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Proceedings, 2019, IECG 2019

The 2nd International Electronic Conference on Geosciences

Online | 8–15 June 2019

Volume Editor: Prof. Dr. Jesús Martínez Frías


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Cover Story (view full-size image) This volume of Proceedings gathers the papers presented at the 2nd International Electronic [...] Read more.
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Open AccessProceedings
Bayesian Analysis of the Magnitude of Earthquakes Located in a Seismic Region of Italy
Proceedings 2019, 24(1), 1; https://doi.org/10.3390/IECG2019-06214 - 05 Jun 2019
Viewed by 145
Abstract
Bayesian statistical procedures are well known for estimating the probability distribution of the occurrence of an event. In this study, we applied the Bayesian statistical method to estimate the distribution of magnitudes of earthquakes that occurred in central Italy in two different time [...] Read more.
Bayesian statistical procedures are well known for estimating the probability distribution of the occurrence of an event. In this study, we applied the Bayesian statistical method to estimate the distribution of magnitudes of earthquakes that occurred in central Italy in two different time periods. Using the Monte Carlo sampling method, we recovered the real magnitude distribution using just a small amount of available data, randomly selected by the seismic catalogue. Full article
Open AccessProceedings
Conformation of an Astrobiology Interdisciplinary Research Group: The “Team Killalab” Case Study
Proceedings 2019, 24(1), 2; https://doi.org/10.3390/IECG2019-06197 - 04 Jun 2019
Viewed by 370
Abstract
The development of new technologies in recent years has highlighted interdisciplinarity as a tool to solve complex problems faced by scientists and engineers in research work. Worldwide, the area of space science, specifically astrobiology, has had more than 25 missions with high technological [...] Read more.
The development of new technologies in recent years has highlighted interdisciplinarity as a tool to solve complex problems faced by scientists and engineers in research work. Worldwide, the area of space science, specifically astrobiology, has had more than 25 missions with high technological development and economic returns. However, the success of interdisciplinary teams requires collaboration, responsibility, and leadership on the part of all members to prioritize the main objectives of the research. Likewise, the formation of interdisciplinary teams can be affected because there is little information about the strategies and tools that recognize the opportunity for constant interaction between subjects from engineering and science. Using a known methodology based on other recent proposals, we include a description of the conformation and behavior of a research team and an analysis of interdisciplinarity through the interrelation and level of dependence of the existing subject categories in the “Killalab” team. In this research, we present the ensemble interdisciplinary group “Killalab” and its implications for the realization of astrobiological investigations. Full article
Open AccessProceedings
PSInSAR Processing for Volcanic Ground Deformation Monitoring Over Fogo Island
Proceedings 2019, 24(1), 3; https://doi.org/10.3390/IECG2019-06217 - 05 Jun 2019
Viewed by 227
Abstract
Persistent Scatterer Interferometry Synthetic Aperture Radar (PSInSAR) has been widely used in the precise measurement of ground deformation due to anthropogenic and natural disturbance of the earth’s surface. The present study has utilized the spaceborne C-band Sentinel-1 data for PSInSAR processing to generate [...] Read more.
Persistent Scatterer Interferometry Synthetic Aperture Radar (PSInSAR) has been widely used in the precise measurement of ground deformation due to anthropogenic and natural disturbance of the earth’s surface. The present study has utilized the spaceborne C-band Sentinel-1 data for PSInSAR processing to generate a displacement map due to the volcanic eruption of Pico do Fogo volcano of the Fogo Island. An eruption was recorded in the year 2014–2015 and the Fogo volcano became active on 23 November 2014. It was observed that the intensity of the volcanic eruption during 2014–2015 had approached the intensity of the volcanic eruption of 1951, which was recorded as one of the strongest eruptions on the island. The volcanic eruption continued for 77 days and it stopped on 8 February 2015. To find the mean line-of-sight displacement from PSInSAR processing, a total of seven Single Look Complex (SLC) products of Sentinel-1 data in the interferometric mode were used. The SLC product of the SAR data that was acquired before the start of the volcanic eruption was chosen as the master image and all the remaining six slave images were precisely coregistered. The selection of Persistent Scatterers (PSs) is the most important step in PSInSAR processing. The initial set of PSs was identified by amplitude stability index and phase analysis was performed to estimate the phase stability of each resolution cell. After PS identification, 3D phase unwrapping was performed. The unwrapping step involved the low-pass filtering of the complex phase difference and time series in the frequency domain using a Gaussian window. The phase difference between each filtered data point was then calculated. The unwrapped phase of the interferogram was used to generate a displacement map for the volcanic field. The PSInSAR-based line-of-sight displacement was measured in the range of −34 mm to +35 mm and the standard deviation of the displacement ranged from +2 mm to +30 mm. Full article
Open AccessProceedings
Rice Monitoring Using Sentinel-1 Data in the Google Earth Engine Platform
Proceedings 2019, 24(1), 4; https://doi.org/10.3390/IECG2019-06206 - 05 Jun 2019
Viewed by 261
Abstract
Rice is the most essential and nutritional staple food crop worldwide. There is a need for accurate and timely rice mapping and monitoring, which is a pre-requisite for crop management and food security. Recent studies have utilized Sentinel-1 data for mapping and monitoring [...] Read more.
