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J. Manuf. Mater. Process., Volume 2, Issue 3 (September 2018)

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Cover Story (view full-size image) Additive manufacturing of aluminum alloys promises to considerably enhance the performance of [...] Read more.
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Open AccessArticle Thermal Modeling of Temperature Distribution in Metal Additive Manufacturing Considering Effects of Build Layers, Latent Heat, and Temperature-Sensitivity of Material Properties
J. Manuf. Mater. Process. 2018, 2(3), 63; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmmp2030063
Received: 12 August 2018 / Revised: 31 August 2018 / Accepted: 8 September 2018 / Published: 12 September 2018
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Abstract
A physics-based analytical model is proposed in order to predict the temperature profile during metal additive manufacturing (AM) processes, by considering the effects of temperature history in each layer, temperature-sensitivity of material properties and latent heat. The moving heat source analysis is used
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A physics-based analytical model is proposed in order to predict the temperature profile during metal additive manufacturing (AM) processes, by considering the effects of temperature history in each layer, temperature-sensitivity of material properties and latent heat. The moving heat source analysis is used in order to predict the temperature distribution inside a semi-infinite solid material. The laser thermal energy deposited into a control volume is absorbed by the material thermodynamic latent heat and conducted through the contacting solid boundaries. The analytical model takes in to account the typical multi-layer aspect of additive manufacturing processes for the first time. The modeling of the problem involving multiple layers is of great importance because the thermal interactions of successive layers affect the temperature gradients, which govern the heat transfer and thermal stress development mechanisms. The temperature profile is calculated for isotropic and homogeneous material. The proposed model can be used to predict the temperature in laser-based metal additive manufacturing configurations of either direct metal deposition or selective laser melting. A numerical analysis is also conducted to simulate the temperature profile in metal AM. These two models are compared with experimental results. The proposed model also well captured the melt pool geometry as it is compared to experimental values. In order to emphasize the importance of solving the problem considering multiple layers, the peak temperature considering the layer addition and peak temperature not considering the layer addition are compared. The results show that considering the layer addition aspect of metal additive manufacturing can help to better predict the surface temperature and melt pool geometry. An analysis is conducted to show the importance of considering the temperature sensitivity of material properties in predicting temperature. A comparison of the computational time is also provided for analytical and numerical modeling. Based on the obtained results, it appears that the proposed analytical method provides an effective and accurate method to predict the temperature in metal AM. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Anniversary Feature Papers)
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Open AccessReview Fractal Analysis Application Outlook for Improving Process Monitoring and Machine Maintenance in Manufacturing 4.0
J. Manuf. Mater. Process. 2018, 2(3), 62; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmmp2030062
Received: 28 July 2018 / Revised: 7 September 2018 / Accepted: 8 September 2018 / Published: 10 September 2018
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Abstract
Industry 4.0 has been advertised for a decade as the next disruptive evolution for production. It relies on automation growth and particularly on data exchange using numerous sensors in order to develop faster production with tight monitoring. The huge amount of data generated
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Industry 4.0 has been advertised for a decade as the next disruptive evolution for production. It relies on automation growth and particularly on data exchange using numerous sensors in order to develop faster production with tight monitoring. The huge amount of data generated by clouds of sensors during production is often used to feed machine learning systems in order to detect faults, monitor and find possible ways for improvement. However, the artificial intelligence within machine learning requires finding and selecting key features, such as average and root mean square. While current machine learning has already proven its use in diverse applications, its efficiency could be further improved by generating better characteristics such as fractal parameters. In this paper, fractal analysis concept is presented and its current and future applications in machining are discussed. This sensitive and robust technique is already extracting high performance key features that could fill in monitoring and prediction systems. On top of improving features selection and, thus, improving the overall performance of monitoring and predictive systems in machining, this could lead to a more rapid artificial intelligence implementation into manufacturing. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Smart Manufacturing Processes in the Context of Industry 4.0)
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Open AccessArticle Processing Parameter DOE for 316L Using Directed Energy Deposition
J. Manuf. Mater. Process. 2018, 2(3), 61; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmmp2030061
Received: 18 July 2018 / Revised: 3 September 2018 / Accepted: 5 September 2018 / Published: 7 September 2018
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Abstract
The ability to produce consistent material properties across a single or series of platforms, particularly over time, is the major objective in metal additive manufacturing (MAM) research. If this can be achieved, it will result in widespread adoption of the technology for industry
[...] Read more.
