembly due to the strong impact of the flyer tube onto the target tube and the resulting plastic deformation is a major concern. Often, an internal support inside the target tube is considered as a solution to improve the stiffness of the joint assembly. A detailed investigation of magnetic pulse welding of Cu-DHP flyer tubes and 11SMnPb30 steel target tubes is performed, with and without an internal support inside the target tubes, and using a range of experimental conditions. The influence of the key process conditions on the evolution of the joint between the tubes with progress in time has been determined using experimental investigations and numerical modelling. As the process is extremely fast, real-time monitoring of the process conditions and evolution of important responses such as impact velocity and angle, and collision velocity, which determine the formation of a metallic bond, is impossible. Therefore, an integrated approach using a computational model using a finite-element method is developed to predict the progress of the impact of the flyer onto the target, the resulting flyer impact velocity and angle, the collision velocity between the flyer and the target, and the evolution of the welded joint, which are usually impossible to measure using experimental observations. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Impulse-Based Manufacturing Technologies)
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Article
Passive Chatter Suppression of Thin-Walled Parts by Means of High-Damping Lattice Structures Obtained from Selective Laser Melting
J. Manuf. Mater. Process. 2020, 4(4), 117; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmmp4040117 - 10 Dec 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 987
Abstract
Chatter vibrations arising during machining operations are detrimental for cutting process performance, since they may cause poor surface quality of the machined part and severe damages to machine tool elements. Passive approaches for chatter suppression are based on the integration of special mechanical [...] Read more.
Chatter vibrations arising during machining operations are detrimental for cutting process performance, since they may cause poor surface quality of the machined part and severe damages to machine tool elements. Passive approaches for chatter suppression are based on the integration of special mechanical components with high-damping properties within the machining system. They represent a good solution to this problem thanks to their intrinsic simplicity. Recently, the application of metallic lattice structures inside 3D printed parts obtained from the Selective Laser Melting technology have proven superior damping properties with respect to the same full density material. Here, this idea is further explored by considering the novel configuration where the unmelted powder grains are retained inside the lattice structure by an external shell, acting as a multiplicity of microscopic mechanical dampers. This concept is applied for passive chatter suppression of thin-walled parts that are of particular relevance for industry. Preliminary experimental investigation was first carried out on simple beam-like specimens, and then on thin-walled benchmarks that were identified through modal analysis and tested under real cutting conditions. The main conclusion is that the novel proposed configuration (lattice plus unmelted powder) has higher damping properties with respect to the full density and lattice alternatives. Accordingly, it may be successfully applied for passive chatter suppression in real machining operations. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Machine Tool Dynamics)
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Article
A Rapid Throughput System for Shock and Impact Characterization: Design and Examples in Compaction, Spallation, and Impact Welding
J. Manuf. Mater. Process. 2020, 4(4), 116; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmmp4040116 - 10 Dec 2020
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 930
Abstract
Many important physical phenomena are governed by intense mechanical shock and impulse. These can be used in material processing and manufacturing. Examples include the compaction or shearing of materials in ballistic, meteor, or other impacts, spallation in armor and impact to induce phase [...] Read more.
Many important physical phenomena are governed by intense mechanical shock and impulse. These can be used in material processing and manufacturing. Examples include the compaction or shearing of materials in ballistic, meteor, or other impacts, spallation in armor and impact to induce phase and residual stress changes. The traditional methods for measuring very high strain rate behavior usually include gas-guns that accelerate flyers up to km/s speeds over a distance of meters. The throughput of such experiments is usually limited to a few experiments per day and the equipment is usually large, requiring specialized laboratories. Here, a much more compact method based on the Vaporizing Foil Actuator (VFA) is used that can accelerate flyers to over 1 km/s over a few mm of travel is proposed for high throughput testing in a compact system. A system with this primary driver coupled with Photonic Doppler Velocimetry (PDV) is demonstrated to give insightful data in powder compaction allowing measurements of shock speed, spall testing giving fast and reasonable estimates of spall strength, and impact welding providing interface microstructure as a function of impact angle and speed. The essential features of the system are outlined, and it is noted that this approach can be extended to other dynamic tests as well. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Impulse-Based Manufacturing Technologies)
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Article
Hybrid Additive Manufacturing of Collector Coins
J. Manuf. Mater. Process. 2020, 4(4), 115; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmmp4040115 - 09 Dec 2020
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 960
Abstract
The objective of this paper is to present a new hybrid additive manufacturing route for fabricating collector coins with complex, intricate contoured holes. The new manufacturing route combines metal deposition by additive manufacturing with metal cutting and forming, and its application is illustrated [...] Read more.