Rice is the most essential and nutritional staple food crop worldwide. There is a need for accurate and timely rice mapping and monitoring, which is a pre-requisite for crop management and food security. Recent studies have utilized Sentinel-1 data for mapping and monitoring rice-growing areas. The present study was carried out in the Google Earth Engine (GEE), where the Sentinel-1data were used for monitoring the rice-growing area over Kulithalai taluk of Karur district, located along the Cauvery delta region. Normally, the production of rice in the study area starts in the late Samba Season where the long duration variety Cr1009 (130 days) is extensively grown. The results exhibit low backscattering values during the transplanting stage of VV and VH polarization (−15.19 db and −24 db), whereas maximum backscattering is experienced at the peak vegetation stage of VV and VH polarization (−7.42 and −16.9 db) and there is a decrease in the backscattering values after attaining the maturity stage. Amongst VH and VV polarization, VH polarization provides a consistently increasing trend in backscatter coefficients from the panicle initiation phase to the early milking phase, after which the crop attains its maturity phase, whereas in VV polarization, an early peak of backscatter coefficients is seen much earlier during the flowering phase itself. Thus, in this study, VV polarization gives better interpretation than VH polarization in the selected rice crop fields. The obtained results were cross-validated by collecting the ground truth values during the satellite data acquisition time, throughout the crop growing period from the selected rice fields. Full article
Open AccessProceedings
Approaches to the Study of Salt Weathering of Geological Materials
Proceedings 2019, 24(1), 5; https://doi.org/10.3390/IECG2019-06198 - 04 Jun 2019
Viewed by 139
Abstract
Salt weathering is the main erosive process affecting diverse geological materials in historical and contemporary structures and can also contribute to visual changes by surface crystallization. The main goal of the present paper is to assess publications concerning the study of salt weathering [...] Read more.
Salt weathering is the main erosive process affecting diverse geological materials in historical and contemporary structures and can also contribute to visual changes by surface crystallization. The main goal of the present paper is to assess publications concerning the study of salt weathering of natural stone considering the main approaches (laboratory tests and field observations). Our focus will be on rock types other than sedimentary carbonate rocks and sandstones (which are the most studied rocks both in laboratory and field studies). Granite and pyroclastic rocks are dominant in the studied set. Also deserves highlighting (for scientific reasons) the scarcity of studies regarding foliated rocks and marble. Full article
Open AccessProceedings
Comparison and Evaluation of Dimensionality Reduction Techniques for Hyperspectral Data Analysis
Proceedings 2019, 24(1), 6; https://doi.org/10.3390/IECG2019-06209 - 05 Jun 2019
Viewed by 171
Abstract
Hyperspectral datasets provide explicit ground covers with hundreds of bands. Filtering contiguous hyperspectral datasets potentially discriminates surface features. Therefore, in this study, a number of spectral bands are minimized without losing original information through a process known as dimensionality reduction (DR). Redundant bands [...] Read more.
Hyperspectral datasets provide explicit ground covers with hundreds of bands. Filtering contiguous hyperspectral datasets potentially discriminates surface features. Therefore, in this study, a number of spectral bands are minimized without losing original information through a process known as dimensionality reduction (DR). Redundant bands portray the fact that neighboring bands are highly correlated, sharing similar information. The benefits of utilizing dimensionality reduction include the ability to slacken the complexity of data during processing and transform original data to remove the correlation among bands. In this paper, two DR methods, principal component analysis (PCA) and minimum noise fraction (MNF), are applied to the Airborne Visible/Infrared Imaging Spectrometer-Next Generation (AVIRIS-NG) dataset of Kalaburagi for discussion. Full article
Open AccessAbstract
Source Parameter of Earthquakes in Talala, Gujarat (India): An Implication towards Seismotectonic
Proceedings 2019, 24(1), 7; https://doi.org/10.3390/IECG2019-06223 - 13 Jun 2019
Viewed by 198
Abstract
Talala is an excellent example of triggered neo-tectonic seismicity between two dams during a monsoon. An earthquake of Mmax 5.1 on 6 November 2007 at 21.16° N; 70.54° E, with a focal depth of 4.5 km and complete sequence, was first-time recorded [...] Read more.
