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J. Manuf. Mater. Process., Volume 4, Issue 1 (March 2020) – 27 articles

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Cover Story (view full-size image) Cyberphysical systems (CPS) relevant to Industry 4.0 need object, process, and phenomenon twins. [...] Read more.
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Open AccessArticle
An Analytic Approach to the Cox Proportional Hazards Model for Estimating the Lifespan of Cutting Tools
J. Manuf. Mater. Process. 2020, 4(1), 27; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmmp4010027 - 24 Mar 2020
Viewed by 415
Abstract
The machining industry raises an ever-growing concern for the significant cost of cutting tools in the production process of mechanical parts, with a focus on the replacement policy of these inserts. While an early maintenance induces lower tool return on investment, scraps and [...] Read more.
The machining industry raises an ever-growing concern for the significant cost of cutting tools in the production process of mechanical parts, with a focus on the replacement policy of these inserts. While an early maintenance induces lower tool return on investment, scraps and inherent costs stem from late replacement. The framework of this paper is the attempt to predict the tool inserts Mean Up Time, based solely on the value of a cutting parameter (the cutting speed in this particular turning application). More specifically, the use of the Cox Proportional Hazards (PH) Model for this prediction is demonstrated. The main contribution of this paper is the analytic approach that was conducted about the relevance on data transformation prior to using the Cox PH Model. It is shown that the logarithm of the cutting speed is analytically much more relevant in the prediction of the Mean Up Time through the Cox PH model than the raw cutting speed value. The paper also covers a numerical validation designed to show and discuss the benefits of this data transformation and the overall interest of the Cox PH model for the lifetime prognosis. This methodology, however, necessitates the knowledge of an analytical law linking the covariate to the Mean Up Time. It also shows how the necessary data for the numerical experiment was obtained through a gamma process simulating the degradation of cutting inserts. The results of this paper are expected to help manufacturers in the assessment of tool lifespan. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Tool Wear Prediction in Manufacturing)
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Open AccessArticle
Reliability Study of Electronic Components on Board-Level Packages Encapsulated by Thermoset Injection Molding
J. Manuf. Mater. Process. 2020, 4(1), 26; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmmp4010026 - 18 Mar 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 544
Abstract
A drastically growing requirement of electronic packages with an increasing level of complexity poses newer challenges for the competitive manufacturing industry. Coupled with harsher operating conditions, these challenges affirm the need for encapsulated board-level (2nd level) packages. To reduce thermo-mechanical loads induced on [...] Read more.
A drastically growing requirement of electronic packages with an increasing level of complexity poses newer challenges for the competitive manufacturing industry. Coupled with harsher operating conditions, these challenges affirm the need for encapsulated board-level (2nd level) packages. To reduce thermo-mechanical loads induced on the electronic components during operating cycles, a conformal type of encapsulation is gaining preference over conventional glob-tops or resin casting types. The availability of technology, the ease of automation, and the uncomplicated storage of raw material intensifies the implementation of thermoset injection molding for the encapsulation process of board-level packages. Reliability case studies of such encapsulated electronic components as a part of board-level packages become, thereupon, necessary. This paper presents the reliability study of exemplary electronic components, surface-mounted on printed circuit boards (PCBs), encapsulated by the means of thermoset injection molding, and subjected to cyclic thermal loading. The characteristic lifetime of the electronic components is statistically calculated after assessing the probability plots and presented consequently. A few points of conclusion are summarized, and the future scope is discussed at the end. Full article
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
The Average Grain Size and Grain Aspect Ratio in Metal Laser Powder Bed Fusion: Modeling and Experiment
J. Manuf. Mater. Process. 2020, 4(1), 25; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmmp4010025 - 11 Mar 2020
Viewed by 539
Abstract
The additive manufacturing (AM) process induces high uncertainty in the mechanical properties of 3D-printed parts, which represents one of the main barriers for a wider AM processes adoption. To address this problem, a new time-efficient microstructure prediction algorithm was proposed in this study [...] Read more.
The additive manufacturing (AM) process induces high uncertainty in the mechanical properties of 3D-printed parts, which represents one of the main barriers for a wider AM processes adoption. To address this problem, a new time-efficient microstructure prediction algorithm was proposed in this study for the laser powder bed fusion (LPBF) process. Based on a combination of the melt pool modeling and the design of experiment approaches, this algorithm was used to predict the microstructure (grain size/aspect ratio) of materials processed by an EOS M280 LPBF system, including Iron and IN625 alloys. This approach was successfully validated using experimental and literature data, thus demonstrating its potential efficiency for the optimization of different LPBF powders and systems. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
An Integrated Geometric and Hysteretic Error Model of a Three Axis Machine Tool and Its Identification With a 3D Telescoping Ball-Bar
J. Manuf. Mater. Process. 2020, 4(1), 24; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmmp4010024 - 11 Mar 2020
Viewed by 378
Abstract
The ball-bar instrument is used to estimate a maximum number of hysteretic error sources. Machine error parameters include inter- and intra-axis errors as well as hysteresis effects. An error model containing cubic polynomial functions and modified qualitative variables, for hysteresis modeling, is proposed [...] Read more.
