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J. Manuf. Mater. Process., Volume 3, Issue 4 (December 2019) – 15 articles

Cover Story (view full-size image): Many laser powder bed fusion (LPBF) machines have appeared on the market in recent years, but an agreed methodology to evaluate their performance is still missing. In this paper, an approach is presented through an extensive benchmarking conducted across five top machine producers and two end users. The objective was to understand the influence of the individual machine on the final quality of predesigned specimens, given a material and from multiple perspectives, to assess the current capabilities and limitations of the technology and compare them with the capabilities of an 11-year-old machine from one of the end users. The collected results give a clear representation of the status of LPBF technology, considering its maturity in terms of process capabilities and potential applications in a production environment.View this paper.
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15 pages, 1778 KiB  
Article
Machine Tools Anomaly Detection Through Nearly Real-Time Data Analysis
by Gorka Herranz, Alfonso Antolínez, Javier Escartín, Amaia Arregi and Jon Kepa Gerrikagoitia
J. Manuf. Mater. Process. 2019, 3(4), 97; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmmp3040097 - 2 Dec 2019
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 5296
Abstract
This work presents a new methodology for machine tools anomaly detection via operational data processing. The previous methodology has been field tested on a milling-boring machine in a real production environment. This paper also describes the data acquisition process, as well as the [...] Read more.
This work presents a new methodology for machine tools anomaly detection via operational data processing. The previous methodology has been field tested on a milling-boring machine in a real production environment. This paper also describes the data acquisition process, as well as the technical architecture needed for data processing. Subsequently, a technique for operational machine data segmentation based on dynamic time warping and hierarchical clustering is introduced. The formerly mentioned data segmentation and analysis technique allows for machine tools anomaly detection thanks to comparison between near real-time machine operational information, coming from strategically positioned sensors and outcomes collected from previous production cycles. Anomaly detection techniques shown in this article could achieve significant production improvements: “zero-defect manufacturing”, boosting factory efficiency, production plans scrap minimization, improvement of product quality, and the enhancement of overall equipment productivity. Full article
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16 pages, 4795 KiB  
Article
Hybrid Manufacturing and Experimental Testing of Glass Fiber Enhanced Thermoplastic Composites
by Javaid Butt, Yasasween Hewavidana, Vahaj Mohaghegh, Shabnam Sadeghi-Esfahlani and Hassan Shirvani
J. Manuf. Mater. Process. 2019, 3(4), 96; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmmp3040096 - 2 Dec 2019
Cited by 20 | Viewed by 4133
Abstract
Additive Manufacturing (AM) is gaining enormous attention from academic and industrial sectors for product development using different materials. Fused Deposition Modelling (FDM) is a popular AM method that works with thermoplastics. This process offers benefits of customisation both in terms of hardware and [...] Read more.
Additive Manufacturing (AM) is gaining enormous attention from academic and industrial sectors for product development using different materials. Fused Deposition Modelling (FDM) is a popular AM method that works with thermoplastics. This process offers benefits of customisation both in terms of hardware and software in the case of desktop-based FDM systems. Enhancement of mechanical properties for the traditional thermoplastic material is a widely researched area and various materials have been added to achieve this goal. This paper focuses on the manufacture of glass fiber reinforced plastic (GFRP) composites using Hybrid Fused Deposition Modelling (HFDM). Commonly available polylactic acid or polylactide (PLA) material was inter-laced with 0.03 mm thick glass fiber sheets to manufacture GFRP products followed by tensile testing. This was done to investigate whether adding more layers increases the tensile strength of the GFRP products or not. Furthermore, the maximum number of glass fiber layers that can be added to the 4 mm thick specimen was also identified. This was done to demonstrate that there is an optimal number of glass fiber layers that can be added as after this optimal number, the tensile strength start to deteriorate. Microstructural analysis was undertaken after tensile testing followed by ultrasonic testing to assess the uniformity of the GFRP composites. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Additive Manufacturing and Device Applications)
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11 pages, 2897 KiB  
Article
Prediction of Plate Crown during Aluminum Hot Flat Rolling by Finite Element Modeling
by Evangelos Gavalas and Spyros Papaefthymiou
J. Manuf. Mater. Process. 2019, 3(4), 95; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmmp3040095 - 2 Dec 2019
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 3292
Abstract
The roll deflection during hot rolling can result in uneven thickness distribution across the width of a plate (crown). A conventional rolling mill is equipped with bending systems that can control this convex shape of the plate. However, the determination of the proper [...] Read more.