Talala is an excellent example of triggered neo-tectonic seismicity between two dams during a monsoon. An earthquake of Mmax 5.1 on 6 November 2007 at 21.16° N; 70.54° E, with a focal depth of 4.5 km and complete sequence, was first-time recorded on the latest broadband sensor. This found a dam/monsoon-induced earthquake preceded by 18 foreshocks of 2 ≤ Mw ≤ 4.8 within 9 h 11 minute, as well as smaller shocks that may not have been recorded because of sparse network coverage. After the deployment of local mobile observatories, aftershocks of Mw ≥ 1.0, which continued for months and subsided to background seismicity after four months, were recorded. The same kind of phenomena repeated, with Mmax 5.0 on 20 October 2011 at 21.06° N; 70.50° E, focal depth 5.5 km, which implies that the potential to generate dam/monsoon-induced seismicity took nearly four years again. These phenomena continued and the sequence was recorded by a network of 10 broadband seismographs (three in the Talala area and seven at an epicentral distance of 30 to 300 km). Centroid Moment Tensor (CMT) solutions and spectral source parameters of mainshock and aftershocks are evaluated to understand the seismotectonic of the region. The CMT depicts a major strike-slip motion along East North East-West South West with a left-lateral plane at 4.5 km depth. This indicates a sympathetic fault extension of the Son-Narmada fault. The source parameters of 400 shocks of Mw 1.0 to 5.1 found seismic moment 1011 to 1016.5 N-m, source radii 120–850 meter, and a stress drop of 0.003 to 25.43 Mpa. The b-value, p-value, fractal dimension, and slip on estimated different faults. The comparison between Talala and Koyna dam-induced source parameters tries to establish a comparison of seismicity from different parts of the world. Full article
Open AccessProceedings
Assessment of Vertical Accuracy for TanDEM-X 90 m DEMs in Plain, Moderate, and Rugged Terrain
Proceedings 2019, 24(1), 8; https://doi.org/10.3390/IECG2019-06208 - 05 Jun 2019
Viewed by 154
Abstract
Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) interferometry technique generates digital elevation models (DEMs) and is used by various agencies widely. The recently released TanDEM-X DEM by DLR at 90 m spatial resolution is available for free download to users. This paper examines the accuracy of [...] Read more.
Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) interferometry technique generates digital elevation models (DEMs) and is used by various agencies widely. The recently released TanDEM-X DEM by DLR at 90 m spatial resolution is available for free download to users. This paper examines the accuracy of TanDEM-X DEM at different experimental sites with different topographic characteristics. Three sites were chosen, namely Kendrapara (Odisha), Jaipur (Rajasthan), and Dehradun (Uttarakhand) with plain, moderate, and highly undulating terrain conditions. The root mean square error (RMSE) were calculated using ground control points (GCPs) collected by differential GPS method for experimental sites at Dehradun, Jaipur, and Kendrapara. The accuracy of TanDEM-X 90 m datasets is compared with other openly accessible optically-derived DEMs (ASTER GDEM V2, CartoDEM V3 R1, AW3D30) and InSAR-derived DEMs (SRTM, ALOS PALSAR RTC HR). The RMSEs reveal that at Jaipur site with moderate terrain with urban and agriculture as major land use land cover (LULC) classes, the results of TanDEM-X 90 m DEM have higher accuracy than ALOS PALSAR RTC HR DEM. However, it is observed that in a predominantly plain region with agriculture practice (Kendrapara site, Odisha) and rugged region (Dehradun site, Uttarakhand) with mixed land use land cover (LULC) (e.g., forest, urban, streams, and agriculture) the results of ALOS PALSAR RTC HR data have higher accuracy than TanDEM-X 90 m DEM. Further, the study indicates that for a relatively plain site at Kendrapara (Orissa), CartoDEM V3 R1 DEM has the best performance with an RMSE of 1.96 m, which is the lowest among all DEMs utilized in the study. Full article
Open AccessAbstract
Seismic B-Value Study in Southern Slope of Greater Caucasus (Azerbaijan)
Proceedings 2019, 24(1), 9; https://doi.org/10.3390/IECG2019-06227 - 13 Jun 2019
Viewed by 115
Abstract
In this study, there was an attempt to estimate seismic hazard in terms of b-value distribution over the southern slope of Greater Caucasus (Azerbaijan). The southern slope of Caucasus (Azerbaijan) is influenced by tectonic activity driven by Arabian and Eurasian plate tectonics. The [...] Read more.
In this study, there was an attempt to estimate seismic hazard in terms of b-value distribution over the southern slope of Greater Caucasus (Azerbaijan). The southern slope of Caucasus (Azerbaijan) is influenced by tectonic activity driven by Arabian and Eurasian plate tectonics. The differences between seismotectonic characteristics are considered for large tectonic zones within this southern slope (Balaken-Zagatala, Sheki-Oguz-Gabala, Ismailli-Shamakhi). The b-value is one of the important components in the Gutenberg–Richter empirical relation. This relation represents the frequency of occurrence of seismic events as a function of their magnitude. The a-value and the b-value in this relation are constants and they characterize the seismic features. The a-value describes the seismic activity in terms of spatial and temporal occurrences within a certain period, while the b-value measures the relation of strong to weak earthquakes. The b-value indicates the dynamics of the tectonic regime of the area. This constant demonstrates the distribution of low or high stresses. The data for this study has been extracted from the Azerbaijan seismological center (RCSS). Different relations have then been developed for each separate zone. Some studies revealed spatial and temporal variations of the b-value before large earthquakes during the last decades. The b-value distribution results show that a decrease is observed in the western part of the region (Zagatala, Sheki), in the Shamakhi area and in some areas of the northern part which is an indication of higher stress in those areas. Full article
Open AccessProceedings
Prioritization of Erosion Prone Micro-Watersheds Using Morphometric Analysis coupled with Multi-Criteria Decision Making
Proceedings 2019, 24(1), 11; https://doi.org/10.3390/IECG2019-06207 - 05 Jun 2019
Viewed by 167
Abstract
Soil erosion is a serious environmental threat amongst the prevailing major natural hazards which affects the livelihood of millions of people around the world. The deterioration of nutrient-rich topsoil can affect the sustainability of agriculture and various ecosystems by decreasing soil productivity. Conservation [...] Read more.
