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Proceedings, 2019, CIEEMAT 2019

The 5th Ibero-American Congress on Entrepreneurship, Energy, Environment and Technology - CIEEMAT 2019

Portalegre, Portugal | 11-13 September 2019

Volume Editors:
Paulo Brito, Polytechnic Institute of Portalegre, Portugal
Ronney Arismel Macncebo Boloy, Centro Federal de Educação Tecnológica Celso Suckow da Fonseca (CEFET/RJ), Brazil
Luis Pais, Universidade do Porto, Portugal
José Luis Calvo Rolle, University of A Coruña, Spain
Ramon Sanguino-Galvan, University of Extremadura, Spain
João Leitão, University of Lisbon, Portugal
Monica Martins, Theorem Conferences, UK

Number of Papers: 21
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Cover Story (view full-size image): The 5th Ibero-American Congress of Entrepreneurship, Energy, Environment and Technology – CIEEMAT is a forum for the discussion and creation of synergies between different students, professors, [...] Read more.
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5 pages, 331 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Virtual Visits as a Learning Tool for Historical Heritage in Two Specific Examples: Évora and Mérida
by Mario Corrales-Serrano, Jesús Sánchez-Martín, José Moreno-Losada and Francisco Zamora-Polo
Proceedings 2019, 38(1), 1; https://doi.org/10.3390/proceedings2019038001 - 25 Dec 2019
Viewed by 1101
Abstract
This paper presents an educational experience in the area of learning about Art History, in particular, about the Greco-Roman period, using an innovative resource that is available due to current technology: the virtual visit. This resource allows students to experience immersion in the [...] Read more.
This paper presents an educational experience in the area of learning about Art History, in particular, about the Greco-Roman period, using an innovative resource that is available due to current technology: the virtual visit. This resource allows students to experience immersion in the reconstruction of classic monuments that have deteriorated with time. The combination of current images with this type of virtual visit provides greater ease for understanding the monuments and their function in antiquity, and it is converted into an important motivating factor in the study of this artistic period. The experience has been carried out with 1st year ESO (compulsory secondary education) and 2nd year A-level students, focusing on close context heritage elements, such as the monuments of Mérida or Évora. The results obtained show an increase in the students’ interest in this artistic period due to their greater ability to understand the monuments they are studying. Full article
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5 pages, 447 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
GIS in the History Classroom: Displaying the Walls of Elvas and Badajoz through the Use of Google Earth
by Mario Corrales-Serrano, Jesús Sánchez-Martín, José Moreno-Losada and Francisco Zamora-Polo
Proceedings 2019, 38(1), 2; https://doi.org/10.3390/proceedings2019038002 - 25 Dec 2019
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1030
Abstract
The study of History in Secondary Education often develops in an excessively theoretical way, without the students having the chance to apply the acquired abilities practically. However, educational studies prove that all abilities are more adequately acquired when the teaching and learning process [...] Read more.
The study of History in Secondary Education often develops in an excessively theoretical way, without the students having the chance to apply the acquired abilities practically. However, educational studies prove that all abilities are more adequately acquired when the teaching and learning process combines theoretical and practical developments. The current research work combines interest for the historical heritage of cities as a useful element for the development of historical educational abilities with the use of technologies related to Geography, such as Geographic Information Systems (GIS), relating to a key heritage element: the wall. The main objective is to teach what a wall is and what its function is in a medieval city, as well as ins in current cities. A combination of methodologies has been carried out to achieve this objective, those are applied in a theoretical phase, a practical phase and a technological one. The learning outcomes are satisfactory, given that a greater amount of ability acquisition is detected related to a traditional theory class. Full article
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11 pages, 646 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Analysis and Energy Certification of an Andalusian Public Health Center. Comparative between the General Option and Simplified Procedures
by Montiel-Santiago Francisco Javier, Hermoso-Orzáez Manuel Jesús, Terrados-Cepeda Julio and Brito Paulo
Proceedings 2019, 38(1), 3; https://doi.org/10.3390/proceedings2019038003 - 26 Dec 2019
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1606
Abstract
The requirements concerning the energy certification of buildings established in Directive 2002/91/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 16 December 2002, which was in turn modified by Directive 2010/31/EU of the European Parliament and of the Council, of 19 May [...] Read more.
