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Infrastructures, Volume 2, Issue 4 (December 2017)

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Open AccessArticle Framework for Flexural Rigidity Estimation in Euler-Bernoulli Beams Using Deformation Influence Lines
Infrastructures 2017, 2(4), 23; https://doi.org/10.3390/infrastructures2040023
Received: 12 October 2017 / Revised: 14 December 2017 / Accepted: 14 December 2017 / Published: 19 December 2017
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2665 | PDF Full-text (3439 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Structural degradation is an inevitable part of a structure’s service life. Detecting structural impairments and assessing their nature is a significant challenge. Degradations reduce structural system stiffness and subsequently affect system deformations. An appropriate structural health index that is able to capture these
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Structural degradation is an inevitable part of a structure’s service life. Detecting structural impairments and assessing their nature is a significant challenge. Degradations reduce structural system stiffness and subsequently affect system deformations. An appropriate structural health index that is able to capture these changes in deformation and relate them to a structural system stiffness may help engineers to adequately rate structural condition. This paper outlines a theoretical framework for the utilization of static deformation influence lines for estimating the flexural rigidity of Euler-Bernoulli beams. In the proposed technique, the relationship between the second derivative of the deformation influence line and the flexural rigidity for both statically determinate and indeterminate beam structures is presented. The proposed method provides a flexural rigidity estimate (FRE) over the entire span that is based on a single measurement location and estimates both the location and severity of impairments, regardless of the location of the measurement or the damaged zones. Noisy analytical simulations are presented with noise levels of 0%, 0.5%, 1%, 2%, 3%, and 4%; in all cases the modeled damage is quantified and localized using the FRE. A laboratory experiment is also presented that validates the theoretical framework. Full article
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Open AccessArticle A System-of-Systems Approach for Integrated Resilience Assessment in Highway Transportation Infrastructure Investment
Infrastructures 2017, 2(4), 22; https://doi.org/10.3390/infrastructures2040022
Received: 21 November 2017 / Revised: 7 December 2017 / Accepted: 8 December 2017 / Published: 10 December 2017
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Abstract
The objective of this paper is to propose a System-of-Systems (SoS) approach for an integrated assessment of resilience in civil transportation infrastructure in the U.S. A SoS approach is adopted for systemic assessment. Data obtained from case studies of two recent natural disasters
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The objective of this paper is to propose a System-of-Systems (SoS) approach for an integrated assessment of resilience in civil transportation infrastructure in the U.S. A SoS approach is adopted for systemic assessment. Data obtained from case studies of two recent natural disasters in the U.S. are utilized to explore the status quo, key players and interactions, and the drivers to and barriers of improving resilience in transportation infrastructure systems. The findings indicate that strategies for enhancing resilience in transportation infrastructure systems include redistributing the available funding through a special funding vehicle, using resilience-based performance measures, and integrating the efforts of different stakeholders. The SoS approach along with the findings from the case studies provides an analytical tool for understanding the dynamics of resilience in infrastructure systems. Such understanding could lead to identifying strategies for enhancing resilience in infrastructure systems. The study presented in this paper provides new insights to identify the determinants of resilience in highway transportation infrastructure based on a SoS approach. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers)
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Open AccessArticle Isolated and Single Pedestrians and Pedestrian Groups on Sidewalks
Infrastructures 2017, 2(4), 21; https://doi.org/10.3390/infrastructures2040021
Received: 15 September 2017 / Revised: 20 October 2017 / Accepted: 26 October 2017 / Published: 21 November 2017
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2486 | PDF Full-text (4570 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Walking freedom can define the quality of an urban area, but this freedom is conditioned by various factors. The research objective is to study pedestrian behavior on sidewalks. Data are collected during on site surveys by means of concealed camcorders. For each pedestrian