Soil erosion is a serious environmental threat amongst the prevailing major natural hazards which affects the livelihood of millions of people around the world. The deterioration of nutrient-rich topsoil can affect the sustainability of agriculture and various ecosystems by decreasing soil productivity. Conservation measures should be implemented in those regions which are critical to soil erosion. The identification of areas susceptible to soil erosion through prioritization of watershed can help in proper planning and implementation of suitable conservational measures. Therefore, in this study, the prioritization of 23 micro-watersheds present in the Dnyanganga watershed of Tapti River basin is carried out based on morphometric parameters and Technique for Order of Preference by Similarity to Ideal Solution (TOPSIS). TanDEM-X 90m openly accessible DEM generated from SAR interferometry, obtained through DLR, is used for determining the morphometric parameters. These parameters are grouped into linear, areal and relief aspects. Initially, the relative weights of various morphometric parameters used in TOPSIS were determined using Saaty’s Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP). Thereafter, the MCDM package in R software was utilized to implement TOPSIS. The micro-watersheds were classified into very high (0.459–0.357), high (0.326–0.240), moderate (0.213–0.098), and low (0.096–0.088) prioritization levels based on the TOPSIS highest closeness (Ci+) to ideal solution. It is evident from the results that micro-watersheds (MW10, MW18, MW19, MW2, MW11, and MW17) are highly susceptible to soil erosion and thus, conservation measures can be carried out in these micro-watersheds with the priority to ensure the sustainability of future agriculture by preventing excessive soil loss through erosion. Full article
Open AccessProceedings
Assessment on the Potential of Multispectral and Hyperspectral Datasets for Land Use/Land Cover Classification
Proceedings 2019, 24(1), 12; https://doi.org/10.3390/IECG2019-06211 - 05 Jun 2019
Viewed by 132
Abstract
Land use/land cover (LULC) is a significant factor which plays a vital role in defining an urban ecosystem. Interpretations of LULC are eased in recent times by utilizing hyperspectral and multispectral datasets obtained from various platforms. An attempt is made to comparatively assess [...] Read more.
Land use/land cover (LULC) is a significant factor which plays a vital role in defining an urban ecosystem. Interpretations of LULC are eased in recent times by utilizing hyperspectral and multispectral datasets obtained from various platforms. An attempt is made to comparatively assess the potentiality of AVIRIS NG with Sentinel 2 data through applied classification techniques for Kalaburagi urban sphere. Spectral responses of both datasets were analyzed to derive reflectance spectra. A standard supervised classification algorithm associated with dimensionality reduction techniques is applied. For performance evaluation, results are validated to check which dataset outperforms well and provides better accuracy. Full article
Open AccessProceedings
Integrated Hydrological Modelling over Upstream Catchments of Himalayan Rivers and Assessment of Hydrological Events in Tehri Dam and Srinagar Catchments
Proceedings 2019, 24(1), 13; https://doi.org/10.3390/IECG2019-06210 - 30 Sep 2019
Viewed by 254
Abstract
Flash floods in the Himalayan Rivers result in hundreds of deaths causing a sudden hazard in a minimum period of time. These hydrological events of mostly happen due to cloudburst incidents in the Indian Himalayas, with an unexpected heavy overwhelming of precipitation in [...] Read more.
Flash floods in the Himalayan Rivers result in hundreds of deaths causing a sudden hazard in a minimum period of time. These hydrological events of mostly happen due to cloudburst incidents in the Indian Himalayas, with an unexpected heavy overwhelming of precipitation in a short interval over a small region. These extreme hydrological events are assessed through the analytical hierarchy process for the upper stream catchments of Tehri Dam and Srinagar. The morphometry characteristics of these catchments are collaboratively integrated with the SAC (Space Application Centre) hydro simulated discharge and rainfall data to identify the flash-flood-vulnerable hazard region over the surrounding catchment regions. Full article
Open AccessProceedings
Estimation of Wheat Yields at the Intra-Plot Scale by Combining Multi-Temporal Landsat-8 and Sentinel-2 Images
Proceedings 2019, 24(1), 14; https://doi.org/10.3390/IECG2019-06220 - 05 Jun 2019
Viewed by 123
Abstract
The objective of this study is to address the capabilities of multi-temporal optical images to estimate the fine-scale yield variability of wheat over a study site located in southwestern France. The methodology is based on the use of Landsat-8 and Sentinel-2 satellite images [...] Read more.
The objective of this study is to address the capabilities of multi-temporal optical images to estimate the fine-scale yield variability of wheat over a study site located in southwestern France. The methodology is based on the use of Landsat-8 and Sentinel-2 satellite images acquired after the sowing and before the harvest of the crop throughout four successive agricultural seasons, the reflectance constituting the input variables of a statistical algorithm (random forest). The best performances are obtained when the NDVI (Normalized Difference Vegetation Index) is combined with the previous yield maps, the agricultural season 2014 showing the lower level of performances with a R² of 0.44 and a RMSE (Root Mean Square Error) of 8.13 q.h−1 (corresponding to a relative error of 12.9%), the three other years being associated with values of R² close or upper of 0.60 and RMSE lower than 7 q.h−1 (corresponding to a relative error inferior to 11.3%). Full article
Open AccessProceedings
An Automated Model to Evaluate Landscape Patches with Analysis of the Neighborhood Relations
Proceedings 2019, 24(1), 15; https://doi.org/10.3390/IECG2019-06215 - 05 Jun 2019
Viewed by 116
Abstract
The landscape should be analyzed in segments to understand its texture, structure, function, and changes. These segments can be used to evaluate landscape structure and for function analysis. In this context, the most important segments which form the landscape are landscape patches. [...] Read more.