The objective of this paper is to present a new hybrid additive manufacturing route for fabricating collector coins with complex, intricate contoured holes. The new manufacturing route combines metal deposition by additive manufacturing with metal cutting and forming, and its application is illustrated with an example consisting of a prototype coin made from stainless steel AISI 316L. Experimentation and finite element analysis of the coin minting operation with the in-house computer program i-form show that the blanks produced by additive manufacturing and metal cutting can withstand the high compressive pressures that are attained during the embossing and impressing of lettering and other reliefs on the coin surfaces. The presentation allows concluding that hybrid additive manufacturing opens the way to the production of innovative collector coins with geometric features that are radically different from those that are currently available in the market. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Metal Forming and Joining)
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Article
Optimization of Wet Grinding Conditions of Sheets Made of Stainless Steel
J. Manuf. Mater. Process. 2020, 4(4), 114; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmmp4040114 - 07 Dec 2020
Viewed by 913
Abstract
This study addresses the wet grinding of large stainless steel sheets, because it is difficult to subject them to dry grinding. Because stainless steel has a low thermal conductivity and a high coefficient of thermal expansion, it easily causes grinding burn and thermal [...] Read more.
This study addresses the wet grinding of large stainless steel sheets, because it is difficult to subject them to dry grinding. Because stainless steel has a low thermal conductivity and a high coefficient of thermal expansion, it easily causes grinding burn and thermal deformation while dry grinding on the wheel without applying a cooling effect. Therefore, wet grinding is a better alternative. In this study, we made several types of grinding wheels, performed the wet grinding of stainless steel sheets, and identified the wheels most suitable for the process. As such, this study developed a special accessory that could be attached to a wet grinding workpiece. The attachment can maintain constant pressure, rotational speed, and supply grinding fluid during work. A set of experiments was conducted to see how some grinding wheels subjected to some grinding conditions affected the surface roughness of a workpiece made of a stainless steel sheet (SUS 304, according to Japanese Industrial Standards: JIS). It was found that the roughness of the sheet could be minimized when a polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) grinding wheel was used as the grinding wheel and tap water was used as the grinding fluid at an attachment pressure of 0.2 MPa and a rotational speed of 150 rpm. It was shown that a surface roughness of up to 0.3 μm in terms of the arithmetic average height could be achieved if the above conditions were satisfied during wet grinding. The final surface roughness was 0.03 μm after finish polishing by buffing. Since the wet grinding of steel has yet to be studied in detail, this article will serve as a valuable reference. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Intelligent Machining and Grinding)
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Article
Influence of the CO2 Content in Shielding Gas on the Temperature of the Shielding Gas Nozzle during GMAW Welding
J. Manuf. Mater. Process. 2020, 4(4), 113; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmmp4040113 - 04 Dec 2020
Viewed by 930
Abstract
Gas metal arc welding torches are commonly chosen based on their current-carrying capacity. It is known that the current-carrying capacity of welding torches under CO2 is usually higher than under argon dominated shielding gases. In this publication, the extent to which this [...] Read more.
