Special Issue "Progress in Precision Machining"

A special issue of Journal of Manufacturing and Materials Processing (ISSN 2504-4494).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (15 April 2021).

Special Issue Editors

Prof. Dr. Bernhard Karpuschewski
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Faculty of Production Engineering, University of Bremen, D-28359 Bremen, Germany
Interests: cutting and abrasive machining, surface integrity aspects; modeling and optimization of manufacturing processes; precision engineering; monitoring and control of machining processes
Dr. Oltmann Riemer
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Faculty of Production Engineering, University of Bremen, D-28359 Bremen, Germany
Interests: precision engineering; diamond and micromachining processes; polishing and precision grinding processes; surface characterization; manufacture of optical components

Special Issue Information

Precision machining comprises a variety of advanced manufacturing technologies which have developed over the last few decades into flexible, fast, and reliable processes for generating complex high-quality components with functional surfaces and structures. Precision machined parts can be found in products from the automotive, aerospace, and optical industries, as well as medical and communications technologies. In addition to specific high precision machines and advanced tooling, the application of precision machining also requires a fundamental comprehension of processes technology and material behavior as well as metrology and control. 

In this Special Issue of JMMP, we are looking for recent findings, which focus on precision machining technologies including their application and associated research fields. Papers will be considered that show significant advancement according to progress and quality of precision processes, necessary machinery and tools, material aspects, as well as associated metrology with respect to surface properties, surface integrity, and process control.

We are interested in contributions that focus on topics such as:

  • precision and micro machining, including diamond machining, precision grinding and polishing, EDM, and laser beam machining;
  • metrology for high precision characterization of form, structures, and topography of precision machined components;
  • Material aspects in precision machining such as surface and subsurface integrity of precision machined hard and difficult-to-cut materials;
  • Application of process monitoring for sound and robust precision manufacturing technologies.

Prof. Dr. Bernhard Karpuschewski
Dr. Oltmann Riemer
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Journal of Manufacturing and Materials Processing is an international peer-reviewed open access quarterly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1400 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Published Papers (10 papers)