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Walking freedom can define the quality of an urban area, but this freedom is conditioned by various factors. The research objective is to study pedestrian behavior on sidewalks. Data are collected during on site surveys by means of concealed camcorders. For each pedestrian many factors are observed, such as gender, age, direction, distractions, transport of objects, etc., which could influence pedestrian behavior. Data processing allows the identification of mathematical models describing the average pedestrian’s behavior, subdivided for user type (isolated, single, group). In general, the mean walking pedestrian speed decreases depending on user type (in a linear manner if age class grows for isolated pedestrians, while with the square of age for other user types), of gender, and of facing type. Models obtained for the different pedestrian types were compared to understand the differences in speeds, underlining that pedestrian interferences play a significant role in defining behavior and, therefore, speed. The results support the idea that, to define a smooth pedestrian speed as an indicator of the “walkability” of a path, in addition to considering the path and user’s characteristics, it is also necessary to define the type of user for which the infrastructure is designed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainable Transportation Infrastructures)
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Open AccessArticle Integrated Big Data Analytics Technique for Real-Time Prognostics, Fault Detection and Identification for Complex Systems
Infrastructures 2017, 2(4), 20; https://doi.org/10.3390/infrastructures2040020
Received: 5 October 2017 / Revised: 7 November 2017 / Accepted: 8 November 2017 / Published: 10 November 2017
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Abstract
Real-time prediction of the state of complex systems is vital for integrity management since it is easier to plan for asset maintenance, reduce risks associated with unplanned downtime and reduce the cost of maintenance. This study utilized a four-fold cross-validation ensemble for an
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Real-time prediction of the state of complex systems is vital for integrity management since it is easier to plan for asset maintenance, reduce risks associated with unplanned downtime and reduce the cost of maintenance. This study utilized a four-fold cross-validation ensemble for an Artificial Neural Network (ANN) that used Multi-Layer Perceptron (MLP) in a backward propagation technique for haul crane prognosis. Big data on components’ degradation states obtained from the Supervisory Control And Data Acquisition (SCADA) systems were used to implement the study. After preprocessing the dataset, importance scoring was used to compute the Cumulative Target-component Percentage-influence (CTP) of the input variables (source components) on the output variable (the target component) at the 95.5%, 99.3%, 99.9% and 100% levels. The specific source components responsible for the CTP levels of the target component were later used for the ANN network training that followed the cross-validation ensemble technique. The cross-validation ensemble ANN technique was also compared to the classic ANN and other machining learning algorithms. Finally, the best-trained cross-validation ensemble ANN network, which was obtained at the 99.9% CTP level, was used for future estimation of the time of failure of the system to enhance planning for the expected maintenance program that will be required at such times. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Case Study of a Nearly Zero Energy Building in Italian Climatic Conditions
Infrastructures 2017, 2(4), 19; https://doi.org/10.3390/infrastructures2040019
Received: 19 August 2017 / Revised: 9 October 2017 / Accepted: 31 October 2017 / Published: 3 November 2017
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 3021 | PDF Full-text (3965 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The building sector is an important stakeholder in the energy and environmental scenario of any country. It continues to grow across the world due to factors such as population growth, and economic and infrastructure development. Within the European Union, buildings account for 40%
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The building sector is an important stakeholder in the energy and environmental scenario of any country. It continues to grow across the world due to factors such as population growth, and economic and infrastructure development. Within the European Union, buildings account for 40% of the total energy requirements and 30% of carbon dioxide emissions. The building sector is keen to improve its sustainability standards and also to help achieve the 20-20-20 targets set by the European Union. The present work aims to design a nearly zero energy sports gymnasium building in Calolziocorte, Italy. Various sustainability techniques are applied in an integrated design project approach using ECOTECT software to undertake the energy modelling exercise. Firstly, the base-case is modelled with conventional building materials and the total energy demand is calculated. Duly considering the local climatic conditions, sustainable materials are chosen for walls, the floor, the roof, and windows and a 38% reduction is noted in the total energy demand of the building compared to the base-case. The impact of louvers as a passive design technique has also been examined on the total energy demand of the building. The monthly load/discomfort analysis is undertaken for various individual functions inside the building to identify the critical areas that consume more energy. The monthly load/discomfort analysis is performed with the proposed materials and the air infiltration rate is improved through the building envelope and 63% reduction is noted in the total energy demand of the building compared to the base-case. A solar access analysis is conducted to understand the on-site energy production and then the building net energy demand is calculated, which is reduced to 90% compared to the base-case. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Design of a Corporate SDI in Power Sector Using a Formal Model