The roll deflection during hot rolling can result in uneven thickness distribution across the width of a plate (crown). A conventional rolling mill is equipped with bending systems that can control this convex shape of the plate. However, the determination of the proper bending load is very complicated as the plate crown is influenced by the rolling conditions. In this paper, a thermo-mechanical Finite Element Model on LS-DYNA™ software was utilized to predict crown evolution based on the rolling conditions in order to determine the setting values for achieving the target crown. The simulation results were compared and verified with actual industrial data for rolling force, plate temperature and plate crown. This approach is essential for pass schedule design and process parameter optimization in order to achieve the desired product quality. Full article
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13 pages, 3367 KiB  
Article
An Investigation of the Influence of a Micro-Textured Ball End Cutter’s Different Parameters on the Surface Residual Stress of a Titanium Alloy Workpiece
by Shucai Yang, Song Yu, Xianli Liu, Shuai Su and Yongzhi Zhou
J. Manuf. Mater. Process. 2019, 3(4), 94; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmmp3040094 - 27 Nov 2019
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2112
Abstract
When machining titanium alloy parts, aside from accuracy, the other key concern when evaluating their quality is the integrity of the machined surface. Residual stress can have a significant impact upon this. A certain amount of residual stress can help to strengthen the [...] Read more.
When machining titanium alloy parts, aside from accuracy, the other key concern when evaluating their quality is the integrity of the machined surface. Residual stress can have a significant impact upon this. A certain amount of residual stress can help to strengthen the workpiece, but excessive residual stress can lead to its deformation. In this paper, we report on an experimental study of the surface integrity of titanium alloy after milling with a microtextured ball-end cutter. Tests were conducted to assess the residual stresses on the surface of titanium alloy workpieces according to the direction of feed and milling. The impact of different micro-texture parameters was also assessed; namely, the diameter, depth, spacing and distance from the cutting edge of the individual pits. Range analysis, which is an orthogonal test, was used to analyze the results of the experiments and a prediction model of surface residual stress was established for the milling of titanium alloy with micro-textured ball-end cutters. This model can provide theoretical support for the optimization of the parameters involved in future milling processes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue High-Speed Machining)
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13 pages, 3041 KiB  
Article
Micromagnetic Analysis of Thermally Induced Influences on Surface Integrity Using the Burning Limit Approach
by Jonas Heinzel, Daniel Sackmann and Bernhard Karpuschewski
J. Manuf. Mater. Process. 2019, 3(4), 93; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmmp3040093 - 12 Nov 2019
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 3003
Abstract
Particularly for highly stressed components, it is important to have precise knowledge of the surface and subsurface properties and, thus, of the functional properties after final grinding at the end of a complex process chain in order to avoid rejected parts. Therefore, non-destructive [...] Read more.
