Special Issue "Additive Manufacturing and Device Applications"

A special issue of Journal of Manufacturing and Materials Processing (ISSN 2504-4494).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (30 September 2020).

Special Issue Editor

Prof. Dr. Gil-Yong Lee
Website
Guest Editor
Department of Mechanical Engineering, Kumoh National Institute of Technology 445 Techno Bldg, 61 Daehak-ro, Gumi, Gyeongbuk 39177, Korea
Interests: Development of additive manufacturing systems (e.g., nanoscale 3D printer, aerodynamically focused nanoparticle (AFN) printing, electrospinning, etc.); design and fabrication of sensors; actuators and smart structures by additive manufacturing

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Recent developments in additive manufacturing (AM) are leading to a vast volume of devices and products manufactured by conventional or advanced AM techniques, leveraging their engineering and scientific applications. Examples include aerospace, automobile, electronic devices, biomedical systems, sensors, actuators, robots, energy devices, sporting and consumer goods, etc. In order to drive further advancements of AM and its device applications, numerous efforts have received increasing research attention on the development of a new AM technique, functional printing materials/printed structures, and the improvement of established methods, with thorough evaluations of mechanical, electrical or chemical performances of the manufactured devices by AM.

This Special Issue of JMMP will focus on (but not be limited to) the following topics related to AM and the associated devices and applications:

  • New AM processes and techniques;
  • Process control, monitoring, and optimization;
  • Improvement of an established AM technique;
  • Functional printing materials and printed structures;
  • Devices manufactured by AM for a novel application;
  • Evaluations of mechanical, electrical or chemical performances of the devices manufactured by AM.

Prof. Dr. Gil-Yong Lee
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Journal of Manufacturing and Materials Processing is an international peer-reviewed open access quarterly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1000 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • Additive manufacturing
  • 3D printing
  • Functional printing materials and structures
  • Printed devices
  • Performance evaluations

Published Papers (7 papers)