Gas metal arc welding torches are commonly chosen based on their current-carrying capacity. It is known that the current-carrying capacity of welding torches under CO2 is usually higher than under argon dominated shielding gases. In this publication, the extent to which this can be attributed to the shielding gas dependent arc radiation is investigated. For this purpose, the influence of the shielding gas on the thermal load of the shielding gas nozzle of a GMAW torch was calorimetrically measured. These experiments were carried out for four different shielding gases (argon, CO2, and two argon/CO2 mixtures). The measurements were all performed at an average current of 300 A. The welding current was set by adjusting the wire feed rate or the voltage correction. For each case, a separate set of experiments was done. It is shown that the changed arc radiation resulting from the different shielding gases has an influence on the heat input into the gas nozzle, and thus into the torch. For the same shielding gas, this influence largely correlates with the welding voltage. Full article
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Article
Improving Geometric Accuracy of 3D Printed Parts Using 3D Metrology Feedback and Mesh Morphing
J. Manuf. Mater. Process. 2020, 4(4), 112; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmmp4040112 - 29 Nov 2020
Viewed by 1266
Abstract
Additive manufacturing (AM), also known as 3D printing, has gained significant interest due to the freedom it offers in creating complex-shaped and highly customized parts with little lead time. However, a current challenge of AM is the lack of geometric accuracy of fabricated [...] Read more.
Additive manufacturing (AM), also known as 3D printing, has gained significant interest due to the freedom it offers in creating complex-shaped and highly customized parts with little lead time. However, a current challenge of AM is the lack of geometric accuracy of fabricated parts. To improve the geometric accuracy of 3D printed parts, this paper presents a three-dimensional geometric compensation method that allows for eliminating systematic deviations by morphing the original surface mesh model of the part by the inverse of the systematic deviations. These systematic deviations are measured by 3D scanning multiple sacrificial printed parts and computing an average deviation vector field throughout the model. We demonstrate the necessity to filter out the random deviations from the measurement data used for compensation. Case studies demonstrate that printing the compensated mesh model based on the average deviation of five sacrificial parts produces a part with deviations about three times smaller than measured on the uncompensated parts. The deviation values of this compensated part based on the average deviation vector field are less than half of the deviation values of the compensated part based on only one sacrificial part. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Direct Digital Manufacturing with Additive Manufacturing/3D Printing)
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Article
The Influence of Servo Drive Control on the NC Vertical Milling Machine Dynamic Compliance
J. Manuf. Mater. Process. 2020, 4(4), 111; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmmp4040111 - 26 Nov 2020
Viewed by 1043
Abstract
A model Numerical Control (NC) machine tool dynamic compliance is analyzed, including the influence of its mechanical structure and position control feed drive algorithms. The dynamic model of the machine tool is divided into two main parts, which are closest to the machining [...] Read more.
A model Numerical Control (NC) machine tool dynamic compliance is analyzed, including the influence of its mechanical structure and position control feed drive algorithms. The dynamic model of the machine tool is divided into two main parts, which are closest to the machining process. First, the milling head assembly group is presented as a system of one mass oscillating in a 2D plane and 3D space. Second, the motion axes assembly group, XY cross table with linear feed drive, is presented. A square 2×2 dimension matrix of the total dynamic compliance is evaluated within the feed drive control system included. Partial elements of the mechanical structure dynamic compliance matrix of the general N×N dimension are contained in the total dynamic compliance matrix. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Machine Tool Dynamics)
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Article
Process Optimization for 100 W Nanosecond Pulsed Fiber Laser Engraving of 316L Grade Stainless Steel
J. Manuf. Mater. Process. 2020, 4(4), 110; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmmp4040110 - 26 Nov 2020
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1343
Abstract
High average power (>50 W) nanosecond pulsed fiber lasers are now routinely available owing to the demand for high throughput laser applications. However, in some applications, scale-up in average power has a detrimental effect on process quality due to laser-induced thermal accumulation in [...] Read more.
