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Vision, Volume 6, Issue 4 (December 2022) – 14 articles

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Review
Predicting Residual Astigmatism in Cataract Surgery
Vision 2022, 6(4), 70; https://doi.org/10.3390/vision6040070 - 24 Nov 2022
Viewed by 266
Abstract
The purpose of this review is to evaluate the prediction of postoperative residual astigmatism and to determine the best prediction method for astigmatism correction. In recent findings for residual astigmatism in non-toric monofocal intraocular lens (IOL) implanted eyes, vector analysis can be used [...] Read more.
The purpose of this review is to evaluate the prediction of postoperative residual astigmatism and to determine the best prediction method for astigmatism correction. In recent findings for residual astigmatism in non-toric monofocal intraocular lens (IOL) implanted eyes, vector analysis can be used to correctly evaluate residual astigmatism by decomposing it. In predicting residual astigmatism, the with-the-rule (WTR) and against-the-rule (ATR) astigmatism components can now be almost predicted. This may be due to advances in inspection equipment and surgical technique. However, there are still issues with the oblique astigmatism component. In addition, corneal astigmatism is the most important predictor of postoperative residual astigmatism, and other predictors, such as refractive astigmatism, age, and lens thickness, have also been mentioned. However, all but corneal astigmatism are questionable because of the possibility of confounding variables. Total corneal astigmatism is more accurate in predicting residual astigmatism than anterior corneal astigmatism. Several predictions of residual astigmatism have been reported, but complete prediction has not been possible. Further research is needed, especially in predicting oblique astigmatism. However, I emphasize that the accuracy of predicting WTR and ATR astigmatism has improved considerably and can be predicted using regression equations with total corneal astigmatism. Full article
Article
Clinical Outcomes of the Implementation of IOP Monitoring, in and out of Office Time, to 1500 Patients—A Cohort Study
Vision 2022, 6(4), 69; https://doi.org/10.3390/vision6040069 - 21 Nov 2022
Viewed by 235
Abstract
Background: The aim of this study was to present the clinical outcomes of IOP monitoring in and out of office time and determine its value in our clinical practice. Material and methods: We reviewed the records of 1500 patients (glaucoma suspects or glaucoma [...] Read more.
Background: The aim of this study was to present the clinical outcomes of IOP monitoring in and out of office time and determine its value in our clinical practice. Material and methods: We reviewed the records of 1500 patients (glaucoma suspects or glaucoma patients), who were admitted for IOP monitoring during almost 12 years. All patients were hospitalized because their within-office-hours exams were considered inadequate and inconclusive for decision making. Results: A total of 744 patients (49.6% out of 1500) needed change of treatment. A total of 121 patients (8% out of 1500) were programmed for interventional therapy (laser or surgery). A total of 68 patients (4.5% out of 1500) were declassified as overdiagnosed and overtreated. In 250 patients (16.7% out of 1500), hidden adherence problem appeared. In 720 patients (48% out of 1500), peak IOP occurred during out-of-office hours. Conclusions: IOP phasing is a useful tool in clinical practice. In many cases with inconclusive diagnosis, as well as in patients with advanced or labile glaucomas, IOP monitoring data add complementary information, useful for decision making, and may contribute not only to diagnosis and successful IOP modulation, but also in personalized therapeutic strategy and individual patients’ motivation. Full article
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Review
Therapeutic Application of Virtual Reality in the Rehabilitation of Mild Cognitive Impairment: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis
Vision 2022, 6(4), 68; https://doi.org/10.3390/vision6040068 - 18 Nov 2022
Viewed by 239
Abstract
This review aimed to quantify the effect of therapeutic application of virtual reality (VR) on cognitive function in individuals with mild cognitive impairment (MCI). We searched for randomized controlled trials involving VR in the interventions provided to individuals with MCI. After searching four [...] Read more.