The requirements concerning the energy certification of buildings established in Directive 2002/91/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 16 December 2002, which was in turn modified by Directive 2010/31/EU of the European Parliament and of the Council, of 19 May 2010, regarding the energy efficiency of buildings, were transposed into Spanish legislation through Royal Decree 47/2007, dated January 19, through which a Basic Procedure for certification was approved of energy efficiency of new buildings, which was consolidated by Royal Decree 235/2013, of April 5, which approves the basic procedure for the certification of the energy efficiency of buildings. In said Royal Decree, it is established that existing buildings or units of buildings occupied by a public authority, must obtain an energy efficiency certificate and will have the obligation to display their energy efficiency label, when their total useful area exceeds 250 m2, and are usually frequented by the public. The Basic Procedure is established that must comply with the methodology for calculating the energy efficiency rating, considering those factors that have the greatest impact on their energy consumption, as well as the technical and administrative conditions for the energy efficiency certifications of the buildings. For this purpose, three software programs were promoted from the competent Ministry, one corresponding to the general option (LIDER-CALENER “HULC” unified tool) and two others corresponding to the simplified option (simplified procedures CE3 and CE3X), which allow the energy qualification to be carried out of buildings according to three types of buildings (residential, small and medium-sized tertiary, and large tertiary) that are increasing the requirements of the energy certification of the building depending on the type of the same. This study identifies the possible alternatives for improving energy efficiency over the initial qualification of the building, within a context of technical and economic feasibility, optimizing energy demand, reducing CO2 emissions and building energy consumption, being The study also compares the results obtained in the energy rating, between the general option and the simplified procedures, on an Andalusian health center in 1957, which corresponds to the typology of the Grand Tertiary building (GT). Full article
9 pages, 1085 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Characterization of Bioconcrete and the Properties for Self-Healing
by Lais Alves, Leniza Alves, Murilo Mello and Silvio de Barros
Proceedings 2019, 38(1), 4; https://doi.org/10.3390/proceedings2019038004 - 26 Dec 2019
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2281
Abstract
Concrete is the most widely used material in the world. It is a material with several advantages such as cost, ease of execution, adaptation to different shapes, satisfactory resistance to atmospheric effects, thermal and mechanical resistance, and extended life span. Therefore, the quest [...] Read more.
Concrete is the most widely used material in the world. It is a material with several advantages such as cost, ease of execution, adaptation to different shapes, satisfactory resistance to atmospheric effects, thermal and mechanical resistance, and extended life span. Therefore, the quest for its improvement is constant. Despite all these advantages, it presents a pathological manifestation intrinsic to the material itself-the appearance of cracks-which, depending on the cause, generates very high maintenance and conservation costs and can compromise the entire structure. Despite all preventive measures, it is not always possible to avoid the appearance of this pathology, which tends to intensify the constant search for greater use of its resistance. To remedy this problem, a Dutch microbiologist has developed a bio-based self-regenerating concrete that can not only reduce the need and, consequently, costs for maintenance of the concrete structure, but also increase its durability. Full article
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4 pages, 249 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Economic Evaluation of the Feasibility When Installing a Biogas Plant for Treatment of Slaughterhouse Wastewater
by I.C. Gato, R.M. Panizio, L.F.C. Calado and P.S.D. Brito
Proceedings 2019, 38(1), 5; https://doi.org/10.3390/proceedings2019038005 - 26 Dec 2019
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1116
Abstract
The process of anaerobic digestion generates biogas filled with CH4, this gas may be harnessed to produce electricity, heating and even used to produce biofuel. An evaluation of the economic viability of the implementation of a digestion unit was done, by [...] Read more.