The ball-bar instrument is used to estimate a maximum number of hysteretic error sources. Machine error parameters include inter- and intra-axis errors as well as hysteresis effects. An error model containing cubic polynomial functions and modified qualitative variables, for hysteresis modeling, is proposed to identify such errors of the three nominally orthogonal linear axes machine. Such model has a total of 90 coefficients, not all of which being necessary. A numerical analysis is conducted to select a minimal but complete non-confounded set of error coefficients. Four different ball-bar test strategies to estimate the model coefficients are simulated and compared. The first one consists of circular trajectories on the primary planes XY, YZ, and XZ and the others use the XY plane, as an equator, and either four, five, or nine meridians. It is concluded that the five-meridian strategy can estimate the additional eight error coefficients: ECZ1, ECZ2, ECZ3, ECZb, EZY3, EZX3, ECX3, and ECXb. The Jacobian condition number is improved by increasing the number of meridians to 5. Further increasing the number of meridians from five to nine improves neither the number of estimable coefficients nor the conditioning, and so as it increases, the test time it was dismissed. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Solid State Recycling of Aluminum Alloy Chips via Pulsed Electric Current Sintering
J. Manuf. Mater. Process. 2020, 4(1), 23; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmmp4010023 - 10 Mar 2020
Viewed by 327
Abstract
Based on high energy demand of the primary production and losses during secondary production, alternative recycling of aluminum becomes a popular research topic. Compared to both primary and secondary production of aluminum, solid state recycling offers energy savings and reduced material losses during [...] Read more.
Based on high energy demand of the primary production and losses during secondary production, alternative recycling of aluminum becomes a popular research topic. Compared to both primary and secondary production of aluminum, solid state recycling offers energy savings and reduced material losses during processing by surpassing an inefficient melting step. In this work, a direct recycling route for machining chips via pulsed electric current sintering (PECS) is evaluated. Therefore, necessary processing steps for a complete recycling route are briefly outlined. After cleansing, EN AW 6082 chips, provided by Neuman Aluminium GmbH, Marktl, Austria, are compacted with variable loads and consolidated via PECS on two separate systems to enable a comparison. Produced specimens are examined with density measurements, optical microscopy and the bonding quality is evaluated by Vickers micro-hardness measurements. In combination with elevated temperature and deformation, applied current promotes consolidation amongst chips and improvements in density, hardness and microstructure are achieved. The results of this work clearly show a positive effect of PECS on the bonding amongst chips, but further research will be necessary to separate and understand influences of single processing parameters. Additionally, all processing steps from collection to consolidation have to be taken into account to achieve industrial implementation. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Micromechanism of Damage of the Graphite Spheroid in the Nodular Cast Iron During Static Tensile Test
J. Manuf. Mater. Process. 2020, 4(1), 22; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmmp4010022 - 10 Mar 2020
Viewed by 299
Abstract
This work was focused on two particular phenomena contributing to a damage process of nodular cast iron under tensile stress: Internal destruction of graphite nodule and debonding at graphite/matrix (G-M) interface. The G-M debonding was analyzed depending on the phase characteristics of the [...] Read more.
This work was focused on two particular phenomena contributing to a damage process of nodular cast iron under tensile stress: Internal destruction of graphite nodule and debonding at graphite/matrix (G-M) interface. The G-M debonding was analyzed depending on the phase characteristics of the metal matrix and with the increase in the distance of the observation field from the main crack surface. Typical morphological effects of decohesion in the graphite-matrix microregions related to an internal structure of graphite nodule were revealed and classified. The obtained results of the microscopic observations suggest that the path of both types of internal cracks in the graphite nodule passed through areas of weakened cohesion. Detailed microscopic observations allowed revealing some additional phenomena associated with G-M debonding along the G/M interface. In the most ductile of the tested alloys, with ferritic and ausferritic matrix, the G-M debonding was preceded by the formation of a layer of shifted graphene plates in the external envelope of the spheroid. In the alloys of polyphase pearlitic and ausferritic matrix, the revealed morphology of the G-M interface suggests that G-M debonding might be delayed by the interaction with some phase components as cementite lamellae and austenite plates. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Development of a Novel Tuning Approach of the Notch Filter of the Servo Feed Drive System
J. Manuf. Mater. Process. 2020, 4(1), 21; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmmp4010021 - 05 Mar 2020
Viewed by 368
Abstract
To alleviate the vibration effect of the feed drive system, a traditional approach is to apply notch filters to suppress vibrations in the velocity loop. The current approach is to adjust the notch filter parameters such as the center frequency, damping and depth [...] Read more.