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Research

Communication
Dual-Axial Tool Servo Diamond Turning of Hierarchical Micro-Nano-Structured Surfaces
J. Manuf. Mater. Process. 2021, 5(2), 58; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmmp5020058 - 07 Jun 2021
Viewed by 625
Abstract
This paper reports on a dual-axial tool servo diamond turning method for the one-step fabrication of hierarchical micro-nano-structured surfaces. With respect to the dual-axial servo motion (XZ), the z-axis motion can generate the primary surface with a complex shape, and the x [...] Read more.
This paper reports on a dual-axial tool servo diamond turning method for the one-step fabrication of hierarchical micro-nano-structured surfaces. With respect to the dual-axial servo motion (XZ), the z-axis motion can generate the primary surface with a complex shape, and the x-axis motion is used to synchronously form the secondary structure via controlling the residual tool marks. The toolpath determination algorithm for the developed turning method is described in detail, and the effect of the machining parameters on the basic feature and sizes of the generated secondary structures is investigated through conducting the numerical simulation for both toolpath and surface generation. The simulation result indicates that the additional x-axial motion is effective for the deterministic generation of a variety of secondary structures. Finally, taking advantage of an ultra-precision lathe with a self-developed tri-axial FTS, a hierarchical surface with high accuracy is practically generated. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Progress in Precision Machining)
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Article
Edge Grinding Characteristics of Display Glass Substrate
J. Manuf. Mater. Process. 2021, 5(1), 20; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmmp5010020 - 01 Mar 2021
Viewed by 1098
Abstract
Display glass substrate as a brittle material is very challenging to machine due to its excellent physical, mechanical, electrical, and optical properties such as high hardness, high strength, high wear resistance, good fracture toughness, good chemical stability, and good thermal stability. On the [...] Read more.
Display glass substrate as a brittle material is very challenging to machine due to its excellent physical, mechanical, electrical, and optical properties such as high hardness, high strength, high wear resistance, good fracture toughness, good chemical stability, and good thermal stability. On the basis of Griffith fracture mechanics, our theoretical analysis indicated that edge grinding of the display glass substrate is under brittle mode when grinding with the given conditions, which was verified by the experimental studies of ground glass edge surface topography and fractured surface obtained. Grinding force (Fy) in the vertical direction was much larger than grinding force (Fx) in the horizontal direction, causing a large compressive stress acting on the grinding glass edge. Grinding torque was slightly increased with the increase of grinding speed. Grinding temperature was very high when measured under dry grinding compared with measurement under high-pressure coolant. Grinding of glass substrate edge was performed partially under ductile mode machining in the experimental conditions, which can be attributed to and contributed by those micro cutting edges generated by the fractured diamond grit on the grinding wheel surface. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Progress in Precision Machining)
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Article
Fundamental Investigation of Diamond Cutting of Micro V-Shaped Grooves on a Polycrystalline Soft-Brittle Material
J. Manuf. Mater. Process. 2021, 5(1), 17; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmmp5010017 - 08 Feb 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 933
Abstract
Fabricating micro-structures on optical materials has received great interest in recent years. In this work, micro-grooving experiments were performed on polycrystalline zinc selenide (ZnSe) to investigate the feasibility of surface micro-structuring on polycrystalline soft-brittle material by diamond turning. A photosensitive resin was coated [...] Read more.
Fabricating micro-structures on optical materials has received great interest in recent years. In this work, micro-grooving experiments were performed on polycrystalline zinc selenide (ZnSe) to investigate the feasibility of surface micro-structuring on polycrystalline soft-brittle material by diamond turning. A photosensitive resin was coated on the workpiece before cutting, and it was found that the coating was effective in suppressing brittle fractures at the edges of the grooves. The effect of tool feed rate in groove depth direction was examined. Results showed that the defect morphology on the groove surface was affected by the tool feed rate. The crystallographic orientation of grains around the groove was characterized by electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD), and it was found that the formation of defects was strongly dependent on the angle of groove surface with respect to the cleavage plane of grain. The stress distribution of the micro-grooving process was investigated by the finite element method. Results showed that the location of tensile stresses in the coated workpiece was farther from the edge of the groove compared with that in the uncoated workpiece, verifying the experimental result that brittle fractures were suppressed by the resin coating. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Progress in Precision Machining)
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Article
Investigation of Mechanical Loads Distribution for the Process of Generating Gear Grinding
J. Manuf. Mater. Process. 2021, 5(1), 13; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmmp5010013 - 27 Jan 2021
Viewed by 793
Abstract
In grinding, interaction between the workpiece material and rotating abrasive tool generates high thermo-mechanical loads in the contact zone. If these loads reach critically high values, workpiece material properties deteriorate. To prevent the material deterioration, several models for thermomechanical analysis of grinding processes [...] Read more.