The ability to produce consistent material properties across a single or series of platforms, particularly over time, is the major objective in metal additive manufacturing (MAM) research. If this can be achieved, it will result in widespread adoption of the technology for industry and place it into mainstream manufacturing. However, before this can happen, it is critical to develop an understanding of how processing parameters influence the thermal conditions which dictate the mechanical properties of MAM builds. Research work reported in the literature of MAM is generally based on a set of parameters and/or the review of a few parameter changes, and observing the effects that these changes (i.e., microstructure, mechanical properties) have. While these articles provide results with some insight, there lacks a standard approach that can be used to allow meaningful comparisons and conclusions to be made concerning the optimization of the processing variables. This study provides a template which can be used for making comparisons across DED platforms. The tests are performed with a design of experiments (DOE) philosophy directed to evaluate the effect of selected parameters on the measured properties of the DED builds. Specifically, a laser engineering net shaping system (LENS) is used to build multilayered 316L coupons and analyze how build parameters such as laser power, travel speed, and powder feed rate influence the thermal conditions that will define both microstructure and microhardness. A fundamental conclusion of this research is that it is possible to repeatedly obtain a consistent microstructure that contains a fine cellular substructure with a low level of porosity (less than 1.1%) and with microhardness that is equal to or better than wrought 316L. This is mainly achieved by maintaining an associated powder flow to travel speed ratio at the power level, ensuring an appropriate net heat input for the build process. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Additive Manufacturing)
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Open AccessArticle Machine Tool Volumetric Error Features Extraction and Classification Using Principal Component Analysis and K-Means
J. Manuf. Mater. Process. 2018, 2(3), 60; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmmp2030060
Received: 30 July 2018 / Revised: 29 August 2018 / Accepted: 31 August 2018 / Published: 4 September 2018
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Abstract
Volumetric errors (VE) are related to the machine tool accuracy state. Extracting features from the complex VE data provides with a means to characterize this data. VE feature classification can reveal the machine tool accuracy states. This paper presents a study on how
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Volumetric errors (VE) are related to the machine tool accuracy state. Extracting features from the complex VE data provides with a means to characterize this data. VE feature classification can reveal the machine tool accuracy states. This paper presents a study on how to use principal component analysis (PCA) to extract the features of VE and how to use the K-means method for machine tool accuracy state classification. The proposed data processing methods have been tested with the VE data acquired from a five-axis machine tool with different states of malfunction. The results indicate that the PCA and K-means are capable of extracting the VE feature information and classifying the fault states including the C axis encoder fault, uncalibrated C axis encoder fault, and pallet location fault from the machine tool normal states. This research provides a new way for VE features extraction and classification. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Smart Manufacturing Processes in the Context of Industry 4.0)
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Open AccessArticle Experimental Investigation on the Geometrical Accuracy of the CNC Multi-Pass Sheet Metal Spinning Process
J. Manuf. Mater. Process. 2018, 2(3), 59; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmmp2030059
Received: 29 July 2018 / Revised: 23 August 2018 / Accepted: 30 August 2018 / Published: 3 September 2018
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Abstract
The geometrical accuracy of multi-pass sheet metal spinning products is crucial in many applications. Aerospace, petroleum, and chemical industries motivated the development of modern spun components of complicated shapes with special functionality, but a substantial research lag exists behind this progress. Due to
[...] Read more.
The geometrical accuracy of multi-pass sheet metal spinning products is crucial in many applications. Aerospace, petroleum, and chemical industries motivated the development of modern spun components of complicated shapes with special functionality, but a substantial research lag exists behind this progress. Due to the localized plastic deformation involved, careful control of dimensions and form is required in spinning procedures. In this study, two sets of experiments were implemented for cup manufacturing using a retrofitted computer numerically controlled (CNC) spinning machine to identify the critical factors affecting product geometry and reveal their influence on the shape accuracy of the spun cups. The first set is a screening experiment to determine the most significant parameters and the second provides the optimum processing conditions affecting cup quality. The feed ratio, number of spin-forming passes, spinning ratio, and lubrication were found to have the most important effect on the geometry of the spun cups. Optimum quality with a higher processing speed (productivity) was achieved under a lubricated condition using a larger number of spin-forming passes at a high feed ratio, diminishing the commonly adopted rule of slow spinning for accurate products and reflecting a significance for state-of-the-art spinning practice. The findings of this paper introduce a basis for a spinning quality database. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Analysis and Modeling of Sheet Metal Forming Processes)
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Open AccessArticle Transient Liquid Phase Bonding of Al-6063 to Steel Alloy UNS S32304
J. Manuf. Mater. Process. 2018, 2(3), 58; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmmp2030058
Received: 5 July 2018 / Revised: 16 August 2018 / Accepted: 28 August 2018 / Published: 1 September 2018
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Abstract
Transient liquid phase (TLP) bonding of 6063 aluminum alloy (Al-6063) and duplex alloy 2304 stainless steel (UNS S32304) was performed using copper foil as an interlayer between the base metals. A compression load was applied normal to the specimens. Metallurgical examination of the
[...] Read more.