To alleviate the vibration effect of the feed drive system, a traditional approach is to apply notch filters to suppress vibrations in the velocity loop. The current approach is to adjust the notch filter parameters such as the center frequency, damping and depth based on observing the frequency response diagram of servo velocity closed loop. In addition, the notch filters are generally provided in the velocity loop control for the commercialized controllers such as FANUC, Siemens, etc. However, the resonance of the transmission system also appears in the position loop when the linear scale is used as the position feedback. The notch filter design without consideration of the resonance behavior of the position loop might cause degradation of performance. To overcome this problem, the paper proposes an innovative method which could automatically determine the optimal parameters of the notch filter under the consideration of resonance behavior of position loop. With the optimal parameters, it is found that both the gains of position and velocity loop controller could be increased such that the bandwidths of the position/velocity loops are higher. Based on the simulation results, the rising time is improved by 33% and the time for reaching the steady state is improved by 72% as comparing the cases of using the optimal approach and traditional approach. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Hydrostatic Bandsaw Blade Guides for Natural Stone-Cutting Applications
J. Manuf. Mater. Process. 2020, 4(1), 20; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmmp4010020 - 04 Mar 2020
Viewed by 370
Abstract
In a bandsaw machine, the blade guides provide additional stiffness and help to align the blade near the cutting region. Typically, these are either in the form of blocks made of carbide or ceramics or as sealed bearings. Abrasive particles, generated while cutting [...] Read more.
In a bandsaw machine, the blade guides provide additional stiffness and help to align the blade near the cutting region. Typically, these are either in the form of blocks made of carbide or ceramics or as sealed bearings. Abrasive particles, generated while cutting hard and brittle materials like natural stones, settle between the contact surfaces of the guides and the blade causing wear and premature failure. The hydrostatic guide system, as presented in this work, is a contactless blade guiding method that uses the force of several pressurized water jets to align the blade to the direction of the cut. For this investigation, cutting tests were performed on a marble block using a galvanic diamond coated bandsaw blade with the upper roller guides replaced by hydrostatic guides. The results show that the hydrostatic guides help to reduce the passive force to a constant near zero in contrast with the traditional guides. This also resulted in reduced surface roughness of the stone plates that were cut, indicating a reduction in laterial vibration of the band. Additionally, it has also been shown that using hydrostatic guides the bandsaw blade can be tilted to counter the bandsaw drift, opening opportunities for further research in active alignment control. This original research work has shown that the hydrostatic guide systems are capable of replacing, and in fact, perform better than state-of-the-art bearing or block guides, particularly for stone-cutting applications. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Performance Comparison of Subtractive and Additive Machine Tools for Meso-Micro Machining
J. Manuf. Mater. Process. 2020, 4(1), 19; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmmp4010019 - 03 Mar 2020
Viewed by 401
Abstract
Several series of experiments were conducted to compare the performance of selected sets of subtractive and additive machine tools for meso-micro machining. Under the MicroCutting Project, meso-micro machining of a reference part was conducted to compare the performance of several machine tools. A [...] Read more.
Several series of experiments were conducted to compare the performance of selected sets of subtractive and additive machine tools for meso-micro machining. Under the MicroCutting Project, meso-micro machining of a reference part was conducted to compare the performance of several machine tools. A prototype flexure of the microspline of an asteroid gripper under development at NASA/JPL was selected as the reference part for the project. Several academic, research institutes, and industrial firms were among the collaborators participating in the project. Both subtractive and additive machine tools were used, including abrasive waterjets, CNC milling, lasers, 3D printing, and laser powder bed fusion. Materials included aluminum, stainless steel, and nonmetal resins. Each collaborator produced the reference part in its facility using materials most suitable for their tools. The finished parts were inspected qualitatively and quantitatively at OMAX Corporation. The performance of the participating machine tools was then compared based on the results of the inspection. Test results show that the two top performers for this test part are the CNC precision milling and micro abrasive waterjet. For machining a single flexure, the CNC precision milling had a slight edge over the micro abrasive waterjet machining in terms of part accuracy and edge quality. The advantages disappear or the trend even reverses when stack machining with taper compensation is adopted for the micro abrasive waterjet. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Wear in Hot Stamping by Partition Heating
J. Manuf. Mater. Process. 2020, 4(1), 18; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmmp4010018 - 01 Mar 2020
Viewed by 369
Abstract
Hot stamping by partition heating of Al–Si coated boron steel sheets is currently utilized to produce parts of the car body-in-white with tailored microstructural and mechanical characteristics. This paper investigates the evolution of the Al–Si coating and its tribological and wear performances in [...] Read more.