Infrastructures 2017, 2(4), 18; https://doi.org/10.3390/infrastructures2040018
Received: 13 September 2017 / Revised: 23 October 2017 / Accepted: 26 October 2017 / Published: 31 October 2017
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Abstract
Geospatial data are essential for the decision-making process. However, obtaining and keeping such data up to date usually require much time and many financial resources. In order to minimize the production costs and incentivize sharing these data, countries are promoting the implementation of
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Geospatial data are essential for the decision-making process. However, obtaining and keeping such data up to date usually require much time and many financial resources. In order to minimize the production costs and incentivize sharing these data, countries are promoting the implementation of Spatial Data Infrastructures (SDI) at the different public administration levels. The International Cartographic Association (ICA) proposes a formal model that describes the main concepts of an SDI based on three of the five viewpoints of the Reference Model for Open Distributed Processing (RM-ODP). Afterwards, researchers extended ICA’s model to describe, more properly, the actors, hierarchical relationship and interactions related to the policies that drive an SDI. However, the proposed extensions are semantically inconsistent with the original proposal. Moreover, the use of ICA’s formal model and its extensions has not been assessed yet to specify a corporate-level SDI. This study describes the merger of actors and policies proposed by the ICA and its extensions in order to eliminate differences in the semantics or terminology among them. This unified model was applied to specify a corporate SDI for a large Brazilian corporation, the Minas Gerais Power Company (Companhia Energética de Minas Gerais (Cemig)), which is comprised of about 200 companies in the power sector. The case study presents part of the specification of the five RM-ODP viewpoints, i.e., the three viewpoints featured in ICA’s formal model (Enterprise, Information, and Computation) and the other two viewpoints that make up the RM-ODP (Engineering and Technology). The adapted ICA’s model proved adequate to describe SDI-Cemig. In addition, the case study may serve as an example of the specification and implementation of new SDIs, not only corporate ones, but also of public agencies at any hierarchical level. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Spatial Data Infrastructures)
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Open AccessArticle New Trends for Reinforced Concrete Structures: Some Results of Exploratory Studies
Infrastructures 2017, 2(4), 17; https://doi.org/10.3390/infrastructures2040017
Received: 21 September 2017 / Revised: 12 October 2017 / Accepted: 24 October 2017 / Published: 27 October 2017
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Abstract
Today, the concrete sector is being pushed to innovate in order to better address current challenges with higher competitiveness and more sustainable solutions. Different research studies have been conducted all over the world in which novel approaches and paths were proposed. It is
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Today, the concrete sector is being pushed to innovate in order to better address current challenges with higher competitiveness and more sustainable solutions. Different research studies have been conducted all over the world in which novel approaches and paths were proposed. It is important to spread information to define new strategies for the future of this industry. The enhancement of concrete properties and the impact of these changes in structural design are some of the topics analysed in those studies. This paper presents four experimental studies conducted by the authors where different types of concrete and structural members were tested. The common goal of these studies was to develop innovative solutions with high performance and low environmental impact. The scope of the first study was the structural behaviour of members produced with lightweight aggregate concrete (LWAC). Results of several beams, ties, and slabs are herein presented and analysed. The advantage of using glass fibre–reinforced polymer (GFRP) rebars was addressed in a second study, and main results obtained with this type of rebar are also herein presented. Recent advances in nanotechnology led to the development of concretes incorporating nanoparticles into the binder matrix. Typically, these nanoparticles have a diameter of 10–300 nanometers and are added to the mixture to reduce the porosity and increase the density of the binder matrix, improving the mechanical properties and durability. To analyse their influence on steel-to-concrete bonding and on the shear and flexural behaviour of the beams was the main goal of the third study herein described. Finally, a new concept to produce reinforced concrete members with high durability using a special concrete cover, which was the goal of the fourth study, is also herein presented. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Concrete Structures: Present and Future Trends)