Transient liquid phase (TLP) bonding of 6063 aluminum alloy (Al-6063) and duplex alloy 2304 stainless steel (UNS S32304) was performed using copper foil as an interlayer between the base metals. A compression load was applied normal to the specimens. Metallurgical examination of the produced joints showed three distinct regions including a reaction zone, diffusion affected zone, and the base metals. The diffusion of copper into aluminum resulted in an Al–Cu eutectic structure. However, the oxide layer on the aluminum surface controlled the dissolution behavior of copper and the extent of its wettability with the base metals. Although voids and intermetallic compounds were detected at the interfaces of the processed joints, a defect free joint was produced at 570 °C. In addition, the results from corrosion tests showed that the use of copper as an interlayer decreased the corrosion resistance of the joints. However, increase in thickness of the joining reaction zone with increasing bonding temperature was observed to increase corrosion resistance. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Machining of Iron-Carbon Alloys by the Use of Poly-Crystalline Diamond Cutting Inserts with Internal Cooling
J. Manuf. Mater. Process. 2018, 2(3), 57; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmmp2030057
Received: 26 July 2018 / Revised: 14 August 2018 / Accepted: 28 August 2018 / Published: 31 August 2018
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Abstract
Poly-crystalline diamond (PCD) is an extremely tough, synthetically produced cutting tool material, which offers outstanding capabilities concerning wear behavior in abrasive cutting environments. Currently, the primary application of PCD cutting tools is the machining of non-ferrous materials, as the diamond’s carbon high affinity
[...] Read more.
Poly-crystalline diamond (PCD) is an extremely tough, synthetically produced cutting tool material, which offers outstanding capabilities concerning wear behavior in abrasive cutting environments. Currently, the primary application of PCD cutting tools is the machining of non-ferrous materials, as the diamond’s carbon high affinity towards iron causes diffusion effects while cutting steel with rising temperature. This effect significantly reduces tool life. To lower the occurring temperature of the cutting process, and therefore avoid the reaction of carbon and iron, a thermal functionalization of the cutting inserts has been investigated. The results give insight into making PCD cutting tools economically usable for the machining of iron-carbon materials. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Findings and Approaches in Machining Processes)
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Open AccessArticle Intra- and Inter-Repeatability of Profile Deviations of an AlSi10Mg Tooling Component Manufactured by Laser Powder Bed Fusion
J. Manuf. Mater. Process. 2018, 2(3), 56; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmmp2030056
Received: 13 July 2018 / Revised: 6 August 2018 / Accepted: 15 August 2018 / Published: 21 August 2018
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Abstract
Laser powder bed fusion (LPBF) is one of the most potent additive manufacturing (AM) processes. Metallic LPBF is gaining popularity, but one of the obstacles facing its larger industrial use is the limited knowledge of its dimensional and geometrical performances. This paper presents
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Laser powder bed fusion (LPBF) is one of the most potent additive manufacturing (AM) processes. Metallic LPBF is gaining popularity, but one of the obstacles facing its larger industrial use is the limited knowledge of its dimensional and geometrical performances. This paper presents a metrological investigation of the geometrical and dimensional deviations of a selected LPBF-manufactured component, according to the ASME Y14.5-2009 standard. This approach allows for an estimation of both the process capability, as per ISO 22514-4 standard, and the correlations between the part location in the manufacturing chamber and the profile deviations. Forty-nine parts, which are representative of a typical aerospace tooling component (30 mm in diameter and 27.2 mm in height) were manufactured from AlSi10Mg powder using an EOSINT M280 printer and subjected to a stress relief annealing at 300 °C for two hours. This manufacturing procedure was repeated three times. A complete statistical analysis was carried out and the results of the investigation show that LPBF performances for all geometrical variations of 147 identical parts fall within a range of 230 µm at a 99.73% level. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Selective Laser Melting: Materials and Applications)
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Open AccessArticle Analysis of the Process Parameter Influence in Laser Cladding of 316L Stainless Steel
J. Manuf. Mater. Process. 2018, 2(3), 55; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmmp2030055
Received: 15 June 2018 / Revised: 26 July 2018 / Accepted: 13 August 2018 / Published: 15 August 2018
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Abstract
Laser Cladding is one of the leading processes within Additive Manufacturing technologies, which has concentrated a considerable amount of effort on its development. In regard to the latter, the current study aims to summarize the influence of the most relevant process parameters in
[...] Read more.