Hot stamping by partition heating of Al–Si coated boron steel sheets is currently utilized to produce parts of the car body-in-white with tailored microstructural and mechanical characteristics. This paper investigates the evolution of the Al–Si coating and its tribological and wear performances in the case of direct heating at the process temperatures of 700 °C, 800 °C, and 900 °C, skipping the preliminary austenitization as it may happen in the case of tailored tempered parts production. A specifically designed pin-on-disk configuration was used to reproduce at a laboratory scale the process thermo-mechanical cycle. The results show the morphological and chemical variation of the Al–Si coating with heating temperature, as well as that the friction coefficient, decreases with increased temperature. Furthermore, the results proved that the adhesive wear is the main mechanism at the lower temperature, while abrasive wear plays the major role at the higher temperature. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Effect of Heat-Treatment on the Thermal and Mechanical Stability of Ni/Al2O3 Nanocrystalline Coatings
J. Manuf. Mater. Process. 2020, 4(1), 17; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmmp4010017 - 28 Feb 2020
Viewed by 392
Abstract
Heat-treatment is a frequently used technique for modifying the physical and chemical properties of materials. In this study, the effect of heat-treatment on the mechanical properties, thermal stability and surface morphology of two types of electrodeposited coatings (pure-Ni and Ni/Al2O3 [...] Read more.
Heat-treatment is a frequently used technique for modifying the physical and chemical properties of materials. In this study, the effect of heat-treatment on the mechanical properties, thermal stability and surface morphology of two types of electrodeposited coatings (pure-Ni and Ni/Al2O3) were investigated. The XRD analyses showed that the crystal structure of the as-deposited coating changes from slightly amorphous to crystalline as the heat-treatment temperature increases. The heat-treatment of both the pure-Ni and the Ni/Al2O3 coating caused an increase of the grain size within the coatings. However, the unreinforced Ni coating experienced a faster growth rate than the Ni/Al2O3 coating, which resulted in a larger average grain size. The temperature-driven changes to the microstructure of the coatings caused a reduction in the hardness and wear resistance of the coatings. The presence of nanoparticles within the Ni/Al2O3 coating can successfully extend the operational temperature range of the coating to 473 K by pinning grain boundaries. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
A Unique Methodology for Tool Life Prediction in Machining
J. Manuf. Mater. Process. 2020, 4(1), 16; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmmp4010016 - 25 Feb 2020
Viewed by 467
Abstract
In this paper, a unique approach for estimating tool life using a hybrid finite element method coupled with empirical wear rate equation is presented. In the proposed approach, the computational time was significantly reduced when compared to nodal movement technique. However, to adopt [...] Read more.
In this paper, a unique approach for estimating tool life using a hybrid finite element method coupled with empirical wear rate equation is presented. In the proposed approach, the computational time was significantly reduced when compared to nodal movement technique. However, to adopt such an approach, the angle between tool’s rake and flank faces must be constant through the process and at least two cutting experiments need to be performed for empirical model calibration. It is also important to predict the sliding velocity along the tool/flank face interface accurately when using Usui’s model to predict the tool wear rate. Model validations showed that when the sliding velocity was assumed to be equivalent to the cutting speed, poor agreement between the predicted and measured wear rate and tool life was observed, especially at low cutting speed. Furthermore, a new empirical model to predict tool wear rate in the initial or break-in period as a function of Von Mises stress field was developed. Experimental validation shows that the newly developed model substantially improved the initial tool wear rate in terms of trend and magnitude. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Tool Wear Prediction in Manufacturing)
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Open AccessArticle
The Role of Substrate Surface Roughness on in-Pack Aluminization Kinetics of Ni-Base Superalloy
J. Manuf. Mater. Process. 2020, 4(1), 15; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmmp4010015 - 22 Feb 2020
Viewed by 426
Abstract
The Ni-base superalloys facing high temperature require further protection against high temperature oxidation. One of the most common methods providing high temperature oxidation resistance is the production of aluminide layers (NiAl-coatings). It is known that the thickness of produced diffusion layer can be [...] Read more.
The Ni-base superalloys facing high temperature require further protection against high temperature oxidation. One of the most common methods providing high temperature oxidation resistance is the production of aluminide layers (NiAl-coatings). It is known that the thickness of produced diffusion layer can be controlled by the temperature and time of aluminization process. However, no research on the effect of surface roughness on aluminization kinetics was conducted so far. Then, to elucidate the effect of surface roughness on aluminization kinetics, diffusion layers were obtained by an in-pack aluminization method on the IN 617 alloy with differently prepared surfaces, namely polished, ground using 220 grit SiC paper and 80 grit SiC paper. The obtained results revealed that different surface preparation does not affect the chemical and phase composition of produced layers. However, a strong influence of surface preparation method on aluminide layers thicknesses was observed. Namely, it was found that the increase in substrate surface roughness results in an increase of aluminization kinetics. The dependence between surface roughness and thickness of aluminide layers was found to be logarithmic. Moreover, it was found that the aluminization kinetics is influenced, especially at early stages of the aluminization process. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
A Methodology to Parameterize Wire + Arc Additive Manufacturing: A Case Study for Wall Quality Analysis
J. Manuf. Mater. Process. 2020, 4(1), 14; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmmp4010014 - 19 Feb 2020
Viewed by 580
Abstract
The objective of this work was the development of a methodology to parametrize wire + arc additive manufacturing (WAAM), aiming dimension repeatability, and tolerances. Parametrization of WAAM is a difficult task, because multiple parameters are involved and parameters are inter-dependent on each other, [...] Read more.