Particularly for highly stressed components, it is important to have precise knowledge of the surface and subsurface properties and, thus, of the functional properties after final grinding at the end of a complex process chain in order to avoid rejected parts. Therefore, non-destructive testing methods have been the subject of research for several years. The Barkhausen noise analysis, as a micromagnetic measuring method, has the potential to characterize the subsurface area up to an analyzing depth δ non-destructively with micromagnetic parameters. In addition to micromagnetic multiparameter approaches, which allow post-process mode clear statements about the subsurface area state, the present research work deals with the concept of a connection of a single Barkhausen noise parameter with grinding process parameters. In combination with the analytical approach of Malkin for the thermal surface and subsurface area influence, which is based on the process parameters of grinding processes, a distinction between good and rejected ground parts can be achieved. The results show that, by post-process measurements of the Barkhausen noise on case-hardened workpieces made of steel 18CrNiMo7-6 (No. 1.6587, AISI 4820) and machined by a cylindrical grinding process, incipient changes in the residual stress state up to industrial-relevant limits, which distinguish between good and rejected parts, is possible. In the future, a combination of the Malkin grinding burning limit and sufficient condition monitoring based on in-process measurements of Barkhausen noise will be investigated. The application limits of the analytical approach of Malkin as well as the measurement of the Barkhausen noise in-process have to be determined. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Manufacturing and Machining Processes)
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20 pages, 5459 KiB  
Article
A Scale-up of Energy-Cycle Analysis on Processing Non-Woven Flax/PLA Tape and Triaxial Glass Fibre Fabric for Composites
by Gilles Tchana Toffe, Sikiru Oluwarotimi Ismail, Diogo Montalvão, Jason Knight and Guogang Ren
J. Manuf. Mater. Process. 2019, 3(4), 92; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmmp3040092 - 1 Nov 2019
Cited by 15 | Viewed by 5019
Abstract
In the drive towards a sustainable bio-economy, a growing interest exists in the development of composite materials using renewable natural resources. This paper explores the life cycle assessment of processing of Flax fibre reinforced polylactic acid (PLA), with a comparison of glass fibre [...] Read more.
In the drive towards a sustainable bio-economy, a growing interest exists in the development of composite materials using renewable natural resources. This paper explores the life cycle assessment of processing of Flax fibre reinforced polylactic acid (PLA), with a comparison of glass fibre triaxial fabric in the production process. The use of hydrocarbon fossil resources and synthetic fibres, such as glass and carbon, have caused severe environmental impacts in their entire life cycles. Whereas, Flax/PLA is one of the cornerstones for the sustainable economic growth of natural fibre composites. In this study, the manufacturing processes for the production of Flax/PLA tape and triaxial glass fibre were evaluated through a gate-to-gate life cycle assessment (LCA). The assessment was based on an input-output model to estimate energy demand and environmental impacts. The quality of the natural hybrid composite produced and cost-effectiveness of their LCA was dependent on their roving processing speeds and temperature applied to both the Flax/PLA tape and triaxial glass fabrics during processing. The optimum processing condition was found to be at a maximum of 4 m/min at a constant temperature of 170 °C. In contrast, the optimum for normal triaxial glass fibre production was at a slower speed of 1 m/min using a roving glass fibre laminating machine. The results showed that when the Flax and PLA were combined to produce new composite material in the form of a flax/PLA tape, energy consumption was 0.25 MJ/kg, which is lower than the 0.8 MJ/kg used for glass fibre fabric process. Flax/PLA tape and glass fibre fabric composites have a carbon footprint equivalent to 0.036 kg CO2 and 0.11 kg CO2, respectively, under the same manufacturing conditions. These are within the technical requirements in the composites industry. The manufacturing process adopted to transform Flax/PLA into a similar tape composite was considerably quicker than that of woven glass fibre fabric for composite tape. This work elucidated the relationship of the energy consumptions of the two materials processes by using a standard LCA analytical methodology. The outcomes supported an alternative option for replacement of some conventional composite materials for the automotive industry. Most importantly, the natural fibre composite production is shown to result in an economic benefit and reduced environmental impact. Full article
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17 pages, 4784 KiB  
Article
Anti-Friction and Anti-Wear Mechanisms of Micro Textures and Optimal Area Proportion in the End Milling of Ti6Al4V Alloy
by Xin Tong, Xianli Liu and Song Yu
J. Manuf. Mater. Process. 2019, 3(4), 91; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmmp3040091 - 1 Nov 2019
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2713
Abstract
To solve the problems of low efficiency, poor surface quality, and short tool life in the milling of titanium alloys, this study took the micro-textured ball-end milling tool as a starting point and established a platform for friction and wear tests. Based on [...] Read more.