Laser Cladding is one of the leading processes within Additive Manufacturing technologies, which has concentrated a considerable amount of effort on its development. In regard to the latter, the current study aims to summarize the influence of the most relevant process parameters in the laser cladding processing of single and compound volumes (solid forms) made from AISI 316L stainless steel powders and using a coaxial nozzle for their deposition. Process speed, applied laser power and powder flow are considered to be the main variables affecting the laser cladding in single clads, whereas overlap percentage and overlapping strategy also become relevant when dealing with multiple clads. By setting appropriate values for each process parameter, the main goal of this paper is to develop a processing window in which a good metallurgical bond between the delivered powder and the substrate is obtained, trying simultaneously to maintain processing times at their lowest value possible. Conventional metallography techniques were performed on the cross sections of the laser tracks to measure the effective dimensions of clads, height and width, as well as the resulting dilution value. Besides the influence of the overlap between contiguous clads and layers, physical defects such as porosity and cracks were also evaluated. Optimum process parameters to maximize productivity were defined as 13 mm/s, 2500 W, 30% of overlap and a 25 g/min powder feed rate. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Findings and Approaches in Machining Processes)
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Open AccessArticle Dynamic Process Behavior in Laser Chemical Micro Machining of Metals
J. Manuf. Mater. Process. 2018, 2(3), 54; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmmp2030054
Received: 18 July 2018 / Revised: 9 August 2018 / Accepted: 11 August 2018 / Published: 14 August 2018
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Abstract
Laser chemical machining (LCM) is a non-conventional processing method that enables a smooth and precise micro structuring of metallic surfaces. However, a high-quality removal is limited to a laser power window of some 100 mW. This is due to the high sensibility to
[...] Read more.
Laser chemical machining (LCM) is a non-conventional processing method that enables a smooth and precise micro structuring of metallic surfaces. However, a high-quality removal is limited to a laser power window of some 100 mW. This is due to the high sensibility to removal disturbances, such as the deposition of metallic salts and oxides. In this work, the dynamic process behavior around the transition from a disturbance-free to a disturbed removal is investigated for the laser chemical machining of titanium (3.7024) and stainless steel (AISI 304) in different phosphoric acid solutions. Therefore, the removal cavities are recorded using confocal scanning microscopy and characterized regarding width, depth and quality in dependence of the laser power, feed velocity and electrolyte concentration. While the removal characteristics within the disturbance-free regime are found to be material-independent, the disturbed regime is strongly dependent on the tendency of the material to gas bubble adherence. Additional CCD records of the interaction zone reveal that the transition to the disturbed regime is accompanied by significant light reflections and thereby indicate the influence of adhering gas bubbles on disturbing the removal process. Moreover, typical removal disturbances are presented and discussed with regard to the responsible mechanisms for their occurrence. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Using the Segmented Iterative Learning Control Method to Generate Volumetric Error-Compensated Part Programs for Three-Axis CNC Milling Machine Tools
J. Manuf. Mater. Process. 2018, 2(3), 53; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmmp2030053
Received: 17 July 2018 / Revised: 10 August 2018 / Accepted: 10 August 2018 / Published: 13 August 2018
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Abstract
This study proposes using the iterative learning control method to adjust the volumetric error-compensated tool path, where the working volume motion accuracy of three-axis computerized numerical control (CNC) milling machine tools is increased by segmented modification of the part program. As the three-axis
[...] Read more.
This study proposes using the iterative learning control method to adjust the volumetric error-compensated tool path, where the working volume motion accuracy of three-axis computerized numerical control (CNC) milling machine tools is increased by segmented modification of the part program. As the three-axis CNC milling machine tools generally have volumetric error of working volume, this study refers to the measured and established table of volumetric errors and uses the method of the modifying part program for volumetric error compensation of machine tools. This study proposes using part-program single-block positioning segmented for volumetric error compensation, as the generated compensated part program with multiple compensated blocks can effectively compensate the volumetric error of working volume in the tool moving process. In terms of the compensated tool path computing method, this study uses the iterative learning control (ILC) method and refers to compensated tool path and volumetric errors along the compensated tool path for iterative computation. Finally, a part program with multiple blocks is modified by the converged optimal compensated tool path, in order that the modified part program has higher-precision volumetric error compensation effect. The simulation result shows that the rate of improvement of error of the volumetric error compensation method proposed in this study is 70%. The result of cutting tests shows that the average rate of improvement of the straightness error of the test workpiece is 60%, while the average rate of improvement of height error is 80%. Therefore, the results of simulation and cutting tests can prove the feasibility of using the ILC method for segmented modification of the volumetric error-compensated part programs proposed in this study. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Findings and Approaches in Machining Processes)
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Open AccessArticle Octree-Based Generation and Variation Analysis of Skin Model Shapes
J. Manuf. Mater. Process. 2018, 2(3), 52; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmmp2030052
Received: 8 July 2018 / Revised: 1 August 2018 / Accepted: 8 August 2018 / Published: 12 August 2018
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Abstract
The concept of Skin Model Shape has been introduced as a method for a close representation of manufactured parts using a discrete geometry representation scheme. However, discretized surfaces make irregular polyhedra, which are computationally demanding to model and process using the traditional implicit
[...] Read more.