The objective of this work was the development of a methodology to parametrize wire + arc additive manufacturing (WAAM), aiming dimension repeatability, and tolerances. Parametrization of WAAM is a difficult task, because multiple parameters are involved and parameters are inter-dependent on each other, making overall process complex. An approach to study WAAM would be through operational maps. The choice of current (Im) and travel speed (TS) for the desirable layer width (LW) determines a parametrization that leads to either more material or less material to be removed in post-operations, which is case study chosen for this work. The work development had four stages. First stage, named ‘mock design’, had the objective of visualizing the expected map and reduce further number of experiments. At the second stage, ‘pre-requisite for realistic operational map’, the objective was to determine the operating limits of TS and Im with the chosen consumables and equipment. Within the ‘realistic operational map’ stage, a design for the experiments was applied to cover a parametric area (working envelope) already defined in the previous stage and long and tall walls were additively manufactured. Actual values of LW (external and effective layer width) were measured and an actual operating envelope was reached. According to the geometry-oriented case study, a surface waviness index (SWindex) was defined, determined, and overlapped in the envelope. It was observed that the walls with parameters near the travel speed limits presented higher SWindex. This operational map was further validated (fourth stage) by selecting a target LW and finding corresponding three parametric set (covering the whole range of operational map) to produce walls on which geometry characterization was carried out. After geometry characterization, obtained LW was compared with the target LW (the maximum values were very tied, with deviations from +0.3 to 0.5 mm), with a SWindex deviation at the order of 0.05. Both results evidence high reproductivity of the process, validating the proposed methodology to parametrize WAAM. Full article
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Open AccessEditorial
Selective Laser Melting: Materials and Applications
J. Manuf. Mater. Process. 2020, 4(1), 13; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmmp4010013 - 18 Feb 2020
Viewed by 455
Abstract
Additive manufacturing (AM) is one of the emerging manufacturing techniques of immense engineering and scientific importance and is regarded as the technique of the future [...] Full article
Open AccessArticle
Material Property-Manufacturing Process Optimization for Form 2 Vat-Photo Polymerization 3D Printers
J. Manuf. Mater. Process. 2020, 4(1), 12; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmmp4010012 - 18 Feb 2020
Viewed by 382
Abstract
This study aims to assess the effect of printing parameters on the final tensile properties of 3D printed specimens printed through a popular vat-photopolymerization printer—‘Form 2’. Elastic modulus, ultimate tensile strength and strain at break are analyzed as a function of process parameters [...] Read more.
This study aims to assess the effect of printing parameters on the final tensile properties of 3D printed specimens printed through a popular vat-photopolymerization printer—‘Form 2’. Elastic modulus, ultimate tensile strength and strain at break are analyzed as a function of process parameters in order to provide an optimized print parameter configuration. Design of Experiments (DoE) using Taguchi’s techniques was used to print the test samples. Tensile tests were performed on the 3D printed specimens following the ISO-527 standard. The post-experiment analysis provide more insight on the effect of each studied factor on the elastic properties of these specimens. To complete this study, an analysis of the total manufacturing process time is presented with respect to the aforementioned elastic properties. The study shows that the parts are orthotropic and sensitive to layer height and post-curing. The orthotropic behaviour can be substantially reduced by appropriate post-curing process, resulting in high improvement of the elastic modulus and ultimate tensile strength. This paper is of special interest to researchers and users of desktop 3D printers who wish to improve the performance of their equipment, compare printing capabilities or assess the effect of different hardware on a single resin. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Machining Phenomenon Twin Construction for Industry 4.0: A Case of Surface Roughness
J. Manuf. Mater. Process. 2020, 4(1), 11; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmmp4010011 - 11 Feb 2020
Viewed by 703
Abstract
Industry 4.0 requires phenomenon twins to functionalize the relevant systems (e.g., cyber-physical systems). A phenomenon twin means a computable virtual abstraction of a real phenomenon. In order to systematize the construction process of a phenomenon twin, this study proposes a system defined as [...] Read more.