To solve the problems of low efficiency, poor surface quality, and short tool life in the milling of titanium alloys, this study took the micro-textured ball-end milling tool as a starting point and established a platform for friction and wear tests. Based on a new method of external friction theory, the anti-friction and anti-wear mechanisms of the micro-textured tool were analyzed. According to these mechanisms, the optimal area proportion of the micro textures in the contact area between the chip and tool was theoretically investigated considering the milling force, and the proportion was verified experimentally. This work provides a reference for improving the cutting performance of hard metal tools. Full article
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16 pages, 17867 KiB  
Article
Multi-Cycle Process Signature of Laser-Induced Thermochemical Polishing
by Sandro Eckert
J. Manuf. Mater. Process. 2019, 3(4), 90; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmmp3040090 - 17 Oct 2019
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 3014
Abstract
Laser-induced thermochemical polishing (LCP) is a non-conventional processing technique that uses laser radiation to smooth the surface of self-passivated metallic parts by initiating a localized anodic material dissolution. This technology can be used to selectively micro-polish without the need for masking or thermal [...] Read more.
Laser-induced thermochemical polishing (LCP) is a non-conventional processing technique that uses laser radiation to smooth the surface of self-passivated metallic parts by initiating a localized anodic material dissolution. This technology can be used to selectively micro-polish without the need for masking or thermal and mechanical stress. However, there is still a lack in understanding the surface quality depending on the applied laser machining parameters. This paper takes up the concept of Process Signatures and interprets the surface smoothing as result of multiple, recurring internal material loads of a constant energy amount. The laser-induced thermal impact is identified as the relevant internal material load and is correlated with the surface roughness. This derives an empirical-based functional relation as multi-cycle Process Signature. The experiment results show an exponential decay in surface roughness with increasing cycle loads for titanium, Ti6Al4V, Nitinol, Stellite 21, and metallic glass. The Process Signature of LCP is a solution to a differential equation with respect to the cycle loads. The paper demonstrates how the multi-cycle Process Signature helps determine suitable machining parameters to predict the surface roughness, as well as to scale the polishing rate. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Laser-Based Manufacturing)
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21 pages, 18484 KiB  
Article
Effect of Post Treatment on the Microstructure, Surface Roughness and Residual Stress Regarding the Fatigue Strength of Selectively Laser Melted AlSi10Mg Structures
by Wolfgang Schneller, Martin Leitner, Sebastian Pomberger, Sebastian Springer, Florian Beter and Florian Grün
J. Manuf. Mater. Process. 2019, 3(4), 89; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmmp3040089 - 16 Oct 2019
Cited by 32 | Viewed by 4047
Abstract
This paper focusses on the effect of hot isostatic pressing (HIP) and a solution annealing post treatment on the fatigue strength of selectively laser melted (SLM) AlSi10Mg structures. The aim of this work is to assess the effect of the unprocessed (as-built) surface [...] Read more.
This paper focusses on the effect of hot isostatic pressing (HIP) and a solution annealing post treatment on the fatigue strength of selectively laser melted (SLM) AlSi10Mg structures. The aim of this work is to assess the effect of the unprocessed (as-built) surface and residual stresses, regarding the fatigue behaviour for each condition. The surface roughness of unprocessed specimens is evaluated based on digital light optical microscopy and subsequent three-dimensional image post processing. To holistically characterize contributing factors to the fatigue strength, the axial surface residual stress of all specimens with unprocessed surfaces is measured using X-ray diffraction. Furthermore, the in-depth residual stress distribution of selected samples is analyzed. The fatigue strength is evaluated by tension-compression high-cycle fatigue tests under a load stress ratio of R = −1. For the machined specimens, intrinsic defects like pores or intermetallic phases are identified as the failure origin. Regarding the unprocessed test series, surface features cause the failures that correspond to significantly reduced cyclic material properties of approximately −60% referring to machined ones. There are beneficial effects on the surface roughness and residual stresses evoked due to the post treatments. Considering the aforementioned influencing factors, this study provides a fatigue assessment of the mentioned conditions of the investigated Al-material. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Anniversary Feature Papers)
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15 pages, 8170 KiB  
Article
Reduction of Ejection Forces in Injection Molding by Applying Mechanically Post-Treated CrN and CrAlN PVD Films
by Wolfgang Tillmann, Dominic Stangier, Nelson Filipe Lopes Dias, Nikolai Gelinski, Michael Stanko, Markus Stommel, Eugen Krebs and Dirk Biermann
J. Manuf. Mater. Process. 2019, 3(4), 88; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmmp3040088 - 15 Oct 2019
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 4701
Abstract
In injection molding, the reduction of ejection forces is a process relevant aspect to improve the production rates. For this purpose, CrN and CrAlN films were sputtered on cylindrical and quadratic AISI H11 cores of an injection mold in order to investigate their [...] Read more.