This review aimed to quantify the effect of therapeutic application of virtual reality (VR) on cognitive function in individuals with mild cognitive impairment (MCI). We searched for randomized controlled trials involving VR in the interventions provided to individuals with MCI. After searching four international electronic databases, we analyzed six studies involving 279 individuals with MCI. RevMan 5.4 was used for quality assessment and quantitative analysis. Therapeutic application of VR in individuals with MCI resulted in a significant improvement in cognitive function (mean difference = −1.46; 95% confidence interval: −2.53 to −0.39; heterogeneity: χ2 = 970.56, df = 18, I2 = 98%; and overall effect: Z = 2.67, p = 0.008). However, there was no significant improvement in the subcategories such as global cognition, working memory, executive function, memory function, and attention. In conclusion, feedback stimulation through VR has a potential value in improving cognitive function in individuals with MCI. However, on the basis of the results of the subcategories, a personalized VR program is required for the individual subcategories of cognitive function. Full article
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Article
Visual Field Loss: Integrating Overlayed Information to Increase the Effective Field of View
Vision 2022, 6(4), 67; https://doi.org/10.3390/vision6040067 - 11 Nov 2022
Viewed by 303
Abstract
Visual field loss is a debilitating impairment that can impact normal daily activities. The advancement of augmented and virtual realities brings opportunities for potential substitutive technologies for visual field loss. Here we outline a conceptual approach to increasing the amount of useful information [...] Read more.
Visual field loss is a debilitating impairment that can impact normal daily activities. The advancement of augmented and virtual realities brings opportunities for potential substitutive technologies for visual field loss. Here we outline a conceptual approach to increasing the amount of useful information by overlaying the blind field into the sighted field. In this proof-of-concept experiment, 33 observers were allocated to either a left or right blind condition (with a simulated scotoma). All observers completed a line bisection task in all three conditions (baseline, scotoma, manipulation), with the baseline condition always completed first. The scotoma condition (baseline with the addition of a simulated scotoma) and the manipulated condition (baseline with the addition of a simulated scotoma, and a “minified window overlay”) were randomised in order of presentation. Predictably, our results show that a simulated scotoma impaired performance on the task. However, observers were able to make use the overlay to improve their estimation of the line’s midpoint. Our results show that a substitutive augmentation of this type improved accuracy in estimating the midpoint of a line with a (simulated) scotoma. Full article
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Article
A Bayesian Statistical Model Is Able to Predict Target-by-Target Selection Behaviour in a Human Foraging Task
Vision 2022, 6(4), 66; https://doi.org/10.3390/vision6040066 - 11 Nov 2022
Viewed by 243
Abstract
Foraging refers to search involving multiple targets or multiple types of targets, and as a model task has a long history in animal behaviour and human cognition research. Foraging behaviour is usually operationalized using summary statistics, such as average distance covered during target [...] Read more.
Foraging refers to search involving multiple targets or multiple types of targets, and as a model task has a long history in animal behaviour and human cognition research. Foraging behaviour is usually operationalized using summary statistics, such as average distance covered during target collection (the path length) and the frequency of switching between target types. We recently introduced an alternative approach, which is to model each instance of target selection as random selection without replacement. Our model produces estimates of a set of foraging biases, such as a bias to select closer targets or targets of a particular category. Here we apply this model to predict individual target selection events. We add a new start position bias to the model, and generate foraging paths using the parameters estimated from individual participants’ pre-existing data. The model predicts which target the participant will select next with a range of accuracy from 43% to 69% across participants (chance is 11%). The model therefore explains a substantial proportion of foraging behaviour in this paradigm. The situations where the model makes errors reveal useful information to guide future research on those aspects of foraging that we have not yet explained. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Selected Papers from the Scottish Vision Group Meeting 2022)
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Communication
Musical Novices Are Unable to Judge Musical Quality from Brief Video Clips: A Failed Replication of Tsay (2014)
Vision 2022, 6(4), 65; https://doi.org/10.3390/vision6040065 - 09 Nov 2022
Viewed by 341
Abstract
Research focusing on “thin slicing” suggests in making judgements of others’ moods, personality traits, and relationships, we are able to make relatively reliable decisions based on a small amount of information. In some instances, this can be done in a matter of a [...] Read more.
Research focusing on “thin slicing” suggests in making judgements of others’ moods, personality traits, and relationships, we are able to make relatively reliable decisions based on a small amount of information. In some instances, this can be done in a matter of a few seconds. A similar result was found with regard to the judgement of musical quality of ensemble performances by Tsay (2014), wherein musical novices were able to reliably choose the winner of a music competition based on the visual information only (but not auditory or audiovisual information). Tsay argues that this occurs due to a lack of auditory expertise in musical novices, and that they are able to extract quality information based on visual movements with more accuracy. As part of the SCORE project (OSF, 2021), we conducted a direct replication of Tsay (2014). Findings showed that musical novices were unable to judge musical quality at a level greater than chance, and this result held for auditory, visual, and audiovisual presentation. This suggests that 6 s is not a sufficient amount of time for novices to judge the relative quality of musical performance, regardless of the modality in which they were presented. Full article
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Article
Assessing the Performance of a Novel Bayesian Algorithm at Point of Care for Red Eye Complaints
Vision 2022, 6(4), 64; https://doi.org/10.3390/vision6040064 - 24 Oct 2022
Viewed by 300
Abstract
The current diagnostic aids for red eye are static flowcharts that do not provide dynamic, stepwise workups. The diagnostic accuracy of a novel dynamic Bayesian algorithm for red eye was tested. Fifty-seven patients with red eye were evaluated by an emergency medicine physician [...] Read more.