High average power (>50 W) nanosecond pulsed fiber lasers are now routinely available owing to the demand for high throughput laser applications. However, in some applications, scale-up in average power has a detrimental effect on process quality due to laser-induced thermal accumulation in the workpiece. To understand the laser–material interactions in this power regime, and how best to optimize process performance and quality, we investigated the influence of laser parameters such as pulse duration, energy dose (i.e., total energy deposited per unit area), and pulse repetition frequency (PRF) on engraving 316L stainless steel. Two different laser beam scanning strategies, namely, sequential method (SM) and interlacing method (IM), were examined. For each set of parameters, the material removal rate (MRR) and average surface roughness (Sa) were measured using an Alicona 3D surface profilometer. A phenomenological model has been used to help identify the best combination of laser parameters for engraving. Specifically, this study has found that (i) the model serves as a quick way to streamline parameters for area engraving (ii) increasing the pulse duration and energy dose at certain PRF results in a high MRR, albeit with an associated increase in Sa, and (iii) the IM offers 84% reduction in surface roughness at a higher MRR compared to SM. Ultimately, high quality at high throughput engraving is demonstrated using optimized process parameters. Full article
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Article
Digital Twin Based Optimization of a Manufacturing Execution System to Handle High Degrees of Customer Specifications
J. Manuf. Mater. Process. 2020, 4(4), 109; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmmp4040109 - 17 Nov 2020
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1869
Abstract
Lean production principles have greatly contributed to the efficient and customer-oriented mass production of goods and services. A core element of lean production is the focus on cycle times and designing production controls and buffers around any bottlenecks in the system. Hence, a [...] Read more.
Lean production principles have greatly contributed to the efficient and customer-oriented mass production of goods and services. A core element of lean production is the focus on cycle times and designing production controls and buffers around any bottlenecks in the system. Hence, a production line organized by lean principles will operate in a static or at least quasi-static way. While the individualization of products is an interesting business approach, it can influence cycle times and in-time production. This work demonstrates how performance losses induced by highly variable cycle times can be recovered using a digital twin. The unit under analysis is an industrial joiner’s workshop. Due to the high variance in cycle time, the joinery fails its production target, even if all machines are below 80% usage. Using a discrete event simulation of the production line, different production strategies can be evaluated efficiently and systematically. It is successfully shown that the performance losses due to the highly variable cycle times can be compensated using a digital twin in combination with optimization strategies. This is achieved by operating the system in a non-static mode, exploiting the flexibilities within the systems. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue AI Applications in Smart and Advanced Manufacturing)
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Article
Advances in Machine Learning Detecting Changeover Processes in Cyber Physical Production Systems
J. Manuf. Mater. Process. 2020, 4(4), 108; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmmp4040108 - 13 Nov 2020
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1379
Abstract
The performance indicator, Overall Equipment Effectiveness (OEE), is one of the most important ones for production control, as it merges information of equipment usage, process yield, and product quality. The determination of the OEE is oftentimes not transparent in companies, due to the [...] Read more.
The performance indicator, Overall Equipment Effectiveness (OEE), is one of the most important ones for production control, as it merges information of equipment usage, process yield, and product quality. The determination of the OEE is oftentimes not transparent in companies, due to the heterogeneous data sources and manual interference. Furthermore, there is a difference in present guidelines to calculate the OEE. Due to a big amount of sensor data in Cyber Physical Production Systems, Machine Learning methods can be used in order to detect several elements of the OEE by a trained model. Changeover time is one crucial aspect influencing the OEE, as it adds no value to the product. Furthermore, changeover processes are fulfilled manually and vary from worker to worker. They always have their own procedure to conduct a changeover of a machine for a new product or production lot. Hence, the changeover time as well as the process itself vary. Thus, a new Machine Learning based concept for identification and characterization of machine set-up actions is presented. Here, the issue to be dealt with is the necessity of human and machine interaction to fulfill the entire machine set-up process. Because of this, the paper shows the use case in a real production scenario of a small to medium size company (SME), the derived data set, promising Machine Learning algorithms, as well as the results of the implemented Machine Learning model to classify machine set-up actions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Cyber Physical Production Systems)
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Article
Influence of Powder Particle Morphology on the Static and Fatigue Properties of Laser Powder Bed-Fused Ti-6Al-4V Components
J. Manuf. Mater. Process. 2020, 4(4), 107; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmmp4040107 - 09 Nov 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 922
Abstract
In this work, two Ti-6Al-4V powder lots were produced using two different techniques: plasma atomization and gas atomization, with the first producing more spherical particles than the second. Testing specimens were then manufactured with these powder lots using an identical set of printing [...] Read more.