In injection molding, the reduction of ejection forces is a process relevant aspect to improve the production rates. For this purpose, CrN and CrAlN films were sputtered on cylindrical and quadratic AISI H11 cores of an injection mold in order to investigate their influence on the resulting ejection forces to demold polypropylene test components. Within this context, the ejection forces of the PVD coated cores were compared to those of uncoated cores made of AISI H11. For both the cylindrical and quadratic cores, the as-deposited CrN and CrAlN films exhibit higher ejection forces than the uncoated cores due to the increase of the roughness profile after sputtering. It is known that the ejection forces are directly related to the surface roughness. In order to ensure comparable surface conditions to the uncoated surfaces, and to demonstrate the potential of PVD coated mold surfaces when reducing the ejection forces, the coated surfaces were mechanically post-treated to obtain a similar roughness profile as the uncoated cores. The combination of a PVD deposition and post-treatment ensures a significant reduction of the ejection forces by 22.6% and 23.7% for both core geometries. Full article
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23 pages, 1619 KiB  
Review
Prediction Models for Distortions and Residual Stresses in Thermoset Polymer Laminates: An Overview
by Morteza Abouhamzeh, Jos Sinke and Rinze Benedictus
J. Manuf. Mater. Process. 2019, 3(4), 87; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmmp3040087 - 11 Oct 2019
Cited by 15 | Viewed by 4516
Abstract
This paper reviews predictive models developed for the development of residual stresses and shape distortions during the manufacturing of thermoset polymeric/composite materials. Different sources that produce residual stresses and shape changes in the laminated panels are described and reviewed. An overview is presented [...] Read more.
This paper reviews predictive models developed for the development of residual stresses and shape distortions during the manufacturing of thermoset polymeric/composite materials. Different sources that produce residual stresses and shape changes in the laminated panels are described and reviewed. An overview is presented on the characterisation and predictions of the phenomena resulting in residual stresses. The focus will be on the models accounting for the parameters during the cure cycle of the thermoset composite materials published in the literature from 2005 until 2018. The material types covered here range from thermoset adhesives, full composites, and fibre metal laminates. Furthermore, selected works are reviewed on the reduction of the shape changes and residual stresses of composites and fibre metal laminates consisting of thermoset polymers. Full article
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20 pages, 7826 KiB  
Article
Electropolishing of Laser Powder Bed-Fused IN625 Components in an Ionic Electrolyte
by Neda Mohammadian, Sylvain Turenne and Vladimir Brailovski
J. Manuf. Mater. Process. 2019, 3(4), 86; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmmp3040086 - 3 Oct 2019
Cited by 17 | Viewed by 3939
Abstract
This work presents the first practical application of ionic electrolytes for electropolishing of nickel-based superalloys. It contains the results of an experiment-driven optimization of the applied potential and electrolyte temperature during electropolishing of laser powder bed-fused IN625 components containing surfaces oriented to the [...] Read more.
This work presents the first practical application of ionic electrolytes for electropolishing of nickel-based superalloys. It contains the results of an experiment-driven optimization of the applied potential and electrolyte temperature during electropolishing of laser powder bed-fused IN625 components containing surfaces oriented to the building platform under angles varying from 0 to 135°. For comparative purposes, the roughness profilometry and confocal microscopy techniques were used to characterize the surface finish topographies and the material removal rates of IN625 components subjected to electropolishing in ionic and acidic (reference) electrolytes. After 4 h of electropolishing in both electrolytes, a roughness of Ra ≤ 6.3 µm (ISO N9 grade number of roughness) was obtained for all the build orientations. To elaborate, both electrolytes manifested identical roughness evolutions with time on the 45° (75% Ra reduction) and 90°-oriented (65% Ra reduction) surfaces. Although the roughness reduction on the 135°-oriented surface in the ionic electrolyte was 17% less than in the acidic electrolyte, the former provided a more uniform roughness profile on the 0°-oriented surface (30% Ra reduction) and 44% higher current efficiency than the acidic electrolyte. This work proves that ionic electrolytes constitute a greener alternative to industrial acidic mixtures for electropolishing of three-dimensional (3D)-printed parts from nickel-based superalloys. Full article
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30 pages, 17365 KiB  
Article
Benchmarking of Laser Powder Bed Fusion Machines
by Mandaná Moshiri, Stefano Candeo, Simone Carmignato, Sankhya Mohanty and Guido Tosello
J. Manuf. Mater. Process. 2019, 3(4), 85; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmmp3040085 - 1 Oct 2019
Cited by 24 | Viewed by 6490
Abstract
This paper presents the methodology and results of an extensive benchmarking of laser powder bed fusion (LPBF) machines conducted across five top machine producers and two end users. The objective was to understand the influence of the individual machine on the final quality [...] Read more.