The landscape should be analyzed in segments to understand its texture, structure, function, and changes. These segments can be used to evaluate landscape structure and for function analysis. In this context, the most important segments which form the landscape are landscape patches. Analysis and understanding of the landscape structure and ecological progress needs measurement of the landscape patches and evaluation. Therefore, the neighborhood ratio between the patches should be known. In this study, we propose an automated method, which is based on Python language, to compute this ratio with consideration of neighborhood degrees between the patches. The test site was Mugla-Koycegiz, a town in Turkey, where there is a huge population of Sweetgum (Liquidambar orientalis) trees, and the town is important for shoreline tourism. Urban area, water surface, agricultural areas, marsh, and forest classes were defined. Sentinel 2A multispectral satellite image was used and the Random Forest classification method applied. The derived patches were produced from the classification, and then converted to the vector form. All vector boundaries were converted to point features with 10 m intervals. The ratio of the number of points neighboring the specific class to all points along the boundary was computed automatically with developed script. Three different patches were analyzed, and the results are reported. Full article
Open AccessProceedings
AVIRIS-NG Data for Geological Applications in Southeastern Parts of Aravalli Fold Belt, Rajasthan
Proceedings 2019, 24(1), 16; https://doi.org/10.3390/IECG2019-06212 - 05 Jun 2019
Viewed by 141
Abstract
Advanced techniques using high resolution hyperspectral remote sensing data has recently evolved as an emerging tool with potential to aid mineral exploration. In this study, pertinently, five mosaicked scenes of Airborne Visible InfraRed Imaging Spectrometer-Next Generation (AVIRIS-NG) hyperspectral data of southeastern parts of [...] Read more.
Advanced techniques using high resolution hyperspectral remote sensing data has recently evolved as an emerging tool with potential to aid mineral exploration. In this study, pertinently, five mosaicked scenes of Airborne Visible InfraRed Imaging Spectrometer-Next Generation (AVIRIS-NG) hyperspectral data of southeastern parts of the Aravalli Fold belt in Jahazpur area, Rajasthan, were processed. The exposed Proterozoic rocks in this area is of immense economic and scientific interest because of richness of poly-metallic mineral resources and their unique metallogenesis. Analysis of high resolution multispectral satellite image reveals that there are many prominent lineaments which acted as potential conduits of hydrothermal fluid emanation, some of which resulted in altering the country rock. This study takes cues from studying those altered minerals to enrich our knowledge base on mineralized zones. In this imaging spectroscopic study we have identified different hydrothermally altered minerals consisting of hydroxyl, carbonate and iron-bearing species. Spectral signatures (image based) of minerals such as Kaosmec, Talc, Kaolinite, Dolomite, and Montmorillonite were derived in SWIR (Short wave infrared) region while Iron bearing minerals such as Goethite and Limonite were identified in the VNIR (Visible and Near Infrared) region of electromagnetic spectrum. Validation of the target minerals was done by subsequent ground truthing and X-ray diffractogram (XRD) analysis. The altered end members were further mapped by Spectral Angle Mapper (SAM) and Adaptive Coherence Estimator (ACE) techniques to detect target minerals. Accuracy assessment was reported to be 86.82% and 77.75% for SAM and ACE respectively. This study confirms that the AVIRIS-NG hyperspectral data provides better solution for identification of endmember minerals. Full article
Open AccessProceedings
Geological Materials as Sources of Rn Emissions
Proceedings 2019, 24(1), 17; https://doi.org/10.3390/IECG2019-06193 - 05 Jun 2019
Viewed by 107
Abstract
Geological materials are a potential source of pollutants, among which there is the radioactive isotope 222Rn, which result of radioactive decay of daughter radionuclides of uranium (238U). It is emitted as a gas that it can be released to the [...] Read more.
Geological materials are a potential source of pollutants, among which there is the radioactive isotope 222Rn, which result of radioactive decay of daughter radionuclides of uranium (238U). It is emitted as a gas that it can be released to the air to enter the human body, with the potential to affect internal organs (mostly the lungs) by alpha particles production. While the presence of uranium in the materials is a necessary condition for the production of Rn-222, the amount of gas emitted by the material depends on other characteristics that allow the migration of the gas. The main aim of this communication concerns a statistical analysis of results from diverse types of rocks. Full article
Open AccessProceedings
Potential of Sentinel-2 Images for Estimating of Soil Resistivity over Agricultural Fields
Proceedings 2019, 24(1), 18; https://doi.org/10.3390/IECG2019-06219 - 05 Jun 2019
Viewed by 103
Abstract
The aim of this study is to assess the possibilities of the VNIR (Visible and Near InfraRed) and SWIR (Short Wavelength InfraRed) satellite data for estimating intra-plot patterns of soil electrical resistivity consistent with ground measurements. The methodology is based on optical reflectances [...] Read more.
