Wojciechowski S, Chwalczuk T, Twardowski P, et al. [2
] concentrated on the modeling of a cutter’s displacements during ball-end milling with various surface inclinations. The cutter’s displacements (vibrations) model was proposed. Subsequently, this model was validated empirically during the milling tests with various feed per tooth (fz
), depth of cut (ap
) and surface inclination angle (a
) values. Experiments were carried out with the application of a laser displacement sensor and force dynamometer. The research revealed that the cutter’s displacements are strongly affected by the cutter’s run out and surface inclination. This observation is also confirmed by the developed model. A new approach to surface roughness parameters estimation during finish cylindrical end milling was presented by Wojciechowski S, Chwalczuk T, Twardowski P, et al. [3
] In the first stage, tool working part instantaneous displacements was estimated. The height of the tool’s displacement envelope obtained was then applied in the second stage to the calculation of surface roughness parameters. These calculations assumed that in the cylindrical milling process two different mechanisms of surface profile formation exist. Which mechanism was present was dependent on the feed per tooth and the maximum height of the tool’s displacement envelope. The developed model was validated during the cylindrical milling of hardened hot-work tool steel 55NiCrMov6 using a stylus profiler and scanning laser. Vazquez Martinez J, Irene D S I, Iglesias Victoria P, et al. [4
] investigated the effect of laser-textured surfaces on the tribological behavior of titanium Ti6Al4V. Multiple texture types were created by varying the energy density of the pulse and scanning speed of the laser. Tribological performance of textured surfaces was found to strongly depend on the laser patterning parameters. Replacing conventional surfaces with textured surfaces reduced friction up to 62% and wear up to two orders of magnitude. Wear mechanisms were discussed from optical microscopy and scanning electron microscopy/energy-dispersive spectroscopy (SEM/EDS) observation of wear tracks on titanium disks and ceramic balls. Wojciechowski S, Maruda R W, Nieslony P [5
] focused on the analysis of the edge forces generated in ball-end milling of hardened alloy 55NiCrMoV6 steel. In order to obtain the edge forces values, the extrapolation of forces in the tool coordinates to the zero uncut chip thickness was made. The investigations revealed that edge forces were strongly affected by surface inclination angle and progressing tool wear. It was also shown that cutting force estimation with the consideration of the variable edge forces was characterized by a higher accuracy than one based on constant edge forces. Milling force, part and tool deflection, form error and stability models were presented by Budak E [6
]. These methods can be used to check the process constraints as well as optimal selection of the cutting conditions for high performance milling. The use of the models in optimizing the process variables such as feed, depth of cut and spindle speed were demonstrated by simulations and experiments. The effect of various factors on this dimensional error was investigated by Lacalle L N L D, Lamikiz A, Sánchez J A, et al. [7
] Account was taken of the workpiece material and the slope of surfaces. The workpiece materials were of 30 and 50 HRC hardness, with slopes of 15°, 30°, and 45°. The selected tools were solid ball-end mills of sintered tungsten carbide, coated with TiAlN. These were of various diameters and lengths, and accordingly exhibited various degrees of slenderness. A great value for this latter parameter is a restraint on the potential application of the high-speed milling technique. Salguero J, Del Sol I, Vazquez-Martinez J M, et al. [8
] studied the effect of laser-textured surfaces on the tribological behavior of titanium alloy Ti6Al4V. First, the characterization of dimensional and geometrical features of the texturized tracks was carried out. Later, their influence on the wetting behavior was also evaluated through contact angle measurements using water as a contact fluid. Then, the tribological performance of these surfaces was analyzed using a ball-on-flat reciprocating tribometer under wet and dry conditions. Finally, wear mechanisms were identified employing electronic and optical microscopy techniques capable of evaluating the wear tracks on Ti surfaces and WC-Co spheres. Wear friction effects were reduced by up to a 70% replacement of conventional untreated surfaces of Ti6Al4V alloy with laser-textured surfaces. To analyze the cutting performance of micro-textured cutting tools, Zhang et al. [9
] prepared micro textures on a surface with a titanium aluminum nitride coating. Furthermore, cutting experiments were carried out on AISI1045 hardened steel under the conditions of overall lubrication and micro-lubrication. The results demonstrated that the micro-textured cutting tools were superior, and the cutting performance was enhanced by means of overall lubrication. Jianxin’s team [10
] at Shandong University combined the micro-textured and self-lubrication technologies to develop micro-textured self-lubrication cutting tools, and then studied the lubrication characteristics experimentally. The micro-textured self-lubricating tool was filled with solid lubricant in the micro textures. The solid lubricant formed a film on the tool surface to achieve the self-lubrication function, so that the average friction coefficient, cutting temperature, and cutting force on the rake face were correspondingly reduced. Subsequently, ceramic tools and 45# steel were used to establish an orthogonal cutting model, and a two-dimensional simulation of the orthogonal cutting process of the 45# steel was performed using Abaqus. The simulation results revealed that different micro texture widths had varying anti-friction effects. When the micro texture widths were small, the anti-friction effect was obvious. Lei and Devarajan of Kansas State University [14
], USA, analyzed a laser-machined surface by means of numerical simulation, determined the effects of micro-pit textures on the tool mechanical properties, and found that the placement of the micro textures had no significant negative effect on the structural strength of the cemented carbide tool.
In summary, micro textures have mostly been placed on the turning tool surface, and no research exists on the anti-wear and anti-friction mechanisms of the micro-textured ball-end milling tool and the optimal area proportion on the rake face. Therefore, this study reveals the anti-friction mechanism considering external friction, which simultaneously demonstrates the anti-wear mechanism. On this basis, the contact area between the tool and chip can be determined, and the optimal area proportion of the micro textures in the contact area can be obtained. This research provides a reference for optimizing the cutting performance of micro-textured ball-end milling tools.