In grinding, interaction between the workpiece material and rotating abrasive tool generates high thermo-mechanical loads in the contact zone. If these loads reach critically high values, workpiece material properties deteriorate. To prevent the material deterioration, several models for thermomechanical analysis of grinding processes have been developed. In these models, the source of heat flux is usually considered as uniform in the temperature distribution calculation. However, it is known that heat flux in grinding is generated from frictional heating as well as plastic deformation during the interaction between workpiece material and each grain from the tool. To consider these factors in a future coupled thermomechanical model specifically for the process of gear generating grinding, an investigation of the mechanical load distribution during interaction between grain and workpiece material considering the process kinematics is first required. This work aims to investigate the influence of process parameters as well as grain shape on the distribution of the mechanical loads along a single-grain in gear generating grinding. For this investigation, an adaptation of a single-grain energy model considering the chip formation mechanisms is proposed. The grinding energy as well as normal force can be determined either supported by measurements or solely based on prediction models. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Progress in Precision Machining)
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Article
Micro-Injection Molding of Diffractive Structured Surfaces
J. Manuf. Mater. Process. 2021, 5(1), 12; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmmp5010012 - 22 Jan 2021
Viewed by 860
Abstract
In recent years, the use of highly functional optical elements has made its way into our everyday life. Its applications range from use in utility items such as cell phone cameras up to security elements on banknotes or production goods. For this purpose, [...] Read more.
In recent years, the use of highly functional optical elements has made its way into our everyday life. Its applications range from use in utility items such as cell phone cameras up to security elements on banknotes or production goods. For this purpose, the Leibniz Institute for Materials Engineering (IWT) has been developing a cutting process for the fast and cost-effective production of hologram-based diffractive optical elements. In contrast to established non-mechanical manufacturing processes, such as laser lithography or chemical etching, which are able to produce optics in large quantities and with high accuracy, the diamond turning approach is extending these properties by offering several degrees of freedom. This allows for an almost unlimited geometric complexity and a structured area of considerable size (several tenth square millimeters), achieved in a single process step. In order to introduce diffractive security features to the mass market and to actual production goods, a high-performance replication process is required as the consecutive development step. Micro injection molding represents a feasible and promising option here. In particular, diamond machining enables the integration of safety features directly into the mold insert. Not only does this make additional assembly obsolete, but the safety feature can also be placed inconspicuously in the final product. In this paper, the potential of micro-injection molding as a replication process for diffractive structured surfaces will be investigated and demonstrated. Furthermore, the optical functionality after replication will be verified and evaluated. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Progress in Precision Machining)
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Article
An Efficient Ultraprecision Machining System Automating Setting Operations of Roughly Machined Workpiece
J. Manuf. Mater. Process. 2021, 5(1), 11; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmmp5010011 - 19 Jan 2021
Viewed by 861
Abstract
Ultraprecision machining is required in many advanced fields. To create precise parts for realizing their high performance, the whole machining process is usually conducted on the same ultraprecision machine tool to avoid setting errors by reducing setting operations. However, feed rate is relatively [...] Read more.
Ultraprecision machining is required in many advanced fields. To create precise parts for realizing their high performance, the whole machining process is usually conducted on the same ultraprecision machine tool to avoid setting errors by reducing setting operations. However, feed rate is relatively slow and machining efficiency is not so high compared to ordinary machine tools. Thus, the study aims to develop an efficient ultraprecision machining system including an industrial robot to avoid manual setting and to automate the setting operations. In this system, ultraprecision machining is conducted for the workpiece having a shape near the target shape, which is beforehand prepared by ordinary machine tools and is located on the machine table by means of an industrial robot. Since the setting errors of the roughly machined workpiece deteriorate machining accuracy, the differences from the ideal position and attitude are detected with a contact type of on-machine measurement device. Numerical control (NC) data is finally modified to compensate the identified workpiece setting errors to machine the target shape on an ultraprecision machine tool. From the experimental results, it is confirmed that the proposed system has the possibility to reduce time required in ultraprecision machining to create precise parts with high efficiency. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Progress in Precision Machining)
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Article
Potentials of Vitrified and Elastic Bonded Fine Grinding Worms in Continuous Generating Gear Grinding
J. Manuf. Mater. Process. 2021, 5(1), 4; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmmp5010004 - 05 Jan 2021
Viewed by 958
Abstract
Continuous generating gear grinding with vitrified grinding worms is an established process for the hard finishing of gears for high-performance transmissions. Due to the increasing requirements for gears in terms of power density, the required surface roughness is continuously decreasing. In order to [...] Read more.