The concept of Skin Model Shape has been introduced as a method for a close representation of manufactured parts using a discrete geometry representation scheme. However, discretized surfaces make irregular polyhedra, which are computationally demanding to model and process using the traditional implicit surface and boundary representation techniques. Moreover, there are still some research challenges related to the geometrical variation modelling of manufactured products; specifically, methods for geometrical data processing, the mapping of manufacturing variation sources to a geometric model, and the improvement of variation visualization techniques. To provide steps towards addressing these challenges this work uses Octree, a 3D space partitioning technique, as an aid for geometrical data processing, variation visualization, variation modelling and propagation, and tolerance analysis. Further, Skin Model Shapes are generated either by manufacturing a simulation using a non-ideal toolpath on solid models of Skin Model Shapes that are assembled to non-ideal fixtures or from measurement data. Octrees are then used in a variation envelope extraction from the simulated or measurement data, which becomes a basis for further simulation and tolerance analysis. To illustrate the method, an industrial two-stage truck component manufacturing line was studied. Simulation results show that the predicted Skin Model Shapes closely match to the measurement data from the manufacturing line, which could also be used to map to manufacturing error sources. This approach contributes towards the application of Octrees in many Skin Model Shape related operations and processes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Smart Manufacturing Processes in the Context of Industry 4.0)
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Open AccessArticle Molecular Dynamics Simulation Study of Liquid-Assisted Laser Beam Micromachining Process
J. Manuf. Mater. Process. 2018, 2(3), 51; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmmp2030051
Received: 29 June 2018 / Revised: 30 July 2018 / Accepted: 6 August 2018 / Published: 9 August 2018
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Liquid Assisted Laser Beam Micromachining (LA-LBMM) process is an advanced machining process that can overcome the limitations of traditional laser beam machining processes. This research involves the use of a Molecular Dynamics (MD) simulation technique to investigate the complex and dynamic mechanisms involved
[...] Read more.
Liquid Assisted Laser Beam Micromachining (LA-LBMM) process is an advanced machining process that can overcome the limitations of traditional laser beam machining processes. This research involves the use of a Molecular Dynamics (MD) simulation technique to investigate the complex and dynamic mechanisms involved in the LA-LBMM process both in static and dynamic mode. The results of the MD simulation are compared with those of Laser Beam Micromachining (LBMM) performed in air. The study revealed that machining during LA-LBMM process showed higher removal compared with LBMM process. The LA-LBMM process in dynamic mode showed lesser material removal compared with the static mode as the flowing water carrying the heat away from the machining zone. Investigation of the material removal mechanism revealed the presence of a thermal blanket and a bubble formation in the LA-LBMM process, aiding in higher material removal. The findings of this study provide further insights to strengthen the knowledge base of laser beam micromachining technology. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Findings and Approaches in Machining Processes)
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Open AccessArticle Towards Sustainable Machining of Inconel 718 Using Nano-Fluid Minimum Quantity Lubrication
J. Manuf. Mater. Process. 2018, 2(3), 50; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmmp2030050
Received: 9 July 2018 / Revised: 24 July 2018 / Accepted: 30 July 2018 / Published: 2 August 2018
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Abstract
Difficult-to-cut materials have been widely employed in many engineering applications, including automotive and aeronautical designs because of their effective properties. However, other characteristics; for example, high hardness and low thermal conductivity has negatively affected the induced surface quality and tool life, and consequently
[...] Read more.
Difficult-to-cut materials have been widely employed in many engineering applications, including automotive and aeronautical designs because of their effective properties. However, other characteristics; for example, high hardness and low thermal conductivity has negatively affected the induced surface quality and tool life, and consequently the overall machinability of such materials. Inconel 718, is widely used in many industries including aerospace; however, the high temperature generated during machining is negatively affecting its machinability. Flood cooling is a commonly used remedy to improve machinability problems; however, government regulation has called for further alternatives to reduce the environmental and health impacts of flood cooling. This work aimed to investigate the influence of dispersed multi-wall carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) and aluminum oxide (Al2O3) gamma nanoparticles, on enhancing the minimum quantity lubrication (MQL) technique cooling and lubrication capabilities during turning of Inconel 718. Machining tests were conducted, the generated surfaces were examined, and the energy consumption data were recorded. The study was conducted under different design variables including cutting speed, percentage of added nano-additives (wt.%), and feed velocity. The study revealed that the nano-fluids usage, generally improved the machining performance when cutting Inconel 718. In addition, it was shown that the nanotubes additives provided better improvements than Al2O3 nanoparticles. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Smart Manufacturing Processes in the Context of Industry 4.0)
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Open AccessArticle Numerical and Experimental Analysis of the Gear Size Influence on Density Variations and Distortions during the Manufacturing of PM Gears with an Innovative Powder Processing Route Incorporating HIP
J. Manuf. Mater. Process. 2018, 2(3), 49; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmmp2030049
Received: 3 July 2018 / Revised: 15 July 2018 / Accepted: 19 July 2018 / Published: 23 July 2018