Industry 4.0 requires phenomenon twins to functionalize the relevant systems (e.g., cyber-physical systems). A phenomenon twin means a computable virtual abstraction of a real phenomenon. In order to systematize the construction process of a phenomenon twin, this study proposes a system defined as the phenomenon twin construction system. It consists of three components, namely the input, processing, and output components. Among these components, the processing component is the most critical one that digitally models, simulates, and validates a given phenomenon extracting information from the input component. What kind of modeling, simulation, and validation approaches should be used while constructing the processing component for a given phenomenon is a research question. This study answers this question using the case of surface roughness—a complex phenomenon associated with all material removal processes. Accordingly, this study shows that for modeling the surface roughness of a machined surface, the approach called semantic modeling is more effective than the conventional approach called the Markov chain. It is also found that to validate whether or not a simulated surface roughness resembles the expected roughness, the outcomes of the possibility distribution-based computing and DNA-based computing are more effective than the outcomes of a conventional computing wherein the arithmetic mean height of surface roughness is calculated. Thus, apart from the conventional computing approaches, the leading edge computational intelligence-based approaches can digitize manufacturing processes more effectively. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Intelligent Machining and Grinding)
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
Optimization of TIG Welding Parameters Using a Hybrid Nelder Mead-Evolutionary Algorithms Method
J. Manuf. Mater. Process. 2020, 4(1), 10; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmmp4010010 - 10 Feb 2020
Viewed by 424
Abstract
A number of evolutionary algorithms such as genetic algorithms, simulated annealing, particle swarm optimization, etc., have been used by researchers in order to optimize different manufacturing processes. In many cases these algorithms are either incapable of reaching global minimum or the time and [...] Read more.
A number of evolutionary algorithms such as genetic algorithms, simulated annealing, particle swarm optimization, etc., have been used by researchers in order to optimize different manufacturing processes. In many cases these algorithms are either incapable of reaching global minimum or the time and computational effort (function evaluations) required makes the application of these algorithms impractical. However, if the Nelder Mead optimization method is applied to approximate solutions cheaply obtained from these algorithms, the solution can be further refined to obtain near global minimum of a given error function within only a few additional function evaluations. The initial solutions (vertices) required for the application of Nelder-Mead optimization can be obtained through multiple evolutionary algorithms. The results obtained using this hybrid method are better than that obtained from individual algorithms and also show a significant reduction in the computation effort. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Thread Quality Control in High-Speed Tapping Cycles
J. Manuf. Mater. Process. 2020, 4(1), 9; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmmp4010009 - 04 Feb 2020
Viewed by 394
Abstract
Thread quality control is becoming a widespread necessity in manufacturing to guarantee the geometry of the resulting screws on the workpiece due to the high industrial costs. Besides, the industrial inspection is manual provoking high rates of manufacturing delays. Therefore, the aim of [...] Read more.
Thread quality control is becoming a widespread necessity in manufacturing to guarantee the geometry of the resulting screws on the workpiece due to the high industrial costs. Besides, the industrial inspection is manual provoking high rates of manufacturing delays. Therefore, the aim of this paper consists of developing a statistical quality control approach acquiring the data (torque signal) coming from the spindle drive for assessing thread quality using different coatings. The system shows a red light when the tap wear is critical before machining in unacceptable screw threads. Therefore, the application could reduce these high industrial costs because it can work self-governance. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Use of Bimodal Particle Size Distribution in Selective Laser Melting of 316L Stainless Steel
J. Manuf. Mater. Process. 2020, 4(1), 8; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmmp4010008 - 01 Feb 2020
Viewed by 626
Abstract
Spherical powders with single-mode (D50 = 36.31 µm), and bimodal (D50,L = 36.31 µm, D50,s = 5.52 µm) particle size distribution were used in selective laser melting of 316L stainless steel in nitrogen atmosphere at volumetric energy densities ranging from [...] Read more.
Spherical powders with single-mode (D50 = 36.31 µm), and bimodal (D50,L = 36.31 µm, D50,s = 5.52 µm) particle size distribution were used in selective laser melting of 316L stainless steel in nitrogen atmosphere at volumetric energy densities ranging from 35.7–116.0 J/mm3. Bimodal particle size distribution could provide up to 2% greater tap density than single-mode powder. For low laser power (107–178 W), where relative density was <99%, bimodal feedstock resulted in higher density than single-mode feedstock. However, at higher power (>203 W), the density of bimodal-fed components decreased as the energy density increased due to vaporizing of the fine powder in bimodal distributions. Size of intergranular cell regions did not appear to vary significantly between single-mode and bimodal specimens (0.394–0.531 µm2 at 81–116 J/mm3). Despite higher packing densities in powder feedstock with bimodal particle size distribution, the results of this study suggest that differences in conduction melting and vaporization points between the two primary particle sizes would limit the maximum achievable density of additively manufactured components produced from bimodal powder size distribution. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Powder Metallurgy and Additive Manufacturing/3D Printing of Materials)
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Open AccessArticle
Optimization of Laser Sintering for Demineralized Bone/Polycaprolactone Composite Powder for Bone Tissue Scaffold
J. Manuf. Mater. Process. 2020, 4(1), 7; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmmp4010007 - 23 Jan 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 441
Abstract
Demineralized bone matrix (DBM) is an excellent bone scaffold material, but is available in only limited sizes. An additive manufacturing (AM) method that retains these properties while enabling customized geometry fabrication would provide bone scaffolds for a larger range of geometries while maintaining [...] Read more.