The aim of this study is to assess the possibilities of the VNIR (Visible and Near InfraRed) and SWIR (Short Wavelength InfraRed) satellite data for estimating intra-plot patterns of soil electrical resistivity consistent with ground measurements. The methodology is based on optical reflectances that constitute the input variables of random forest, alone or in combination with parameters derived from a digital elevation model (DEM). Over a field located in southwestern France, the results show high level of accuracy for the 0–50 and 0–100 cm soil layers (with R² of 0.69 and 0.59, and a relative RMSE of 18% and 16%, respectively), the performances being lower for the 0–170 cm layer (R² of 0.39, relative RMSE of 20%). The combined use of optical reflectances with parameters derived from the DEM slightly improves the performances, whatever the considered layer. The influence of each reflectance on soil electrical resistivity estimates is finally analyzed, showing that the wavelengths acquired in the SWIR have a relative higher importance than VNIR reflectance. Full article
Open AccessProceedings
Phenological Monitoring of Paddy Crop Using Time Series MODIS Data
Proceedings 2019, 24(1), 19; https://doi.org/10.3390/IECG2019-06205 - 05 Jun 2019
Viewed by 213
Abstract
Rice is an important staple food crop worldwide, especially in India. Accurate and timely prediction of rice phenology plays a significant role in the management of water resources, administrative planning, and food security. In addition to conventional methods, remotely sensed time series data [...] Read more.
Rice is an important staple food crop worldwide, especially in India. Accurate and timely prediction of rice phenology plays a significant role in the management of water resources, administrative planning, and food security. In addition to conventional methods, remotely sensed time series data can provide the necessary estimation of rice phenological stages over a large region. Thus, the present study utilizes the 16-day composite Enhanced Vegetation Index (EVI) product with a spatial resolution of 250 m from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) to monitor the rice phenological stages over Karur district of Tamil Nadu, India, using the Google Earth Engine (GEE) platform. The rice fields in the study area were classified using the machine learning algorithm in GEE. The ground truth was obtained from the paddy fields during crop production which was used for classifying the paddy grown area. After the classification of paddy fields, local maxima, and local minima present in each pixel of time series, the EVI product was used to determine the paddy growing stages in the study area. The results show that in the initial stage the pixel value of EVI in the paddy field shows local minima (0.23), whereas local maxima (0.41) were obtained during the peak vegetative stage. The results derived from the present study using MODIS data were cross-validated using the field data. Full article
Open AccessProceedings
Natural Time Analysis: Results Related to Two Earthquakes in Greece during 2019
Proceedings 2019, 24(1), 20; https://doi.org/10.3390/IECG2019-06194 - 04 Jun 2019
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 189
Abstract
The following two earthquakes occurred in Greece during 2019: First, a Mw5.4 earthquake close to Preveza city in Western Greece on 5 February and a Mw5.3 earthquake 50 km East of Patras on 30 March. Here, we present the natural time analysis of [...] Read more.
The following two earthquakes occurred in Greece during 2019: First, a Mw5.4 earthquake close to Preveza city in Western Greece on 5 February and a Mw5.3 earthquake 50 km East of Patras on 30 March. Here, we present the natural time analysis of the Seismic Electric Signals (SES) activities that have been recorded before these two earthquakes. In addition, we explain how the occurrence times of these two earthquakes can be identified by analyzing in natural time the seismicity subsequent to the SES activities. Full article
Open AccessProceedings
InSAR Coherence and Backscatter Images Based Analysis for the Anak Krakatau Volcano Eruption
Proceedings 2019, 24(1), 21; https://doi.org/10.3390/IECG2019-06216 - 05 Jun 2019
Viewed by 121
Abstract
The Anak Krakatau Island and volcano caldera are located at the Sunda Strait between the Java and Sumatra Islands of Indonesia. The volcano started erupting on 22 December 2018, and collapse of the volcano resulted in Tsunami. The large tidal waves caused mass [...] Read more.
The Anak Krakatau Island and volcano caldera are located at the Sunda Strait between the Java and Sumatra Islands of Indonesia. The volcano started erupting on 22 December 2018, and collapse of the volcano resulted in Tsunami. The large tidal waves caused mass destruction and loss of life in the Java and Sumatra islands. The objective of this study was the interferometric SAR coherence and backscatter images based analysis of Anak Krakatau Island using Sentinel-1 SAR data. Seven datasets of ESA’s Sentinel-1 C-band satellite acquired from 25 November 2018 to 24 January 2019 were used in this study. The InSAR RGB composite images were generated by stacking together the interferometric coherence magnitude images and the sigma nought backscatter images. Sentinel-2 true color composite (TCC) images before and after the volcanic eruption were used to verify the results obtained through InSAR coherence analysis. The sigma nought backscatter image of 22 December 2018 clearly indicates the volcano eruption center and the ocean waves moving away from Anak Krakatau due to the seismic shock waves caused by the volcano eruption. The combined interpretation of the results revealed that the severe volcanic eruption on 22 December 2018 caused a large portion of the volcano to collapse, and all the rock debris which submerged to the ocean displaced the ocean water and resulted in the Tsunami at the Indonesian islands. Full article
Open AccessProceedings
Earthquake Magnitude Prediction Using Recurrent Neural Networks
Proceedings 2019, 24(1), 22; https://doi.org/10.3390/IECG2019-06213 - 05 Jun 2019
Viewed by 30
Abstract
The importance of seismological research around the globe is very clear. Therefore, new tools and algorithms are needed in order to predict magnitude, time, and geographic location, as well as to discover relationships that allow us to better understand this phenomenon and thus [...] Read more.