The process of anaerobic digestion generates biogas filled with CH4, this gas may be harnessed to produce electricity, heating and even used to produce biofuel. An evaluation of the economic viability of the implementation of a digestion unit was done, by applying this principle at a slaughterhouse in Alto Alentejo. The project was scaled to process about 151.000 m3/year, it has an estimated cost of over 337.000 euros. The evaluation was made with an investment from the company itself, investment programs and with recycling of the heat, obtaining a return on investment period of 10, 6 and 2 years respectively. Full article
7 pages, 222 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Indicators of Quality in the Logistics Sector of Organic Products
by Lais Alves, Felipe Velihovetchi, Elaine Vazquez and Alexandre Ali
Proceedings 2019, 38(1), 6; https://doi.org/10.3390/proceedings2019038006 - 26 Dec 2019
Viewed by 914
Abstract
In recent years, the increasing supply of food products has generated a higher level of demand among consumers. In consideration of the immense variety of brands, types and prices, quality has ceased to be a competitive differential, becoming a necessity for those who [...] Read more.
In recent years, the increasing supply of food products has generated a higher level of demand among consumers. In consideration of the immense variety of brands, types and prices, quality has ceased to be a competitive differential, becoming a necessity for those who want to stay in the market. Thus, the search for quality has become a goal for everyone within the companies. This project aims to demonstrate the importance of quality in the food industries and the processes adopted to help small businesses to maintain advantages, keeping accessible prices. The methodology described, includes the generation of standardized documents and the analysis of the results brought by adopting quality management. As a result, the paper shows a reduction of 4.6 ton of CO2 launched at the atmosphere by adapting the logistic section of 13 small organic food businesses. Full article
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5 pages, 1078 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Study of Divergences between Modelling and Site Works Applied to Geosynthetics Road Uses
by Miguel Candel, Pablo Roldán-Oliden and Carmen Calvo-Jurado
Proceedings 2019, 38(1), 7; https://doi.org/10.3390/proceedings2019038007 - 26 Dec 2019
Viewed by 844
Abstract
Geosynthetics are commonly used in pavement reinforcement works. There are many references that show and quantify the benefits of their use, but not many of them discuss about their implementation on site. The aim of this paper is to identify the deviation between [...] Read more.
Geosynthetics are commonly used in pavement reinforcement works. There are many references that show and quantify the benefits of their use, but not many of them discuss about their implementation on site. The aim of this paper is to identify the deviation between the empirical statements and the reality, that can be observed in field works. For that purpose, the different stages of several reinforcement operations have been monitored. The results show common execution mistakes that could make differ the properties measured on field from those obtained in the laboratory or mathematical models. Full article
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5 pages, 312 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Reinforcement of Pavements with Geosynthetics Estimation of Effective Elastic Properties
by Carmen Calvo-Jurado, Pablo Roldán-Oliden and Miguel Candel
Proceedings 2019, 38(1), 8; https://doi.org/10.3390/proceedings2019038008 - 27 Dec 2019
Viewed by 833
Abstract
Composite materials are design to be able to achieve properties that would be unreachable if materials were used separately. A clear example of this, in civil engineering, is reinforced concrete. It is also important in this sense and into this field of work [...] Read more.
Composite materials are design to be able to achieve properties that would be unreachable if materials were used separately. A clear example of this, in civil engineering, is reinforced concrete. It is also important in this sense and into this field of work the material it is analyzed in this article, reinforced pavement of roads. The aim of this paper is to estimate the elastic properties of these materials. To reach that goal homogenization theory and related techniques would be used. The results obtained within this work shows significant structural benefits when including in the pavement these types of materials. Full article
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6 pages, 372 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Co-Gasification of Sewage Sludge Mixed with Waste Wood in Different Proportions
by Octávio Alves, Luís Calado, Roberta M. Panizio, Santa M. Santos, Maria M. Gonçalves, Eliseu Monteiro and Paulo Brito
Proceedings 2019, 38(1), 9; https://doi.org/10.3390/proceedings2019038009 - 27 Dec 2019
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1125
Abstract
co-gasification experiments with mixtures in various proportions of waste wood (WW) and sewage sludge (SS) were performed in a downdraft gasifier, in order to evaluate process performance and properties of gas and chars. Addition of SS improved the energy conversion efficiency and product [...] Read more.