In this work, two Ti-6Al-4V powder lots were produced using two different techniques: plasma atomization and gas atomization, with the first producing more spherical particles than the second. Testing specimens were then manufactured with these powder lots using an identical set of printing parameters and the same laser powder bed fusion system. Next, the porosity levels and distributions as well as the static and fatigue properties of the specimens from both powder lots were compared. Regarding the static mechanical properties, a noticeable difference was observed between the plasma-atomized powder specimens and their gas-atomized equivalents (7% greater ultimate and 4% greater yield strengths, but 3% lower elongation to failure, respectively). However, with regard to the fatigue resistance, the advantages of the plasma-atomized powder specimens in terms of their mechanical resistance were somewhat counterbalanced by the presence of pores aligned in the direction perpendicular to that of applied load. Conversely, specimens printed with the gas-atomized powder manifested a similar level of porosity, but a uniform pore distribution, which reduced the impact of the processing-induced porosity on fatigue cracks initiation and propagation. Full article
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Article
Virtual Quality Gates in Manufacturing Systems: Framework, Implementation and Potential
J. Manuf. Mater. Process. 2020, 4(4), 106; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmmp4040106 - 09 Nov 2020
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 1711
Abstract
Manufacturing companies are exposed to increased complexity and competition. To stay competitive, companies need to minimize the total cost of quality while ensuring high transparency about process–product relationships within the manufacturing system. In this context, the development of technologies such as advanced analytics [...] Read more.
Manufacturing companies are exposed to increased complexity and competition. To stay competitive, companies need to minimize the total cost of quality while ensuring high transparency about process–product relationships within the manufacturing system. In this context, the development of technologies such as advanced analytics and cyber physical production systems offer a promising approach. This paper discusses and defines essential elements of virtual quality gates in the context of manufacturing systems. To support the planning and implementation of virtual quality gates, a morphological box is developed which can be used to identify and derive an individual approach for a virtual quality gate based on the specific characteristics and requirements of the respective manufacturing system. Moreover, the framework is exemplified by three case studies from various industries and resulting potential are discussed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Cyber Physical Production Systems)
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Article
Micro-Structures Produced by Crystal Growth from Located Nuclei and Their Transfer Aiming at Functional Surfaces
J. Manuf. Mater. Process. 2020, 4(4), 105; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmmp4040105 - 06 Nov 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 966
Abstract
Hydrothermal processes can produce regular micro-/nano-structures easily; but their placement or position is difficult to control, and the obtainable structures tend to be random. For controlling the crystal growth, two types of definite and regular structures were obtained. The first ones were ZnO [...] Read more.
Hydrothermal processes can produce regular micro-/nano-structures easily; but their placement or position is difficult to control, and the obtainable structures tend to be random. For controlling the crystal growth, two types of definite and regular structures were obtained. The first ones were ZnO urchin-like structures synthesized from located ZnO particles as the nuclei. These structures were found to work as gas sensors utilizing a wide surface area. The second one was a vertically aligned TiO2 nanorod array synthesized on a fluorine-doped tin oxide substrate that has a similar lattice constant to rutile TiO2. Super-hydrophobicity after ultraviolet irradiation was then examined. Finally, the synthesized TiO2 array was peeled off and transferred onto a resin sheet. We determined that the substrate could be subjected to repeated hydrothermal synthesis, thereby demonstrating the reusability of the substrate. These results demonstrate the applicability of these processes for industrial applications. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Progress in Precision Machining)
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Article
CAD-Based Automated Design of FEA-Ready Cutting Tools
J. Manuf. Mater. Process. 2020, 4(4), 104; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmmp4040104 - 01 Nov 2020
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1521
Abstract
The resources of modern Finite Element Analysis (FEA) software provide engineers with powerful mechanisms that can be used to investigate numerous machining processes with satisfying results. Nevertheless, the success of a simulation, especially in three dimensions, relies heavily on the accuracy of the [...] Read more.