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Research

Open AccessArticle
Use of a Holistic Design and Manufacturing Approach to Implement Optimized Additively Manufactured Mould Inserts for the Production of Injection-Moulded Thermoplastics
J. Manuf. Mater. Process. 2020, 4(4), 100; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmmp4040100 - 24 Oct 2020
Abstract
Injection moulding is one the most familiar processes for manufacturing of plastic parts by injecting molten thermoplastic polymers into a metallic mould. The cycle time of this process consists of the phases of injection, packing, cooling, and ejection of the final product. Shortening [...] Read more.
Injection moulding is one the most familiar processes for manufacturing of plastic parts by injecting molten thermoplastic polymers into a metallic mould. The cycle time of this process consists of the phases of injection, packing, cooling, and ejection of the final product. Shortening of cycle time is a key consideration to increase productivity. Therefore, in this manuscript the adoption of additively manufactured mould inserts with conformal cooling channels by means of selective laser melting (SLM) with the aim to reduce process cycles is presented. The design and manufacture of a mould insert with conformal cooling channels for producing pressure fitting thermoplastic parts is described. Numerical analysis of the injection process and simulation of shape distortions after SLM were conducted providing useful results for the design and manufacture of the mould insert. The results of the numerical analyses are compared with experimental 3D geometrical data of the additively manufactured mould insert. Temperature measurements during the real injection moulding process demonstrating promising findings. The adoption of the introduced method for the series production of injection moulded thermoplastics proves a shortening of cycle times of up to 32% and a final product shape quality improvement of up to 77% when using mould inserts with conformal cooling channels over the conventional mould inserts. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Additive Manufacturing and Device Applications)
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Open AccessArticle
A Study on Strengthening Mechanical Properties of a Punch Mold for Cutting by Using an HWS Powder Material and a DED Semi-AM Method of Metal 3D Printing
J. Manuf. Mater. Process. 2020, 4(4), 98; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmmp4040098 - 27 Sep 2020
Abstract
The post-processing (punching or trimming) of high-strength parts reinforced by hot stamping requires punch molds with improved mechanical properties in hardness, resistance to wear, and toughness. In this study, a semi-additive manufacturing (semi-AM) method of heterogeneous materials was proposed to strengthen these properties [...] Read more.
The post-processing (punching or trimming) of high-strength parts reinforced by hot stamping requires punch molds with improved mechanical properties in hardness, resistance to wear, and toughness. In this study, a semi-additive manufacturing (semi-AM) method of heterogeneous materials was proposed to strengthen these properties using high wear resistance steel (HWS) powder and directed energy deposition (DED) technology. To verify these mechanical properties as a material for the punch mold for cutting, specimens were prepared and tested by a semi-AM method of heterogeneous material. The test results of the HWS additive material by the semi-AM method proposed in this study are as follows: the hardness was 60.59–62.0 HRc, which was like the Bulk D2 specimen. The wear resistance was about 4.2 times compared to that of the D2 specimen; the toughness was about 4.0 times that of the bulk D2 specimen; the compressive strength was about 1.45 times that of the bulk D2 specimen; the true density showed 100% with no porosity. Moreover, the absorption energy was 59.0 J in a multi-semi-AM specimen of heterogeneous materials having an intermediate buffer layer (P21 powder material). The semi-AM method of heterogeneous materials presented in this study could be applied as a method to strengthen the punch mold for cutting. In addition, the multi-semi-AM method of heterogeneous materials will be able to control the mechanical properties of the additive material. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Additive Manufacturing and Device Applications)
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Open AccessArticle
Process Data-Based Knowledge Discovery in Additive Manufacturing of Ceramic Materials by Multi-Material Jetting (CerAM MMJ)
J. Manuf. Mater. Process. 2020, 4(3), 74; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmmp4030074 - 22 Jul 2020
Cited by 1
Abstract
Multi-material jetting (CerAM MMJ, previously T3DP) enables the additive manufacturing of ceramics, metals, glass and hardmetals, demonstrating comparatively high solid contents of the processed materials. The material is applied drop by drop onto a substrate. The droplets can be adapted to the component [...] Read more.
Multi-material jetting (CerAM MMJ, previously T3DP) enables the additive manufacturing of ceramics, metals, glass and hardmetals, demonstrating comparatively high solid contents of the processed materials. The material is applied drop by drop onto a substrate. The droplets can be adapted to the component to be produced by a large degree of freedom in parameterization. Thus, large volumes can be processed quickly and fine structures can be displayed in detail, based on the droplet size. Data-driven methods are applied to build process knowledge and to contribute to the optimization of CerAM MMJ manufacturing processes. As a basis for the computational exploitation of mass sensor data from the technological process chain for manufacturing a component with CerAM MMJ, a data management plan was developed with the help of an engineering workflow. Focusing on the process step of green part production, droplet structures as intermediate products of 3D generation were described by means of droplet height, droplet circularity, the number of ambient satellite particles, as well as the associated standard deviations. First of all, the weighting of the factors influencing the droplet geometry was determined by means of single factor preliminary tests, in order to be able to reduce the number of factors to be considered in the detailed test series. The identification of key influences (falling time, needle lift, rising time, air supply pressure) permitted an optimization of the droplet geometry according to the introduced target characteristics by means of a design of experiments. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Additive Manufacturing and Device Applications)
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Open AccessArticle
Numerical Study on the Temperature-Dependent Viscosity Effect on the Strand Shape in Extrusion-Based Additive Manufacturing
J. Manuf. Mater. Process. 2020, 4(2), 46; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmmp4020046 - 15 May 2020
Abstract
A numerical model that incorporates temperature-dependent non-Newtonian viscosity was developed to simulate the extrusion process in extrusion-based additive manufacturing. Agreement with the experimental data was achieved by simulating a polylactic acid melt flow as a non-isothermal power law fluid using experimentally fitted parameters [...] Read more.