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Open AccessArticle CFD Evaluation on the Pre- and Post- Renovation, and Windows and Doors Opening, of a Typical, Walled, Detached Family House in the Philippines
Infrastructures 2017, 2(4), 16; https://doi.org/10.3390/infrastructures2040016
Received: 18 June 2017 / Revised: 16 October 2017 / Accepted: 16 October 2017 / Published: 22 October 2017
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Abstract
Natural ventilation is an important consideration to minimize the usage of mechanical ventilation and air-conditioning systems in the design, use, and renovation of residential houses and buildings. In this study, a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) is used to evaluate the wind field around
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Natural ventilation is an important consideration to minimize the usage of mechanical ventilation and air-conditioning systems in the design, use, and renovation of residential houses and buildings. In this study, a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) is used to evaluate the wind field around and inside the walled, detached family house after a series of house renovations, with the effect of window and door openings. The effect of the lot perimeter wall is investigated as to how it affects the wind field around and inside the house. The results show that the height of the lot perimeter wall affects the wind field around and inside the house. They show that the opening of the doors and windows significantly affects the wind field around and inside the house. The construction of the firewall at the back of the house affects the wind field. Based on the results, the design of the house with the consideration of wind direction, neighborhood, and how the occupant uses the house have a great impact on the optimum utilization of the prevailing wind for natural ventilation, as they affect the wind field around and inside the house. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Creating Stakeholder Value through Risk Mitigation Measures in the Context of Disaster Management
Infrastructures 2017, 2(4), 14; https://doi.org/10.3390/infrastructures2040014
Received: 27 July 2017 / Revised: 28 September 2017 / Accepted: 14 October 2017 / Published: 19 October 2017
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Abstract
The resilience of critical infrastructure (CI) to extreme weather events (EWE) is one of the most demanding challenges for all stakeholders in modern society. Although partial risk reduction is feasible through the introduction and implementation of various risk mitigation measures (RMM), decision-makers at
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The resilience of critical infrastructure (CI) to extreme weather events (EWE) is one of the most demanding challenges for all stakeholders in modern society. Although partial risk reduction is feasible through the introduction and implementation of various risk mitigation measures (RMM), decision-makers at all decision-making levels are pressured to find ways to cope with the impending extreme weather and to have a thorough understanding of the EWE impacts on CI. This paper discusses how the value of RMMs can be created and assessed in a stakeholder network. Qualitative research methods, namely literature review and AHP (Analytic Hierarchy Process), were applied as research methods. The paper examines how disaster management and value creation both converge and differ from each other. It also presents a case study on the value of various RMM and the impacts of extreme winter conditions on electricity distribution in Finland. Based on the case study, the most important value criterion was the benefits of the RMM in economic, social, and environmental terms. At a fundamental level, the value of RMM should be expressed not only in terms of money but also in regard to safety, security, societal acceptability, CI dependability, and other typically intangible criteria. Moreover, the results reveal that the interrelationship of value creation and disaster management offers new insights to both approaches. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Climate Change Effects on Infrastructure)
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Open AccessArticle Finite Element Modelling and Retained Life Estimation of Corroded Pipelines in Consideration of Burst Pressures—A Fractural Mechanics Approach
Infrastructures 2017, 2(4), 15; https://doi.org/10.3390/infrastructures2040015
Received: 22 August 2017 / Revised: 10 October 2017 / Accepted: 13 October 2017 / Published: 15 October 2017
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Abstract
This study used Finite Element Modelling (FEM) to determine the relationship between the burst pressure (Pb) of internally, circumferentially corroded pipelines, with the corrosion defect depth (d), pipe wall thickness (t) and the pipe diameter (