The resources of modern Finite Element Analysis (FEA) software provide engineers with powerful mechanisms that can be used to investigate numerous machining processes with satisfying results. Nevertheless, the success of a simulation, especially in three dimensions, relies heavily on the accuracy of the cutting tool models that are implemented in the analyses. With this in mind, the present paper presents an application developed via Computer-Aided Design (CAD) programming that enables the automated design of accurate cutting tool models that can be used in 3D turning simulations. The presented application was developed with the aid of the programming resources of a commercially available CAD system. Moreover, the parametric design methodology was employed in order to design the tools according to the appropriate standards. Concluding, a sample tool model was tested by performing a number of machining simulations based on typical cutting parameters. The yielded results were then compared to experimental values of the generated machining force components for validation. The findings of the study prove the functionality of the tool models since a high level of agreement occurred between the acquired numerical results and the experimental ones. Full article
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Article
RFID Application in a Multi-Agent Cyber Physical Manufacturing System
J. Manuf. Mater. Process. 2020, 4(4), 103; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmmp4040103 - 29 Oct 2020
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1037
Abstract
In manufacturing supply chains with labour-intensive operations and processes, individuals perform various types of manual tasks and quality checks. These operations and processes embrace engagement with various forms of paperwork, regulation obligations and external agreements between multiple stakeholders. Such manual activities can increase [...] Read more.
In manufacturing supply chains with labour-intensive operations and processes, individuals perform various types of manual tasks and quality checks. These operations and processes embrace engagement with various forms of paperwork, regulation obligations and external agreements between multiple stakeholders. Such manual activities can increase human error and near misses, which may ultimately lead to a lack of productivity and performance. In this paper, a multi-agent cyber-physical system (CPS) architecture with radio frequency identification (RFID) technology is presented to assist inter-layer interactions between different manufacturing phases on the shop floor and external interactions with other stakeholders within a supply chain. A dynamic simulation model in the AnyLogic software is developed to implement the CPS-RFID solution by using the agent-based technique. A case study from cryogenic warehousing in cell and gene therapy has been chosen to test the validity of the presented CPS-RFID architecture. The analyses of the simulation results show improvement in efficiency and productivity, in terms of resource time-in-system. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Cyber Physical Production Systems)
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Editorial
Advanced Manufacturing and Machining Processes
J. Manuf. Mater. Process. 2020, 4(4), 102; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmmp4040102 - 27 Oct 2020
Viewed by 1011
Abstract
Manufacturing is one of the major sections of the economy along with services, construction and agriculture [...] Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Manufacturing and Machining Processes)
Review
On the Fabrication of Metallic Single Crystal Turbine Blades with a Commentary on Repair via Additive Manufacturing
J. Manuf. Mater. Process. 2020, 4(4), 101; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmmp4040101 - 26 Oct 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1739
Abstract
The turbine section of aircraft engines (both commercial and military) is an example of one of the most hostile environments as the components in this section typically operate at upwards of 1650 °C in the presence of corrosive and oxidative gases. The blades [...] Read more.