A numerical model that incorporates temperature-dependent non-Newtonian viscosity was developed to simulate the extrusion process in extrusion-based additive manufacturing. Agreement with the experimental data was achieved by simulating a polylactic acid melt flow as a non-isothermal power law fluid using experimentally fitted parameters for polylactic acid. The model was used to investigate the temperature effect on the flow behavior, the cross-sectional area, and the uniformity of the extruded strand. OpenFOAM, an open source simulation tool based on the finite volume method, was used to perform the simulations. A computational module for solving the equations of non-isothermal multiphase flows was also developed to simulate the extrusion process under a small gap condition where the gap between the nozzle and the substrate surface is smaller than the nozzle diameter. Comparison of the strand shapes obtained from our model with isothermal Newtonian simulation, and experimental data confirms that our model improves the agreement with the experimental data. The result shows that the cross-sectional area of the extruded strand is sensitive to the temperature-dependent viscosity, especially in the small gap condition which has recently increased in popularity. Our numerical investigation was able to show nozzle temperature effects on the strand shape and surface topography which previously had been investigated and observed empirically only. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Additive Manufacturing and Device Applications)
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Open AccessArticle
Investigation of Process Control Influence on Tribological Properties of FLM-Manufactured Components
J. Manuf. Mater. Process. 2020, 4(2), 37; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmmp4020037 - 27 Apr 2020
Abstract
In recent years, additive manufacturing methods such as Fused Layer Modeling have been continuously improved by industry and research institutions. In many cases, the influence of process control on the mechanical component properties is being investigated. Influencing parameters include the infill and its [...] Read more.
In recent years, additive manufacturing methods such as Fused Layer Modeling have been continuously improved by industry and research institutions. In many cases, the influence of process control on the mechanical component properties is being investigated. Influencing parameters include the infill and its orientation as well as patterns. Extrusion parameters such as the volume flow, which can be influenced by the speed, the line width, and the layer thickness, and the temperatures, which determine the interlaminar bonding between the lines and layers, are relevant as well. In this contribution, the influence of process control on the tribological properties of cylindrical tribo-test specimens made of polybutylene terephthalate is investigated. Using a reciprocating pin-on-plate tribo-tester, the static and dynamic friction forces as well as the linear wear is determined. The results show a significant influence of the orientation and density of the infill on the tribological properties. Due to the process-specific large degrees of freedom, the advantage of a load-compatible individualisation and consequently the optimisation of tribologically exposed components is given compared to conventional manufacturing processes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Additive Manufacturing and Device Applications)
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Open AccessArticle
Optimization of Laser Sintering for Demineralized Bone/Polycaprolactone Composite Powder for Bone Tissue Scaffold
J. Manuf. Mater. Process. 2020, 4(1), 7; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmmp4010007 - 23 Jan 2020
Cited by 1
Abstract
Demineralized bone matrix (DBM) is an excellent bone scaffold material, but is available in only limited sizes. An additive manufacturing (AM) method that retains these properties while enabling customized geometry fabrication would provide bone scaffolds for a larger range of geometries while maintaining [...] Read more.
Demineralized bone matrix (DBM) is an excellent bone scaffold material, but is available in only limited sizes. An additive manufacturing (AM) method that retains these properties while enabling customized geometry fabrication would provide bone scaffolds for a larger range of geometries while maintaining the benefits of DBM. This work examines laser sintering (LS) of a blend of demineralized bone matrix (DBM) and polycaprolactone (PCL) using a CO2 laser beam. A comprehensive experimental study was carried out to find the conditions that form defect-free layers while still retaining the favorable biological features of DBM. The results identify a process setting window over which LS can be utilized to constructing complex patient-specific scaffolds. With the identified setting, first, the DBM/PCL blend was fused in the LS machine. Parts were then were further strengthened through a post-processing heat treatment. The shrinkage level, skeletal density, mechanical testing, and porosimetry of the resultant samples were compared to traditional machined DBM blocks. The maximum tensile strength of the samples and post-processing shrinkage depends on heat treatment duration. The tensile strength measurements demonstrate that the post-processing conditions can be tuned to achieve the tensile strength of the demineralized bone strips. Evaluation of the dimensional change suggests that the shrinkage along the laser paths is ~0.3% while thickness shrinks the most (up to ~20%). The porosimetry and density studies showed that the final part achieved over 40% porosity with a density comparable to blocks of DBM. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Additive Manufacturing and Device Applications)
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Open AccessArticle
Hybrid Manufacturing and Experimental Testing of Glass Fiber Enhanced Thermoplastic Composites
J. Manuf. Mater. Process. 2019, 3(4), 96; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmmp3040096 - 02 Dec 2019
Cited by 4
Abstract
Additive Manufacturing (AM) is gaining enormous attention from academic and industrial sectors for product development using different materials. Fused Deposition Modelling (FDM) is a popular AM method that works with thermoplastics. This process offers benefits of customisation both in terms of hardware and [...] Read more.
Additive Manufacturing (AM) is gaining enormous attention from academic and industrial sectors for product development using different materials. Fused Deposition Modelling (FDM) is a popular AM method that works with thermoplastics. This process offers benefits of customisation both in terms of hardware and software in the case of desktop-based FDM systems. Enhancement of mechanical properties for the traditional thermoplastic material is a widely researched area and various materials have been added to achieve this goal. This paper focuses on the manufacture of glass fiber reinforced plastic (GFRP) composites using Hybrid Fused Deposition Modelling (HFDM). Commonly available polylactic acid or polylactide (PLA) material was inter-laced with 0.03 mm thick glass fiber sheets to manufacture GFRP products followed by tensile testing. This was done to investigate whether adding more layers increases the tensile strength of the GFRP products or not. Furthermore, the maximum number of glass fiber layers that can be added to the 4 mm thick specimen was also identified. This was done to demonstrate that there is an optimal number of glass fiber layers that can be added as after this optimal number, the tensile strength start to deteriorate. Microstructural analysis was undertaken after tensile testing followed by ultrasonic testing to assess the uniformity of the GFRP composites. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Additive Manufacturing and Device Applications)
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