Demineralized bone matrix (DBM) is an excellent bone scaffold material, but is available in only limited sizes. An additive manufacturing (AM) method that retains these properties while enabling customized geometry fabrication would provide bone scaffolds for a larger range of geometries while maintaining the benefits of DBM. This work examines laser sintering (LS) of a blend of demineralized bone matrix (DBM) and polycaprolactone (PCL) using a CO2 laser beam. A comprehensive experimental study was carried out to find the conditions that form defect-free layers while still retaining the favorable biological features of DBM. The results identify a process setting window over which LS can be utilized to constructing complex patient-specific scaffolds. With the identified setting, first, the DBM/PCL blend was fused in the LS machine. Parts were then were further strengthened through a post-processing heat treatment. The shrinkage level, skeletal density, mechanical testing, and porosimetry of the resultant samples were compared to traditional machined DBM blocks. The maximum tensile strength of the samples and post-processing shrinkage depends on heat treatment duration. The tensile strength measurements demonstrate that the post-processing conditions can be tuned to achieve the tensile strength of the demineralized bone strips. Evaluation of the dimensional change suggests that the shrinkage along the laser paths is ~0.3% while thickness shrinks the most (up to ~20%). The porosimetry and density studies showed that the final part achieved over 40% porosity with a density comparable to blocks of DBM. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Additive Manufacturing and Device Applications)
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Open AccessEditorial
Acknowledgement to Reviewers of JMMP in 2019
J. Manuf. Mater. Process. 2020, 4(1), 6; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmmp4010006 - 20 Jan 2020
Viewed by 460
Abstract
The editorial team greatly appreciates the reviewers who have dedicated their considerable time and expertise to the journal’s rigorous editorial process over the past 12 months, regardless of whether the papers are finally published or not [...] Full article
Open AccessArticle
Discrete Element Simulation of Orthogonal Machining of Soda-Lime Glass with Seed Cracks
J. Manuf. Mater. Process. 2020, 4(1), 5; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmmp4010005 - 16 Jan 2020
Viewed by 438
Abstract
Demands for producing high quality glass components have been increasing due to their superior mechanical and optical properties. However, due to their high hardness and brittleness, they present great challenges to researchers when developing new machining processes. In this work, the discrete element [...] Read more.
Demands for producing high quality glass components have been increasing due to their superior mechanical and optical properties. However, due to their high hardness and brittleness, they present great challenges to researchers when developing new machining processes. In this work, the discrete element method (DEM) is used to simulate orthogonal machining of synthetic soda-lime glass workpieces that are created using a bonded particle model and installed with four different types of seed cracks. The effects of these seed cracks on machining performance are studied and predicted through the DEM simulation. It is found that cutting force, random cracks, and surface roughness are reduced by up to 90%, 74%, and 47%, respectively, for the workpieces with seed cracks compared to the regular ones. The results show that high performance machining through DEM simulation can be achieved with optimal seed cracks. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Anniversary Feature Papers)
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
Development and Characterization of Stable Polymer Formulations for Manufacturing Magnetic Composites
J. Manuf. Mater. Process. 2020, 4(1), 4; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmmp4010004 - 12 Jan 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 812
Abstract
Polymer bonded permanent magnets find significant applications in a multitude of electrical and electronic devices. In this study, magnetic particle-loaded epoxy resin formulations were developed for in-situ polymerization and material jetting based additive manufacturing processes. Fundamental material and process issues like particle settling [...] Read more.
Polymer bonded permanent magnets find significant applications in a multitude of electrical and electronic devices. In this study, magnetic particle-loaded epoxy resin formulations were developed for in-situ polymerization and material jetting based additive manufacturing processes. Fundamental material and process issues like particle settling at room temperature and elevated temperature curing, rheology control and geometric stability of the magnetic polymer during the thermal curing process are addressed. Control of particle settling, modifications in rheological behavior and geometric stability were accomplished using an additive that enabled the modification of the formulation behavior at different process conditions. The magnetic particle size and additive loading were found to influence the rheological properties significantly. The synergistic effect of the additive enabled the developing of composites with engineered magnetic filler loading. Morphological characterization using scanning electron microscopy revealed a homogenous particle distribution in composites. It was observed that the influence of temperature was profound on the coercive field and remanent magnetization of the magnetic composites. The characterization of magnetic polymers and composites using rheometry, scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction and superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID) magnetometry analysis enabled the correlating of the behavior observed in different stages of the manufacturing processes. Furthermore, this fundamental research facilitates a pathway to construct robust materials and processes to develop magnetic composites with engineered properties. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
High-Temperature Diffusion Bonding of Ti–6Al–4V and Super-Duplex Stainless Steel Using a Cu Interlayer Embedded with Alumina Nanoparticles
J. Manuf. Mater. Process. 2020, 4(1), 3; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmmp4010003 - 12 Jan 2020
Viewed by 744
Abstract
In this study, Ti–6Al–4V alloy was diffusion bonded to super-duplex stainless steel (SDSS) using an electrodeposited Cu interlayer containing alumina nanoparticles to determine the effects of bonding parameters on the microstructural evolution within the joint region. The results of the study showed that [...] Read more.