This paper presents the methodology and results of an extensive benchmarking of laser powder bed fusion (LPBF) machines conducted across five top machine producers and two end users. The objective was to understand the influence of the individual machine on the final quality of predesigned specimens, given a specific material and from multiple perspectives, in order to assess the current capabilities and limitations of the technology and compare them with the capabilities of an 11-year-old machine belonging to one of the end users participating in this investigation. The collected results give a clear representation of the status of LPBF technology considering its maturity in terms of process capabilities and potential applications in a production environment. Full article
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14 pages, 5909 KiB  
Article
Automated Unsupervised 3D Tool-Path Generation Using Stacked 2D Image Processing Technique
by Tadele Belay Tuli and Andrea Cesarini
J. Manuf. Mater. Process. 2019, 3(4), 84; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmmp3040084 - 1 Oct 2019
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 4226
Abstract
Tool-path, feed-rate, and depth-of-cut of a tool determine the machining time, tool wear, power consumption, and realization costs. Before the commissioning and production, a preliminary phase of failure-mode identification and effect analysis allows for selecting the optimal machining parameters for cutting, which, in [...] Read more.
Tool-path, feed-rate, and depth-of-cut of a tool determine the machining time, tool wear, power consumption, and realization costs. Before the commissioning and production, a preliminary phase of failure-mode identification and effect analysis allows for selecting the optimal machining parameters for cutting, which, in turn, reduces machinery faults, production errors and, ultimately, decreases costs. For this, scalable high-precision path generation algorithms requiring a low amount of computation might be advisable. The present work provides such a simplified scalable computationally low-intensive technique for tool-path generation. From a three dimensional (3D) digital model, the presented algorithm extracts multiple two dimensional (2D) layers. Depending on the required resolution, each layer is converted to a spatial image, and an algebraic analytic closed-form solution provides a geometrical tool path in Cartesian coordinates. The produced tool paths are stacked after processing all object layers. Finally, the generated tool path is translated into a machine code using a G-code generator algorithm. The introduced technique was implemented and simulated using MATLAB® pseudocode with a G-code interpreter and a simulator. The results showed that the proposed technique produced an automated unsupervised reliable tool-path-generator algorithm and reduced tool wear and costs, by allowing the selection of the tool depth-of-cut as an input. Full article
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9 pages, 7356 KiB  
Article
Influence of the Wire Feeding on the Wetting Process during Laser Brazing of Aluminum Alloys with Aluminum-Based Braze Material
by Till Leithäuser and Peer Woizeschke
J. Manuf. Mater. Process. 2019, 3(4), 83; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmmp3040083 - 29 Sep 2019
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2766
Abstract
The wetting behavior in laser brazing can be designated as inconstant, caused largely by external process discontinuities such as the wire feeding. To reveal periodic melt pool propagation effects that occur during laser brazing of aluminum and for a better understanding of those [...] Read more.
The wetting behavior in laser brazing can be designated as inconstant, caused largely by external process discontinuities such as the wire feeding. To reveal periodic melt pool propagation effects that occur during laser brazing of aluminum and for a better understanding of those effects in laser brazing in general, this paper analyzes high-speed recordings of the brazing process with aluminum alloy. It is demonstrated that two main effects of periodic melt pool behavior in different frequency scales occur during the process, related directly to the wire feeding. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Laser-Based Manufacturing)
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