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The paper is the result of research intended to develop a process route for the manufacturing of powder metallurgical (PM) gears for application in transmissions units for heavy duty powertrain applications. The main problem of PM for such applications is that the generated
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The paper is the result of research intended to develop a process route for the manufacturing of powder metallurgical (PM) gears for application in transmissions units for heavy duty powertrain applications. The main problem of PM for such applications is that the generated pores that occur through conventional pressing and sintering processes reduce the gear strength, which reduces the capacity for power transmission by the gear. In prior work, removing the pores and reaching 100% density by adding Hot Iso-static Pressing (HIP) after two times pressing and two times sintering steps in the process route was suggested to solve the mentioned problem. During the investigations of this work it was revealed that the gear dimensions could influence the process results with respect to geometrical distortions. In this paper we have presented a finite element (FE) model based analysis on how the gear geometrical parameters influenced the distortions occurring in HIP. The simulation model is validated with experiments. Furthermore, the simulation model is used to create a prediction model for further investigations. The research showed that PM gears with different sizes during the proposed process route behaved differently in terms of distortions. This was illustrated with a series of simulations with different gear geometries. A regression model was developed based on the FE results for further practical predictive use. The distortions caused by HIP should be considered in the process design to prevent expensive post processes afterwards to reach the gear with accurate geometry and keep the costs of manufacturing low. It is concluded that it is possible to use the innovative process route including HIP to reach the full density and close all the open pores but not for all kind of gear geometries. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Effects of Deformation Conditions on the Rolling Force during Variable Gauge Rolling
J. Manuf. Mater. Process. 2018, 2(3), 48; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmmp2030048
Received: 8 June 2018 / Revised: 12 July 2018 / Accepted: 17 July 2018 / Published: 19 July 2018
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In this study, effects of different deformation conditions on the rolling force were studied during variable gauge rolling processes. To this end, variations of rolling forces with rolling times were analyzed at different roll diameters, absolute thickness reductions and friction coefficients. Considering the
[...] Read more.
In this study, effects of different deformation conditions on the rolling force were studied during variable gauge rolling processes. To this end, variations of rolling forces with rolling times were analyzed at different roll diameters, absolute thickness reductions and friction coefficients. Considering the rolling force variations, an abrupt change in the outlet section of downward and outward rolling was observed at all deformation conditions. The experimental data, along with the results obtained from finite element method (FEM) simulations, revealed that this drop in the rolling force (DRF) is strongly dependent on the deformation conditions. It was found that the DRF value increases with increasing absolute thickness reduction, roll diameter and friction coefficient. Furthermore, dependency of contact length on the roll radius and wedge angle (slope of the thickness transition zone) was investigated. Accordingly, it was concluded that the variations of the DRF value can be mainly attributed to the changes in the contact length during variable gauge rolling. Moreover, slab method analysis was used to model the effects of deformation conditions on DRF. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Analysis and Modeling of Sheet Metal Forming Processes)
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Open AccessArticle Parametric Thermal FE Analysis on the Laser Power Input and Powder Effective Thermal Conductivity during Selective Laser Melting of SS304L
J. Manuf. Mater. Process. 2018, 2(3), 47; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmmp2030047
Received: 30 May 2018 / Revised: 6 July 2018 / Accepted: 12 July 2018 / Published: 14 July 2018
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A low-cost parametric finite element thermal model is proposed to study the impact of the initial powder condition, such as diameter and packing density, on effective thermal conductivity as well as the impact of the laser power input on the final temperature distributions
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A low-cost parametric finite element thermal model is proposed to study the impact of the initial powder condition, such as diameter and packing density, on effective thermal conductivity as well as the impact of the laser power input on the final temperature distributions during selective laser melting (SLM). Stainless steel 304L is the material used, since it is not yet commercially available in SLM equipment and our main goal was to show the capabilities of the finite element method in the evaluation of power input in the process. The results from our sensitivity analysis showed that packing density has a greater impact on the final temperature distributions compared with powder diameter variance. However, overall the thermal conductivity of the powder only showed significant effects below the melting point, otherwise the thermal conductivity no longer affected the temperature distributions. Among the three different power inputs analyzed, the temperature profile demonstrated that power inputs of 100 and 200 W are recommended when printing SS-304L rather than 400 W, which generates too high temperature in the powder bed, a non-favorable behavior that can induce high residual stresses and material evaporation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Additive Manufacturing)
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Open AccessArticle Process Forces Analysis and a New Feed Control Strategy for Drilling of Unidirectional Carbon Fiber Reinforced Plastics (UD-CFRP)
J. Manuf. Mater. Process. 2018, 2(3), 46; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmmp2030046
Received: 17 May 2018 / Revised: 10 July 2018 / Accepted: 11 July 2018 / Published: 13 July 2018
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Abstract