The turbine section of aircraft engines (both commercial and military) is an example of one of the most hostile environments as the components in this section typically operate at upwards of 1650 °C in the presence of corrosive and oxidative gases. The blades are at the heart of the turbine section as they extract energy from the hot gases to generate work. The turbine blades are typically fabricated using investment casting, and depending on the casting complexity, they generally display one of the three common microstructures (i.e., equiaxed or polycrystalline, directionally solidified, and single crystal). Single crystal casting is exotic as several steps of the casting process are traditionally hands-on. Due to the complex production process involving several prototyping iterations, the blade castings have a significant cost associated with them. For example, a set of 40 single crystal turbine blades costs above USD 600,000 and requires 60–90 weeks for production. Additionally, if the components suffer from material loss due to prolonged service or manufacturing defects, the traditional manufacturing methods cannot restore the parent metallurgy at the damage locations. Hence, there is a significant interest in developing additive manufacturing (AM) technologies that can repair the single crystal turbine blades. Despite the blades’ criticality in aircraft propulsion, there is currently no review article that summarizes the metallurgy, production process, failure mechanisms, and AM-based repair methods of the single crystal turbine blades. To address this existing gap, this review paper starts with a discussion on the composition of the single crystal superalloys, describes the traditional fabrication methods for the metallic single crystal turbine blades, estimates the material and energy loss when the blades are scrapped or reverted, and provides a summary of the AM technologies that are currently being investigated for their repair potential. In conclusion, based on the literature reviewed, this paper identifies new avenues for research and development approaches for advancing the fabrication and repair of single crystal turbine blades. Full article
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Article
Use of a Holistic Design and Manufacturing Approach to Implement Optimized Additively Manufactured Mould Inserts for the Production of Injection-Moulded Thermoplastics
J. Manuf. Mater. Process. 2020, 4(4), 100; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmmp4040100 - 24 Oct 2020
Viewed by 1398
Abstract
Injection moulding is one the most familiar processes for manufacturing of plastic parts by injecting molten thermoplastic polymers into a metallic mould. The cycle time of this process consists of the phases of injection, packing, cooling, and ejection of the final product. Shortening [...] Read more.
Injection moulding is one the most familiar processes for manufacturing of plastic parts by injecting molten thermoplastic polymers into a metallic mould. The cycle time of this process consists of the phases of injection, packing, cooling, and ejection of the final product. Shortening of cycle time is a key consideration to increase productivity. Therefore, in this manuscript the adoption of additively manufactured mould inserts with conformal cooling channels by means of selective laser melting (SLM) with the aim to reduce process cycles is presented. The design and manufacture of a mould insert with conformal cooling channels for producing pressure fitting thermoplastic parts is described. Numerical analysis of the injection process and simulation of shape distortions after SLM were conducted providing useful results for the design and manufacture of the mould insert. The results of the numerical analyses are compared with experimental 3D geometrical data of the additively manufactured mould insert. Temperature measurements during the real injection moulding process demonstrating promising findings. The adoption of the introduced method for the series production of injection moulded thermoplastics proves a shortening of cycle times of up to 32% and a final product shape quality improvement of up to 77% when using mould inserts with conformal cooling channels over the conventional mould inserts. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Additive Manufacturing and Device Applications)
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Review
The Capabilities of Spark-Assisted Chemical Engraving: A Review
J. Manuf. Mater. Process. 2020, 4(4), 99; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmmp4040099 - 23 Oct 2020
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1347
Abstract
Brittle non-conductive materials, like glass and ceramics, are becoming ever more significant with the rising demand for fabricating micro-devices with special micro-features. Spark-Assisted Chemical Engraving (SACE), a novel micromachining technology, has offered good machining capabilities for glass and ceramic materials in basic machining [...] Read more.
Brittle non-conductive materials, like glass and ceramics, are becoming ever more significant with the rising demand for fabricating micro-devices with special micro-features. Spark-Assisted Chemical Engraving (SACE), a novel micromachining technology, has offered good machining capabilities for glass and ceramic materials in basic machining operations like drilling, milling, cutting, die sinking, and others. This paper presents a review about SACE technology. It highlights the process fundamentals of operation and the key machining parameters that control it which are mainly related to the electrolyte, tool-electrode, and machining voltage. It provides information about the gas film that forms around the tool during the process and the parameters that enhance its stability, which play a key role in enhancing the machining outcome. This work also presents the capabilities and limitations of SACE through comparing it with other existing micro-drilling and micromachining technologies. Information was collected regarding micro-channel machining capabilities for SACE and other techniques that fall under four major glass micromachining categories—mainly thermal, chemical, mechanical, and hybrid. Based on this, a figure that presents the capabilities of such technologies from the perspective of the machining speed (lateral) and resulting micro-channel geometry (aspect ratio) was plotted. For both drilling and micro-channel machining, SACE showed to be a promising technique compared to others as it requires relatively cheap set-up, results in high aspect ratio structures (above 10), and takes a relatively short machining time. This technique shows its suitability for rapid prototyping of glass micro-parts and devices. The paper also addresses the topic of surface functionalization, specifically the surface texturing done during SACE and other glass micromachining technologies. Through tuning machining parameters, like the electrolyte viscosity, tool–substrate gap, tool travel speed, and machining voltage, SACE shows a promising and unique potential in controlling the surface properties and surface texture while machining. Full article
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Article
A Study on Strengthening Mechanical Properties of a Punch Mold for Cutting by Using an HWS Powder Material and a DED Semi-AM Method of Metal 3D Printing
J. Manuf. Mater. Process. 2020, 4(4), 98; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmmp4040098 - 27 Sep 2020
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1344
Abstract
The post-processing (punching or trimming) of high-strength parts reinforced by hot stamping requires punch molds with improved mechanical properties in hardness, resistance to wear, and toughness. In this study, a semi-additive manufacturing (semi-AM) method of heterogeneous materials was proposed to strengthen these properties [...] Read more.