co-gasification experiments with mixtures in various proportions of waste wood (WW) and sewage sludge (SS) were performed in a downdraft gasifier, in order to evaluate process performance and properties of gas and chars. Addition of SS improved the energy conversion efficiency and product gas yield, and minimised the formation of tars. Char production was greater, with formation of agglomerations inside the reactor. The optimal waste mixture contained 87.5 wt.% WW and 12.5 wt.% SS, generating a product gas yield of 2.9 m3/kg waste with a calorific value of 4.8 MJ/m3, and a tar production of 4.7 g/kg waste. Full article
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4 pages, 356 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Electric Power Systems from Solar Panels in Mexico
by Alicia Cid, Pedro Díaz and Jaime Granados
Proceedings 2019, 38(1), 10; https://doi.org/10.3390/proceedings2019038010 - 30 Dec 2019
Viewed by 1056
Abstract
A detailed analysis of the electrical consumption of a residential house in the state of Mexico was carried out, where the comparison between the diagnosed consumption and the consumption given by the Federal Electricity Commission (CFE) in charge of the regulation of electricity, [...] Read more.
A detailed analysis of the electrical consumption of a residential house in the state of Mexico was carried out, where the comparison between the diagnosed consumption and the consumption given by the Federal Electricity Commission (CFE) in charge of the regulation of electricity, in the same way, the analysis of the electricity consumption is carried out by means of solar collectors, making comparative graphics of the price and the diagnosis, looking for a benefit with respect to the electricity consumption by means of renewable energies. Full article
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7 pages, 649 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Impacts of Extreme Climatic Events on the Agricultural and Forestry Systems—Project Impecaf
by Sofia Râmoa, Célia M. Gouveia, Inês Vieira, Patricia Páscoa, Catarina Alonso, Pedro Oliveira e Silva and Ana Russo
Proceedings 2019, 38(1), 11; https://doi.org/10.3390/proceedings2019038011 - 31 Dec 2019
Viewed by 990
Abstract
The IMPECAF is a research project that started at the end of 2018 and aims to deepen the knowledge on weather extremes, particularly droughts and heat waves, which affect agricultural and forest ecosystems of the Iberian Peninsula. Despite these events presenting different temporal [...] Read more.
The IMPECAF is a research project that started at the end of 2018 and aims to deepen the knowledge on weather extremes, particularly droughts and heat waves, which affect agricultural and forest ecosystems of the Iberian Peninsula. Despite these events presenting different temporal scales, their simultaneous occurrence can intensify the observed impacts. In addition, these impacts may extend over large areas affecting different ecosystems. This project aims at transferring knowledge on fundamental research in meteorology for the agricultural and forestry sectors, and it is expected that the results may be an input in the decision-making process of farmers. To achieve this aim, appropriate measures will be developed to mitigate the impact of these extreme weather events in the forestry and agricultural sectors. This will be followed by an approach that ensures the involvement of stakeholders since the beginning of the project and even after its conclusion. Full article
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9 pages, 324 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Validation of a Sustainable Model for the Mining-Metallurgical Industry in Mexico
by Rosa Martínez, Mariusz Bednarek and Urszula Zulawska
Proceedings 2019, 38(1), 12; https://doi.org/10.3390/proceedings2019038012 - 6 Jan 2020
Viewed by 1018
Abstract
Mexico is identified in the world as a nation that produces a large amount of minerals that
contribute to economic mobility. However, as a consequence of the mining activity, negative
assumptions have been generated regarding the impact caused to the environment, since by [...] Read more.