Reliable machining of carbon fiber-reinforced plastics (CFRP) is the key for application of these lightweight materials. Due to its anisotropy, CFRP is a very difficult material to machine because of occurring delamination and fiber-pullouts. The tool design is especially crucial to minimize and
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Reliable machining of carbon fiber-reinforced plastics (CFRP) is the key for application of these lightweight materials. Due to its anisotropy, CFRP is a very difficult material to machine because of occurring delamination and fiber-pullouts. The tool design is especially crucial to minimize and to avoid these processing errors. In this paper a process analysis for drilling is shown for better understanding of the chip formation. Drilling of unidirectional CFRP enables the investigation of the effect of fiber orientation on the chip formation process. In theory, the amount of cut fibers and the cutting angle to the main cutting edge determine the cutting force. Experimental tests with varied macroscopic drill geometries verify this theory. Based on these detected relationships, the tool loads can be calculated for a successful tool design. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Findings and Approaches in Machining Processes)
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Open AccessArticle Laser Irradiation Effects in Simulated Laser-Assisted Machining of Type 316L SS
J. Manuf. Mater. Process. 2018, 2(3), 45; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmmp2030045
Received: 26 June 2018 / Revised: 9 July 2018 / Accepted: 11 July 2018 / Published: 12 July 2018
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Abstract
Laser surface heating allows for the thermal treating of clearly defined surface areas thanks to the ability to focus the laser beam to a specific point. Thus, the rapid heating and subsequent rapid cooling when the beam is moved away, typically associated with
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Laser surface heating allows for the thermal treating of clearly defined surface areas thanks to the ability to focus the laser beam to a specific point. Thus, the rapid heating and subsequent rapid cooling when the beam is moved away, typically associated with laser light, is used as an in-machine process to improve the machinability of hard- or difficult-to-machine alloys. In laser-assisted machining (LAM), laser irradiation occurs simultaneously with materials removal; however, it is difficult to ensure a complete removal of the irradiated areas. In the present work, the two processes were decoupled to investigate the interaction effects of laser radiation type 316L. The surface residual stress, hardness, and microstructure of milled flat specimens were measured prior to and after diode-generated laser beam irradiation. Laser exposure of samples was conducted under protective gas shielding (Argon) using heating parameter combinations that would limit or avoid laser surface melting. Conversely, when the surface underwent melting, the formation of a fast solidification layer resulted in the removal of the cold-worked effect and the significant softening of the surface layers. Beam power density in-homogeneities and incomplete machining of the treated areas in LAM have the potential to introduce significant undesired changes on components’ surface integrity. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Hard Machining of Spur Gears with the InvoMillingTM Method
J. Manuf. Mater. Process. 2018, 2(3), 44; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmmp2030044
Received: 4 June 2018 / Revised: 26 June 2018 / Accepted: 6 July 2018 / Published: 11 July 2018
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Abstract
Recently, the 5-axis machining of gears has become increasingly important. This technology enables a flexible production of diverse gear types on a single universal machine with standard tools. In addition to the economic aspects, the focus is on the high quality standards that
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Recently, the 5-axis machining of gears has become increasingly important. This technology enables a flexible production of diverse gear types on a single universal machine with standard tools. In addition to the economic aspects, the focus is on the high quality standards that has to be achieved. This paper deals with hard machining for the finishing of spur gears with the 5-axis InvoMilling™ method developed by Sandvik Coromant. A comparison of the hard and soft machining of a module 5 gear is made. The achievable gear qualities in the profile and flank direction, the achievable surface roughness in the profile direction, the torque applied to the milling spindle during the machining process and the wear of different types of inserts are compared and evaluated. In addition, the hard machining with different insert materials/coatings is carried out. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Assessment of Cutting Performance of Cemented Tungsten Carbide Drills in Drilling Multidirectional T700 CFRP Plate
J. Manuf. Mater. Process. 2018, 2(3), 43; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmmp2030043
Received: 21 May 2018 / Revised: 3 July 2018 / Accepted: 4 July 2018 / Published: 9 July 2018
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Abstract
The drilling of carbon fiber reinforced polymer (CFRP) plate is very critical in its structural applications in aeronautical, aerospace, and automobile industries. For ensuring the good quality of drilled holes in terms of least drilling damage and prolonged tool life, suitable selection of
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The drilling of carbon fiber reinforced polymer (CFRP) plate is very critical in its structural applications in aeronautical, aerospace, and automobile industries. For ensuring the good quality of drilled holes in terms of least drilling damage and prolonged tool life, suitable selection of drill geometry and material, and drilling parameters—such as cutting speed and feed rate—are imperative in the drilling of CFRP plate. This study aims to evaluate the cutting performance of conventional two-flute twist drills made of cemented tungsten carbide YG6X (WC-6 wt % Co) for the dry drilling of the multidirectional T700 CFRP plate. The effects of varying cutting speed and tool wear pattern on the drilling performance are analyzed. The drilling performance is assessed in terms of hole quality by the qualitative and quantitative analysis of drilling-induced delamination and hole diameter. Furthermore, the correlation between the tool wear progression and the drilled hole quality is established. Through this assessment, a suitable set of drilling parameters, i.e., cutting speed of 9000 rpm and feed rate of 400 mm/min, is proposed for producing the best quality holes for multidirectional T700 CFRP plate. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Findings and Approaches in Machining Processes)