Continuous generating gear grinding with vitrified grinding worms is an established process for the hard finishing of gears for high-performance transmissions. Due to the increasing requirements for gears in terms of power density, the required surface roughness is continuously decreasing. In order to meet the required tooth flank roughness, common manufacturing processes are polish grinding with elastic bonded grinding tools and fine grinding with vitrified grinding tools. The process behavior and potential of the different bonds for producing super fine surfaces in generating gear grinding have not been sufficiently scientifically investigated yet. Therefore, the objective of this report is to evaluate these potentials. Part of the investigations are the generating gear grinding process with elastic bonded, as well as vitrified grinding worms with comparable grit sizes. The potential of the different tool specifications is empirically investigated independent of the grain size, focusing on the influence of the bond. One result of the investigations was that the tooth flank roughness could be reduced to nearly the same values with the polish and the fine grinding tool. Furthermore, a dependence of the roughness on the selected grinding parameters could not be determined. However, it was found out that the profile line after polish grinding is significantly dependent on the process strategy used. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Progress in Precision Machining)
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Article
Difficult Cutting Property of NiTi Alloy and Its Mechanism
J. Manuf. Mater. Process. 2020, 4(4), 124; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmmp4040124 - 18 Dec 2020
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 925
Abstract
This paper describes the difficult machinability of nickel titanium alloy (NiTi alloy) and its mechanism. As a result of examining the difficult cutting machinability via a turning experiment, NiTi alloy cutting showed larger cutting force, higher cutting temperature, and severe tool wear with [...] Read more.
This paper describes the difficult machinability of nickel titanium alloy (NiTi alloy) and its mechanism. As a result of examining the difficult cutting machinability via a turning experiment, NiTi alloy cutting showed larger cutting force, higher cutting temperature, and severe tool wear with plastic deformation of the tool compared to Ti-6Al-4V. In addition, the discharged chips were tangled with the jaw chuck and the cutting tool. As a result of investigating the cause of these difficult machining properties by orthogonal cutting, it was found that the progression of severe flank wear is affected by the elastic recovery due to the super elasticity of the material. The verification of the results according to the shear plane theory suggest that the large deformation resistance of the material is the cause of the increase in cutting temperature. Furthermore, because the cutting temperature exceeds the shape memory transformation temperature, the generated chips are shape memory processed. It was also found that because the generated chips are super elastic, chips are not easily broken and they are lengthened, and are easily entangled with a cutting tool and a jaw chuck. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Progress in Precision Machining)
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Article
Micro-Structures Produced by Crystal Growth from Located Nuclei and Their Transfer Aiming at Functional Surfaces
J. Manuf. Mater. Process. 2020, 4(4), 105; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmmp4040105 - 06 Nov 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 947
Abstract
Hydrothermal processes can produce regular micro-/nano-structures easily; but their placement or position is difficult to control, and the obtainable structures tend to be random. For controlling the crystal growth, two types of definite and regular structures were obtained. The first ones were ZnO [...] Read more.
Hydrothermal processes can produce regular micro-/nano-structures easily; but their placement or position is difficult to control, and the obtainable structures tend to be random. For controlling the crystal growth, two types of definite and regular structures were obtained. The first ones were ZnO urchin-like structures synthesized from located ZnO particles as the nuclei. These structures were found to work as gas sensors utilizing a wide surface area. The second one was a vertically aligned TiO2 nanorod array synthesized on a fluorine-doped tin oxide substrate that has a similar lattice constant to rutile TiO2. Super-hydrophobicity after ultraviolet irradiation was then examined. Finally, the synthesized TiO2 array was peeled off and transferred onto a resin sheet. We determined that the substrate could be subjected to repeated hydrothermal synthesis, thereby demonstrating the reusability of the substrate. These results demonstrate the applicability of these processes for industrial applications. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Progress in Precision Machining)
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Article
Suppression of Polycrystalline Diamond Tool Wear with Mechanochemical Effects in Micromachining of Ferrous Metal
J. Manuf. Mater. Process. 2020, 4(3), 81; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmmp4030081 - 11 Aug 2020
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1194
Abstract
A mechanochemical effect is investigated to reduce diamond tool wear by means of applying a surfactant to low-carbon magnetic iron during diamond turning. Orthogonal microcutting demonstrates the manifestation of the mechanochemical effect through the reduction of cutting forces by 30%, which supports the [...] Read more.
A mechanochemical effect is investigated to reduce diamond tool wear by means of applying a surfactant to low-carbon magnetic iron during diamond turning. Orthogonal microcutting demonstrates the manifestation of the mechanochemical effect through the reduction of cutting forces by 30%, which supports the notion of lower cutting temperatures for reduced tribo-chemical wear. This is affirmed by the reduction in tool flank wear by up to 56% with the mechanochemical effect during diamond turning. While wear suppression increases by 9.4–16.15% with feeds from 5–20 μm/rev, it is not proportional to the reduction in cutting forces (31–39.8%), which suggests that the reduction in cutting energy does not directly correspond with the reduction in heat energy to sustain tribo-chemical tool wear. The strain localization during chip formation is proposed to serve as a heat source that hinders the wear mitigation efficiency. Finite element simulations demonstrate the heat generation during strain localization under the mechanochemical effect, which counteracts the reduced heat conversion from the plastic deformation and the transfer from tool–chip contact. Hence, this paper demonstrates the effectiveness of the mechanochemical method and its ability to reduce tool wear, but also establishes its limitations due to its inherent nature for heat generation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Progress in Precision Machining)
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