Mexico is identified in the world as a nation that produces a large amount of minerals that
contribute to economic mobility. However, as a consequence of the mining activity, negative
assumptions have been generated regarding the impact caused to the environment, since by nature,
this industry tends to be aggressive in its processes. Therefore, it is considered a research study that
offers a proposal for a sustainable model that is based on elements such as: literary foundations,
sustainable universal principles and legislative parameters; and that, in addition, is supported by
the best environmental practices, which lead to minimization or eradication of impacts or risks of
environmental impact. The objective of this document is to describe the validation of the sustainable
model for the mining-metallurgical industry in Mexico, through the design of qualitative research
that is based on the integrated multiple case study method. Its scope is limited to the presentation
of validation and other preliminary results, considering in future publications to provide specific
results of the case studies and the implementation of the model. Full article
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5 pages, 743 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Adaptive Comfort Criteria in Transitional Spaces. A Proposal for Outdoor Comfort
by Eduardo Diz-Mellado, Carmen Galán-Marín and Carlos Rivera-Gómez
Proceedings 2019, 38(1), 13; https://doi.org/10.3390/proceedings2019038013 - 9 Jan 2020
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1178
Abstract
Urban Heat Island (UHI) as a combined consequence of global warming and the cities diameter increase, continues to be technological challenges today. Different passive strategies related to the buildings and cities architecture design imply energy demand reduction achieving. Architectural elements such as courtyards [...] Read more.
Urban Heat Island (UHI) as a combined consequence of global warming and the cities diameter increase, continues to be technological challenges today. Different passive strategies related to the buildings and cities architecture design imply energy demand reduction achieving. Architectural elements such as courtyards become extraordinarily significant as passive cooling systems. The research aims to establish patterns and values of adaptive comfort in transition spaces, reflected in the thermal regulation capacity of these buildings thanks to the morphology of the courtyards, contributing also to possible state strategies for action in favor of reducing the effects of climate change. Full article
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4 pages, 208 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Quality of Organic Compost for Vegetable Planting
by Ana Segatelli, Andressa Pimenta, Giovanni Peixoto, Marcos Silva and Tatiane Dal Bosco
Proceedings 2019, 38(1), 14; https://doi.org/10.3390/proceedings2019038014 - 10 Jan 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1138
Abstract
Composting is a technique used to obtain a nutrient-rich, plant-like organic compost. Considering that there are few studies that shows the efficiency of these composts in the cultivation of vegetables, the objective of this study was to evaluate, in the cultivation of lettuce, [...] Read more.
Composting is a technique used to obtain a nutrient-rich, plant-like organic compost. Considering that there are few studies that shows the efficiency of these composts in the cultivation of vegetables, the objective of this study was to evaluate, in the cultivation of lettuce, the quality of the final compost obtained from tree pruning, dairy sludge and coffee grounds—compost 1; grass, dairy sludge and coffee grounds—compost 2; grass, dairy sludge, coffee grounds and boiler ash—compost 3. Lettuce (Lactuca Sativa L.) were planted for the study with the three composts and a control object-without compost, and a portion with NPK fertilizer. The evaluated parameters were plant growth, head diameter, leaf number, dry mass and fresh mass. The results shows statistical similarities between the organic fertilizers and NPK fertilizer in the evaluated parameters and the control plot presented inferior results to the other plots, emphasizing the need for fertilization at each planting. Full article
5 pages, 375 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Characterization Techniques of a Shape Memory Nickel Titanium Alloy
by Carlos Andrade, Filipe Soares, Glauco Nobrega, Jean Hilário and Luiz A. Santos
Proceedings 2019, 38(1), 15; https://doi.org/10.3390/proceedings2019038015 - 11 Jan 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1421
Abstract
This paper presents a characterization processes study of metallic alloys, more specifically the shape memory alloys (SMA) composed by Nickel and Titanium (NiTinol). Two different wire suppliers were studied, starting with metallographic analysis until observe the contours of the grain wires. Differential scanning [...] Read more.