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Open AccessArticle 3D Printing Cellulose Hydrogels Using LASER Induced Thermal Gelation
J. Manuf. Mater. Process. 2018, 2(3), 42; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmmp2030042
Received: 21 May 2018 / Revised: 25 June 2018 / Accepted: 29 June 2018 / Published: 2 July 2018
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Abstract
A 3D printer was developed for the 3D printing of cellulose hydrogels using open source software and simple 3D printer hardware. Using a temperature-based sol-gel transition of cellulose dissolved in aqueous solutions of sodium hydroxide (NaOH) and urea, a three-dimensional gel can be
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A 3D printer was developed for the 3D printing of cellulose hydrogels using open source software and simple 3D printer hardware. Using a temperature-based sol-gel transition of cellulose dissolved in aqueous solutions of sodium hydroxide (NaOH) and urea, a three-dimensional gel can be created by moving a focused laser beam across a bath of the cellulose solution and lowering the print stage after every layer. A line width of 100–150 µm and layer thickness of 25 µm of the printed part could be achieved. No delamination between printed layers occurred and no additional support material was needed to create free hanging structures due to suspending the printed part in printing liquid. By adding cellulose powder to the solution, the gelation temperature, the gel strength and stiffness can be manipulated while maintaining a high internal porosity of the gel. A laser power of 100 mW was found to produce the highest quality print with an accurate representation of the previously designed part. Lower power settings (80 mW) produced insufficient gelation and as a result reduced print accuracy while higher power settings (120 mW) caused the gel to burn. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Additive Manufacturing)
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Open AccessArticle Study on Electrolytic Magnetic Abrasive Finishing for Finishing Stainless Steel SUS304 Plane with a Special Compound Machining Tool
J. Manuf. Mater. Process. 2018, 2(3), 41; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmmp2030041
Received: 25 April 2018 / Revised: 17 June 2018 / Accepted: 19 June 2018 / Published: 26 June 2018
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Abstract
In order to improve the finishing efficiency of traditional plane magnetic abrasive finishing (MAF), we have previously proposed an effective plane MAF process combined with an electrolytic process and developed a special compound machining tool for the electrolytic magnetic abrasive finishing (EMAF). In
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In order to improve the finishing efficiency of traditional plane magnetic abrasive finishing (MAF), we have previously proposed an effective plane MAF process combined with an electrolytic process and developed a special compound machining tool for the electrolytic magnetic abrasive finishing (EMAF). In this research, the EMAF process is divided into two finishing steps. The first finishing step is the EMAF step, and a single MAF step constitutes the second finishing step. The machinability of SUS304 material can be improved through the formation of passive films from the electrolytic process in the EMAF step. Meanwhile, the passive films can be rapidly and easily removed by friction between the magnetic particles and the workpiece-generated mechanical machining force. Thus, the surface finishing efficiency can be greatly improved. Compared with a dedicated MAF machining tool or a dedicated electrolytic machining tool, this special compound machining tool can synchronously achieve MAF and electrolytic processes to make the processing more convenient. This study focuses on exploring mechanical finishing characteristics of the special compound machining tool through MAF experiments. Additionally, EMAF experiments are conducted under the optimal mechanical finishing conditions. The experimental results of the EMAF process show that the surface roughness Ra can be reduced to less than 30 nm at the 4-min EMAF step, and it can be further reduced to 20 nm at the 10-min MAF step. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Influence of Shot Peening on AlSi10Mg Parts Fabricated by Additive Manufacturing
J. Manuf. Mater. Process. 2018, 2(3), 40; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmmp2030040
Received: 29 May 2018 / Revised: 11 June 2018 / Accepted: 22 June 2018 / Published: 24 June 2018
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Abstract
The additive manufacturing (AM) of aluminum alloys promises to considerably enhance the performance of lightweight critical parts in various industrial applications. AlSi10Mg is one of the compatible Al alloys used in the selective laser melting of lightweight components. However, the surface defects obtained
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The additive manufacturing (AM) of aluminum alloys promises to considerably enhance the performance of lightweight critical parts in various industrial applications. AlSi10Mg is one of the compatible Al alloys used in the selective laser melting of lightweight components. However, the surface defects obtained from the as-built parts affect their mechanical properties, and thus represent an obstacle to using them as final products. This study aims to improve the surface characteristics of the as-built AlSi10Mg parts using shot peening (SP). To achieve this goal, different SP intensities were applied to various surface textures of the as-built samples. The SP results showed a significant improvement in the as-built surface topography and a higher value of effective depth using 22.9 A intensity and Gp165 glass beads. The area near the shot-peened surface showed a significant microstructure refinement to a specific depth due to the dynamic precipitation of nanoscale Si particles. Surface hardening was also detected and high compressive residual stresses were generated due to severe plastic deformation. The surface characteristics obtained after SP could result in a significant improvement in the mechanical properties and fatigue strength, and thus promise performance enhancement for critical parts in various industrial applications. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Additive Manufacturing)
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