The importance of seismological research around the globe is very clear. Therefore, new tools and algorithms are needed in order to predict magnitude, time, and geographic location, as well as to discover relationships that allow us to better understand this phenomenon and thus be able to save countless human lives. However, given the highly random nature of earthquakes and the complexity in obtaining an efficient mathematical model, efforts until now have been insufficient and new methods that can contribute to solving this challenge are needed. In this work, a novel earthquake magnitude prediction method is proposed, which is based on the composition of a known system whose behavior is governed according to the measurements of more than two decades of seismic events and is modeled as a time series using machine learning, specifically a network architecture based on LSTM (long short-term memory) cells. Full article
Open AccessProceedings
Geological Raw Materials from a Mesolithic Archaeological Site in NW Portugal
Proceedings 2019, 24(1), 23; https://doi.org/10.3390/IECG2019-06191 - 04 Jun 2019
Viewed by 92
Abstract
The present work concerns the study of geological raw materials obtained from an excavation site located in Serra da Cabreira (NW Portugal). The majority of the artifacts are made in quartz varieties (with minor occurrences of flint). Milky quartz is dominant, being similar [...] Read more.
The present work concerns the study of geological raw materials obtained from an excavation site located in Serra da Cabreira (NW Portugal). The majority of the artifacts are made in quartz varieties (with minor occurrences of flint). Milky quartz is dominant, being similar to diverse occurrences of quartz veins in the immediate neighborhood. There are diverse other quartz varieties, indicating the possibility of locations farther away from the shelter. The study of geological raw materials can be seen as an important source of archaeological information, illustrating the evolution of past relationships between humans and geological resources, and also providing relevant information for the present and future, considering namely the extremely low environmental impact of the processing of raw materials. Full article
Open AccessProceedings
Eocene North American Testudinidae and Geoemydidae (Reptilia, Testudines): A Re-Evaluation of Their Alpha Taxonomy, Ecology, and Origin
Proceedings 2019, 24(1), 24; https://doi.org/10.3390/IECG2019-06195 - 04 Jun 2019
Viewed by 104
Abstract
We describe new material, including juvenile specimens, of Hadrianus corsoni, Hadrianus majusculus, Echmatemys haydeni, and Echmatemys naomi. Testudinidae evolved in North America from one of the geoemydid-like forms in the genus Echmatemys, which have their lowest stratigraphic occurrence [...] Read more.
We describe new material, including juvenile specimens, of Hadrianus corsoni, Hadrianus majusculus, Echmatemys haydeni, and Echmatemys naomi. Testudinidae evolved in North America from one of the geoemydid-like forms in the genus Echmatemys, which have their lowest stratigraphic occurrence in the earliest Wasatchian North American land mammal “age” (early Eocene, Ypresian). Full article
Open AccessProceedings
Land Subsidence Monitoring in Jagadhri City Using Sentinel 1 Data and DInSAR Processing
Proceedings 2019, 24(1), 25; https://doi.org/10.3390/IECG2019-06230 - 13 Jun 2019
Viewed by 187
Abstract
DInSAR is a renowned method for estimating land subsidence based on the principles of interferometric synthetic aperture radar using different series of the temporal dataset. The present study has been performed using GMTSAR software with Sentinel 1 SAR data of C band for [...] Read more.
DInSAR is a renowned method for estimating land subsidence based on the principles of interferometric synthetic aperture radar using different series of the temporal dataset. The present study has been performed using GMTSAR software with Sentinel 1 SAR data of C band for the duration of 2017–2019 (January to April) and focused particularly over the area of Jagadhri city which is situated 100 km away from Chandigarh, which has been identified under the potential threat of land subsidence. The DInSAR method has been applied in this study that came up with an outcome of three interferograms and yearly displacement that broadcast an update on the diagnosis of subsidence activity in the area. A total of six Single Look Complex (SLC) datasets were selectively chosen with a minimum temporal and spatial baseline so that the problem of decorrelation would be minimal. Goldstein filtering has been applied to the deburst interferograms which reduced the noise and, in turn, improved the quality of output. The city is located on the western bank of river Yamuna and about 55 km on the east of Ambala. Due to the presence of unconsolidated sediments in the aquifer system and over-exploitation of groundwater to meet the domestic needs has led to surface deformation in and around the city area. The outcome of this study identifies the area of depression quite distinctly while the accuracy has been assessed by ground survey. The rate of subsidence estimated approximately 4.98 cm/year which can prove to be disastrous over the course of time. Full article
Open AccessProceedings
Phanerozoic Chronostratigraphy: Top-Down Instead of Bottom-Up Boundary Definitions
Proceedings 2019, 24(1), 26; https://doi.org/10.3390/IECG2019-06199 - 04 Jun 2019
Viewed by 97
Abstract
The GSSP method defines stage bases, and, where proximate, equates them to the bases of larger chronostratigraphic units. The Phanerozoic and its subdivisions above the stage level thus are only successively larger “pigeonholes” within which to bin stages. This reductionism trivializes chronostratigraphic boundaries [...] Read more.