In this study, Ti–6Al–4V alloy was diffusion bonded to super-duplex stainless steel (SDSS) using an electrodeposited Cu interlayer containing alumina nanoparticles to determine the effects of bonding parameters on the microstructural evolution within the joint region. The results of the study showed that the homogeneity of the joint is affected by the bonding time and bonding temperature. The results also showed that when a Cu/Al2O3 interlayer is used, Ti–6Al–4V alloy can be successfully diffusion bonded to SDSS at temperatures above 850 °C. The combination of longer bonding time and high bonding temperature leads to the formation of various intermetallic compounds within the interface. However, the presence of the Al2O3 nanoparticles within the interface causes a change in the volume, size, and shape of the intermetallic compounds formed by pinning grain boundaries and restricting grain growth of the interlayer. The variation of the chemical composition and hardness across the bond interface confirmed a better distribution of hard phases within the joint center when a Cu/Al2O3 interlayer was used. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Multi-Wire Sawing of Translucent Alumina Ceramics
J. Manuf. Mater. Process. 2020, 4(1), 2; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmmp4010002 - 11 Jan 2020
Viewed by 434
Abstract
Multi-wire sawing has emerged as the leading technology in wafer production for a variety of semiconductor materials. This study investigates the process stability and efficiency of conventional semiconductor multi-wire slurry saws in routinely machining translucent, high-density alumina ceramics. The brittle and fine-grained translucent [...] Read more.
Multi-wire sawing has emerged as the leading technology in wafer production for a variety of semiconductor materials. This study investigates the process stability and efficiency of conventional semiconductor multi-wire slurry saws in routinely machining translucent, high-density alumina ceramics. The brittle and fine-grained translucent alumina ceramics with extreme hardness and wear resistance represents a major challenge for the process. The alumina ceramic substrates are used for sensor applications, energy storage technology and applications in power electronics. An ideal adaptation of the sawing process parameters to the workpiece properties guarantees the efficiency of the slurry sawing process and the quality of the ceramic wafers. An indicator of the efficiency and cutting ability of the sawing process is the size of the bow of the wire web. The first time was shown that the wire bow can be used for the characterization of the sawing processes for hard and brittle technical ceramics. It was found that a longer workpiece length, a higher number of wafers and stronger abrasive wear lead to an increased size of the bow. The rocking frequency has no measurable influence on the size of the bow. Knowledge of these relations is an extremely valuable tool in the sawing process development for hard and brittle technical ceramics. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Method for Analytical Calculation of the Formability from Metallic Bipolar Plates
J. Manuf. Mater. Process. 2020, 4(1), 1; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmmp4010001 - 19 Dec 2019
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 705
Abstract
The constructive design of a flow field layout and the channel cross section parameters from a metallic half- or bipolar plate can have a significant influence on the performance characteristics of a fuel cell. One important aspect in the dimensioning of the channel [...] Read more.
The constructive design of a flow field layout and the channel cross section parameters from a metallic half- or bipolar plate can have a significant influence on the performance characteristics of a fuel cell. One important aspect in the dimensioning of the channel geometry of half plates is the technical forming feasibility. In this article, first an equation is presented, which enables an analytical calculation of the channel parameters. Hereby, continuing calculations with parameter variations will be possible. Furthermore, the formability of the channel geometry of metallic half plates is evaluated through numerical and experimental investigations. Based on the results, an analytical model approach will be derived that enables an appraisal of the formability from channel cross section contours in an early development state. As a final step, the results of the numerical investigations and the analytical calculation method are compared and evaluated with the results of experimental investigations and other publications. It will be shown, that the derived analytical model approach has a good approximation compared to the effects and results from the numerical and experimental analysis. In particular, the assessment of whether a channel cross section can be manufactured safely is a result with high probability of the analytical model approach. Imprecisions happen, especially in variants with extreme geometries, for example, with very small radii or a huge channel depth. For this kind of variations, the analytical model behaves too sensitively, which makes it more difficult to estimate the damage effects. However, at an early development state, the analytical model offers a good method to get a pre-evaluation of the formability of channel cross sections with a simultaneous parameter variation possibility. Full article
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