This paper presents a characterization processes study of metallic alloys, more specifically the shape memory alloys (SMA) composed by Nickel and Titanium (NiTinol). Two different wire suppliers were studied, starting with metallographic analysis until observe the contours of the grain wires. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) test was also performed to obtain phase transformation temperatures of the NiTinol alloys. Finally, after several tensile tests, some results were obtained for stresses, strains, elasticity modules and maximum rupture deformation. Full article
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9 pages, 384 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Reduction of Total Phenols, Total Phosphorus and Turbidity by Uncatalytic Oxidation Processes in Cheese Whey Wastewater
by Ana R. Prazeres, Silvana Luz, Flávia Fernandes and Eliana Jerónimo
Proceedings 2019, 38(1), 16; https://doi.org/10.3390/proceedings2019038016 - 16 Jan 2020
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1210
Abstract
This study reports the first time that cheese whey wastewater has been treated by the hydrogen peroxide oxidation alone (uncatalytic reaction). This oxidation type was capable of eliminating the total phosphorus content in about 46–53%, regardless of the dose applied (1–7 g L [...] Read more.
This study reports the first time that cheese whey wastewater has been treated by the hydrogen peroxide oxidation alone (uncatalytic reaction). This oxidation type was capable of eliminating the total phosphorus content in about 46–53%, regardless of the dose applied (1–7 g L1). For total phenols contents, the oxidation system was capable of reducing around 40% under the lowest concentration investigated (1 g L1). Similar results were obtained for calcium content with a reduction of 55%. Turbidity was reduced in about 90% when hydrogen peroxide was applied with concentrations of 2, 3 and 7 g L1. Characteristic absorbances were reduced in the range of 12–83% depending on the operating conditions. Chemical oxygen demand (COD) was recalcitrant to hydrogen peroxide oxidation alone (uncatalytic reaction), needing a post-treatment. Full article
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5 pages, 1287 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Thermodynamic Performance Enhancement of Courtyards Using a Shading Device
by Victoria Patricia Lopez-Cabeza, Carmen Galán-Marín and Carlos Rivera-Gómezs
Proceedings 2019, 38(1), 17; https://doi.org/10.3390/proceedings2019038017 - 17 Jan 2020
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1007
Abstract
The design of more sustainable buildings is one of the main concerns of our society given the necessity to reduce energy consumption to reduce climate change. Incorporate passive strategies in buildings should be the first step because of its zero energy consumption. One [...] Read more.
The design of more sustainable buildings is one of the main concerns of our society given the necessity to reduce energy consumption to reduce climate change. Incorporate passive strategies in buildings should be the first step because of its zero energy consumption. One of the most used passive strategies in the Mediterranean Climate is the use of inner courtyards as a tempering element of buildings. The performance of these courtyards has been traditionally improved by installing shading devices such as canvas. The aim of this study is to quantify the effect of the shading element installed in two courtyards with different geometries in the south of Spain by monitoring the temperature in the courtyards and the outdoor during warm and extremely hot days. Full article
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5 pages, 717 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Atrium Impact on a School-Building: Thermal Performance in a Hot Climate
by José Antonio Romero-Odero, Carmen Galán-Marín and Carlos Rivera-Gómez
Proceedings 2019, 38(1), 18; https://doi.org/10.3390/proceedings2019038018 - 17 Jan 2020
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1027
Abstract
The process of climate change has increased the planet’s mean temperature. An example of this are the 44.3 °C registered in July in the cities of Córdoba and Seville (Spain). In this scenario, the educational centers in Andalusia, mostly built during the 20th [...] Read more.
The process of climate change has increased the planet’s mean temperature. An example of this are the 44.3 °C registered in July in the cities of Córdoba and Seville (Spain). In this scenario, the educational centers in Andalusia, mostly built during the 20th century, are unable to reach the thermal comfort inside the classrooms throughout the year, without resorting to mechanical air conditioning procedures. This study simultaneously monitors indoors, outdoors and transitional spaces of a case study to verify the effectiveness of the passive cooling systems and the Atrium thermal effect of the building. Our results demonstrate that temperatures inside classrooms are influenced by the orientation and their air circulation (atrium or outdoor) and as expected, the higher temperature in the building are registered in the classrooms in the last floor. Full article
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6 pages, 583 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Impact of the Holistic Innovation Methodology on the Creativity Competencies of Student Mentors of the “Impulsa Peru” Recycling Program
by Isaac Zuñiga Aguilar
Proceedings 2019, 38(1), 19; https://doi.org/10.3390/proceedings2019038019 - 20 Jan 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2018
Abstract
This paper shows the alternative learning methodology to stimulate the holistic side of students’ minds to achieve the increment of the innovation skill, managing the creative competencies and level of stress. The present research study is a pre-experimental research designed with prior and [...] Read more.