The post-processing (punching or trimming) of high-strength parts reinforced by hot stamping requires punch molds with improved mechanical properties in hardness, resistance to wear, and toughness. In this study, a semi-additive manufacturing (semi-AM) method of heterogeneous materials was proposed to strengthen these properties using high wear resistance steel (HWS) powder and directed energy deposition (DED) technology. To verify these mechanical properties as a material for the punch mold for cutting, specimens were prepared and tested by a semi-AM method of heterogeneous material. The test results of the HWS additive material by the semi-AM method proposed in this study are as follows: the hardness was 60.59–62.0 HRc, which was like the Bulk D2 specimen. The wear resistance was about 4.2 times compared to that of the D2 specimen; the toughness was about 4.0 times that of the bulk D2 specimen; the compressive strength was about 1.45 times that of the bulk D2 specimen; the true density showed 100% with no porosity. Moreover, the absorption energy was 59.0 J in a multi-semi-AM specimen of heterogeneous materials having an intermediate buffer layer (P21 powder material). The semi-AM method of heterogeneous materials presented in this study could be applied as a method to strengthen the punch mold for cutting. In addition, the multi-semi-AM method of heterogeneous materials will be able to control the mechanical properties of the additive material. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Additive Manufacturing and Device Applications)
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Article
Data-Driven Digital Twins for Technical Building Services Operation in Factories: A Cooling Tower Case Study
J. Manuf. Mater. Process. 2020, 4(4), 97; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmmp4040097 - 23 Sep 2020
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1469
Abstract
Cyber-physical production systems (CPPS) and digital twins (DT) with a data-driven core enable retrospective analyses of acquired data to achieve a pervasive system understanding and can further support prospective operational management in production systems. Cost pressure and environmental compliances sensitize facility operators for [...] Read more.
Cyber-physical production systems (CPPS) and digital twins (DT) with a data-driven core enable retrospective analyses of acquired data to achieve a pervasive system understanding and can further support prospective operational management in production systems. Cost pressure and environmental compliances sensitize facility operators for energy and resource efficiency within the whole life cycle while achieving reliability requirements. In manufacturing systems, technical building services (TBS) such as cooling towers (CT) are drivers of resource demands while they fulfil a vital mission to keep the production running. Data-driven approaches, such as data mining (DM), help to support operators in their daily business. Within this paper the development of a data-driven DT for TBS operation is presented and applied on an industrial CT case study located in Germany. It aims to improve system understanding and performance prediction as essentials for a successful operational management. The approach comprises seven consecutive steps in a broadly applicable workflow based on the CRISP-DM paradigm. Step by step, the workflow is explained including a tailored data pre-processing, transformation and aggregation as well as feature selection procedure. The graphical presentation of interim results in portfolio diagrams, heat maps and Sankey diagrams amongst others to enhance the intuitive understanding of the procedure. The comparative evaluation of selected DM algorithms confirms a high prediction accuracy for cooling capacity (R2 = 0.96) by using polynomial regression and electric power demand (R2 = 0.99) by linear regression. The results are evaluated graphically and the transfer into industrial practice is discussed conclusively. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Cyber Physical Production Systems)
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