The GSSP method defines stage bases, and, where proximate, equates them to the bases of larger chronostratigraphic units. The Phanerozoic and its subdivisions above the stage level thus are only successively larger “pigeonholes” within which to bin stages. This reductionism trivializes chronostratigraphic boundaries larger than stage boundaries. A single set of standard global stages is an unworkable abstraction that should be abandoned because no stage can be correlated globally because of facies changes, taphonomic biases, and/or provincialism. Stratigraphers should return to a top-down chronostratigraphy that defines chronostratigraphic units larger than stages by significant natural events that can be correlated globally. Full article
Open AccessProceedings
Multifractal Characterization of Seismic Activity in the Provinces of Esmeraldas and Manabí, Ecuador
Proceedings 2019, 24(1), 27; https://doi.org/10.3390/IECG2019-06196 - 04 Jun 2019
Viewed by 95
Abstract
Due to the enormous impact of seismic activity and the need to deepen knowledge of its behavior, this research work carries out an analysis of the multifractal nature of the magnitude, inter-distance and interevent time series of earthquakes that occurred in Ecuador during [...] Read more.
Due to the enormous impact of seismic activity and the need to deepen knowledge of its behavior, this research work carries out an analysis of the multifractal nature of the magnitude, inter-distance and interevent time series of earthquakes that occurred in Ecuador during the years 2011–2017 in the provinces of Manabí and Esmeraldas, two areas with high seismic activity. For this study we use multifractal detrended fluctuation analysis (MF-DFA), which allows the detection of multifractality in a non-stationary series as well as in a series of parameters of non-linear characterization. The obtained results revealed that an interevent time series presents a higher degree of multifractality than the two previously mentioned. In addition, the Hurst exponent values were in a non-proportional function to (q), which is a weight value indicating the multifractal behavior of the dynamics of the earthquakes analyzed in this work. Finally, several multifractal parameters were calculated, and as a result all series were skewed to the right. This reveals that small variations in the analyzed series were more dominant than large fluctuations. Full article
Open AccessProceedings
Nonlinear Dynamics of Seismicity and Fault Zone Dynamics Around Large Dams: The Case of Enguri Dam, Caucasus
Proceedings 2019, 24(1), 28; https://doi.org/10.3390/IECG2019-06192 - 26 Dec 2019
Viewed by 182
Abstract
The 271 m high Enguri arch dam, still one of the highest arch dams in operation in the world, was built in the canyon of the Enguri river (West Georgia) in the 1970s. It is located in a zone of high seismicity (MSK [...] Read more.
The 271 m high Enguri arch dam, still one of the highest arch dams in operation in the world, was built in the canyon of the Enguri river (West Georgia) in the 1970s. It is located in a zone of high seismicity (MSK intensity IX) and close to the Ingirishi active fault. The high seismic and geodynamical activities together with the large number of people living downstream of the dam make the Enguri dam a potential source of a major catastrophe in Georgia. Thus, the Enguri Dam with its 1 billion cubic meter water reservoir should be under permanent monitoring. At the same time, this area is an amazing natural laboratory, where one can investigate both tectonic and geotechnical strains and processes as well as their response to the lake load–unload impact (i.e., the reaction to a controllable loading of the Earth crust). This is an important scientific issue, connected with a fundamental problem of reservoir-induced earthquakes as well as with environmental geotechnical problems related to the safety of large dams. Application of nonlinear dynamics methods allows for the division of events, ordered by reservoir water regular strain impact from the background seismicity. Full article
Open AccessAbstract
Fractal and Multifractal Features of Seismicity in the Central Zone of Chile: Comparing Intraplate and Interplate Datasets
Proceedings 2019, 24(1), 29; https://doi.org/10.3390/IECG2019-06228 - 17 Jan 2020
Viewed by 173
Abstract
A fractal and multifractal study on a sample of superficial interplate and intraplate earthquakes in the central zone of Chile is presented. Epicenter and hypocenter data are considered. We find that the fractal dimension and the multifractal spectrum exhibit dependence on location, which [...] Read more.
A fractal and multifractal study on a sample of superficial interplate and intraplate earthquakes in the central zone of Chile is presented. Epicenter and hypocenter data are considered. We find that the fractal dimension and the multifractal spectrum exhibit dependence on location, which suggests that these measures of complexity are able to distinguish interplate and intraplate seismicity. Full article

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Open AccessExtended Abstract
Online Analyses of Terrains for Environment and Engineering Geology Studies
Proceedings 2019, 24(1), 10; https://doi.org/10.3390/IECG2019-06222 - 13 Jun 2019
Viewed by 152
Abstract
Geology is, from its foundation, a subject strongly based on field studies. [...] Full article
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