This paper shows the alternative learning methodology to stimulate the holistic side of students’ minds to achieve the increment of the innovation skill, managing the creative competencies and level of stress. The present research study is a pre-experimental research designed with prior and posterior measurement, longitudinal, explanatory and co-relational, with the main objective to demonstrate the effect of the holistic innovation coefficient of the beneficiaries of the program “Impulsa Peru”. Program Results: It has been concluded that there is a significance of the experimental group over the control group. Therefore, the holistic innovation methodology had an impact on the experimental group. Conclusions: Hypothesis 1 is fulfilled in which it is affirmed that the holistic innovation methodology has a positive impact on the level of coefficient of holistic innovation of the student mentors of the women recyclers of the program Impulsa Peru with a significance level of 0.05%. Full article
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30 pages, 4800 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Measurement of Environmental Efficiency in the Countries of the European Union with the Enhanced Data Envelopment Analysis Method (DEA) during the Period 2005–2012
by Manuel Jesús Hermoso-Orzáez, Miriam García-Alguacil, Julio Terrados-Cepeda and Paulo Brito
Proceedings 2019, 38(1), 20; https://doi.org/10.3390/proceedings2019038020 - 18 Jun 2020
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1066
Abstract
In recent years there has been growing interest in measuring the environmental efficiency of the different territories, countries and/or nations. This has led to the development of different methods applied to the evaluation of environmental efficiency such as the Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) [...] Read more.
In recent years there has been growing interest in measuring the environmental efficiency of the different territories, countries and/or nations. This has led to the development of different methods applied to the evaluation of environmental efficiency such as the Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) method. This method, supported by different studies, allows measuring relative environmental efficiency and is consolidated as a very reliable method to measure the effectiveness of environmental policies in a specific geographical area. The objective of our study is the calculation of the environmental efficiency of the 28 member countries of the European Union (EU) through the DEA method. We will collect the data regarding the last years in which there are reliable comparative data in all. We will study in reference to them, the results of the environmental policies applied in the different countries, in order to make comparisons between countries and classify them according to their environmental efficiency. Using this, two variants of calculation within the DEA method to compare in a contrasted way the results of environmental efficiency for the 28 countries of the European Union (EU) analyzed and propose possible solutions for improvement. Contributing in this work as main novelty the application of a new variant of the DEA Method, which we will call Improved Analysis Method (MAN) and that aims to agglutinate and assess more objectively, the results of the two DEA methods applied. The results show that there are 14 of the 28 countries that have a high relative environmental efficiency. However, we also find countries with very low environmental efficiency that should improve in the coming years. Coinciding precisely in this last group with countries recently admitted to the EU and where environmental policies have not yet been applied effectively and with positive results. Full article
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9 pages, 433 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Numerical Simulation of Volatile Organic Compounds during Condensation in a Vertical Tube
by Youness El Hammami, Kaoutar Zine-Dine, Rachid Mir, Touria Midiouni and Mustapha Ait Hssain
Proceedings 2019, 38(1), 21; https://doi.org/10.3390/proceedings2019038021 - 26 Dec 2020
Viewed by 992
Abstract
The purpose of this study is to analyze the combined heat and mass transfer through condensation of volatile organic compounds (VOCs), particularly alcohol (n-butanol-propanol) in the presence of non-condensable gas inside a vertical tube. An implicit finite difference method is employed to solve [...] Read more.
The purpose of this study is to analyze the combined heat and mass transfer through condensation of volatile organic compounds (VOCs), particularly alcohol (n-butanol-propanol) in the presence of non-condensable gas inside a vertical tube. An implicit finite difference method is employed to solve the coupled governing equations for liquid film and gas flow together with the interfacial matching conditions. The numerical results indicate that the Transfers are more intense at the entrance of the tube for the ternary mixture and promote heat and mass exchanges. Full article
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