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This study used Finite Element Modelling (FEM) to determine the relationship between the burst pressure (Pb) of internally, circumferentially corroded pipelines, with the corrosion defect depth (d), pipe wall thickness (t) and the pipe diameter (D). After modelling X46 and X52 grades of pipes, the Pb estimated was compared with those determined experimentally and with industry standard models—ASME B31G (modified), RSTRENG, DNV F101, SHELL92 and FITNET FFS. The comparison specified a Root Mean Square Percentage Error (RMSPE) that ranged from 7.06% to 20.4% and a coefficient of determination (R2) that varied from 0.7932 to 0.9813. Multivariate regression was also used to compute a general linear relationship between the burst pressure (Pb) and (d/t), (L/D) and (L/√Dt). The resulting FEM burst-pressure model, developed with multivariate regression, was later used to estimate the expected allowable operating pressure of a corroded X46 grade pipeline over the lifecycle duration, for low, mild, high and severe corrosion categories. It was observed that the burst pressure retention ratio (Rr), which is an indicator of the reliability of the pipeline, decreased with the increase in (d) but did not show distinctive changes with the increase in (L). Considering the robustness of the FEM developed in this study, it can be concluded that it will be very vital for flowline design and pipeline integrity management. Full article
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Open AccessReview Composites for Timber-Replacement Bearers in Railway Switches and Crossings
Infrastructures 2017, 2(4), 13; https://doi.org/10.3390/infrastructures2040013
Received: 25 August 2017 / Revised: 27 September 2017 / Accepted: 6 October 2017 / Published: 9 October 2017
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 3650 | PDF Full-text (1920 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Recent developments in composite materials have resulted in their pilot adoption in railway industry, such as ‘fibre-reinforced foamed urethane (FFU)’, ‘geopolymer concrete’, ‘recycled polymer’, and ‘CarbonLoc composite’. Railway track support systems are critical for safe and reliable operations of railway tracks. There are
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Recent developments in composite materials have resulted in their pilot adoption in railway industry, such as ‘fibre-reinforced foamed urethane (FFU)’, ‘geopolymer concrete’, ‘recycled polymer’, and ‘CarbonLoc composite’. Railway track support systems are critical for safe and reliable operations of railway tracks. There are two types of support structures, which can be designed to be either a slab or a cluster of discrete bearers or sleepers. The choice of turnout support system depends on asset management strategy of the rail operators or maintainers. The aim of this paper is to present the criteria, fundamental and multi-disciplinary issues for the design and practical selection of composite materials in railway turnout systems. As a case study, a full-scale trial to investigate in-situ behaviours of a turnout grillage system using an alternative material, ‘fibre-reinforced foamed urethane (FFU)’ bearers, is presented. Influences of the composite bearers on track geometry (recorded by track inspection vehicle ‘AK Car’ and based on survey data), track settlement, track dynamics, and acoustic characteristics are highlighted in this paper. Comparative studies of composite materials for railway track applications are reviewed and presented in order to improve material design process. This state-of-the-art review paper will also focus on practicality and environmental risks of composite components in railway built environments. It embraces the requirement considerations of new materials for use as safety-critical track elements. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Railway Infrastructure Engineering)
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Open AccessArticle Performance of Two Bioswales on Urban Runoff Management
Infrastructures 2017, 2(4), 12; https://doi.org/10.3390/infrastructures2040012
Received: 22 July 2017 / Revised: 15 September 2017 / Accepted: 24 September 2017 / Published: 27 September 2017
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Abstract
This study evaluated the effectiveness of two bioswales eight years after construction in Davis, California. The treatment bioswale measured 9 m × 1 m × 1 m (L × W × D). Engineered soil mix (75% native lava rock and 25% loam soil)
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This study evaluated the effectiveness of two bioswales eight years after construction in Davis, California. The treatment bioswale measured 9 m × 1 m × 1 m (L × W × D). Engineered soil mix (75% native lava rock and 25% loam soil) replaced the native loam soil. Four Red Tip Photinia (Photinia × fraseri Dress) trees and two Blueberry Muffin Hawthorn (Rhaphiolepis umbellata (Thunb.) Makino) shrubs were planted in the bioswale. Runoff flowed into the bioswale from an adjacent 171 m2 panel of turf grass. An identically sized control bioswale consisting of non-disturbed native soil was located adjacent to the treatment bioswale. Surface runoff quantity and quality were measured during three experiments with different pollutant loads. When compared to the control, the treatment bioswale reduced surface runoff by 99.4%, and reduced nitrogen, phosphate, and total organic carbon loading by 99.1%, 99.5%, and 99.4%, respectively. After eight years, tree growth characteristics were similar across both sites. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Green Infrastructure for Sustainable Stormwater Management)
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