The current diagnostic aids for red eye are static flowcharts that do not provide dynamic, stepwise workups. The diagnostic accuracy of a novel dynamic Bayesian algorithm for red eye was tested. Fifty-seven patients with red eye were evaluated by an emergency medicine physician who completed a questionnaire about symptoms/findings (without requiring extensive slit lamp findings). An ophthalmologist then attributed an independent “gold-standard diagnosis”. The algorithm used questionnaire data to suggest a differential diagnosis. The referrer’s diagnostic accuracy was 70.2%, while the algorithm’s accuracy was 68.4%, increasing to 75.4% with the algorithm’s top two diagnoses included and 80.7% with the top three included. In urgent cases of red eye (n = 26), the referrer diagnostic accuracy was 76.9%, while the algorithm’s top diagnosis was 73.1% accurate, increasing to 84.6% (top two included) and 88.5% (top three included). The algorithm’s sensitivity for urgent cases was 76.9% (95% CI: 56–91%) using its top diagnosis, with a specificity of 93.6% (95% CI: 79–99%). This novel algorithm provides dynamic workups using clinical symptoms, and may be used as an adjunct to clinical judgement for triaging the urgency of ocular causes of red eye. Full article
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Article
Vergence and Accommodation Cues in Stereo-Localization during the Small-In Large-Out (SILO) Effect
Vision 2022, 6(4), 63; https://doi.org/10.3390/vision6040063 - 18 Oct 2022
Viewed by 695
Abstract
A typical procedure in vision therapy is the use of Quoits vectograms to train fusional vergence ranges by improving stereo-localization, which is the ability to correctly locate the target stimulus in space. With this procedure, the Small-In Large-Out (SILO) effect is usually reported [...] Read more.
A typical procedure in vision therapy is the use of Quoits vectograms to train fusional vergence ranges by improving stereo-localization, which is the ability to correctly locate the target stimulus in space. With this procedure, the Small-In Large-Out (SILO) effect is usually reported in patients with normal binocular vision and accommodation. In this study, the influence of vergence and accommodation cues, as determined with the accommodative-convergence over accommodation (AC/A) ratio, to correctly locate the Quoits vectograms in space was investigated. Twenty participants, aged 29.2 ± 2.8 (mean ± standard deviation) years, without amblyopia or strabismus, were recruited. A geometrical formula was obtained to calculate the theoretical distance to the target stimulus for different vergence demands. Theoretical values were compared with measured distances to the perceived stimuli and stereo-localization accuracy was determined. Stereo-localization accuracy was significantly worse at 10∆ Base In vergence demand (p < 0.001). A statistically significant positive correlation was found between AC/A ratio and stereo-localization accuracy (i.e., worse accuracy) at 10Δ Base Out vergence demand (rho = 0.446, p = 0.049). These findings highlight that AC/A ratio may be a secondary cue for stereo-localization when using vectograms in which the SILO effect is manifest. These results assist in the understanding of the physiological basis of vision therapy procedures. Full article
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Article
Reliable, Fast and Stable Contrast Response Function Estimation
Vision 2022, 6(4), 62; https://doi.org/10.3390/vision6040062 - 17 Oct 2022
Viewed by 366
Abstract
A study was conducted to determine stable cortical contrast response functions (CRFs) accurately and repeatedly in the shortest possible experimentation time. The method consisted of searching for experimental temporal aspects (number and duration of trials and number and distribution of contrasts used) with [...] Read more.
A study was conducted to determine stable cortical contrast response functions (CRFs) accurately and repeatedly in the shortest possible experimentation time. The method consisted of searching for experimental temporal aspects (number and duration of trials and number and distribution of contrasts used) with a model based on inhomogeneous Poisson spike trains to varying contrast levels. The set of values providing both short experimental duration and maximizing fit of the CRFs were saved, and then tested on cats’ visual cortical neurons. Our analysis revealed that 4 sets of parameters with less or equal to 6 experimental visual contrasts satisfied our premise of obtaining good CRFs’ performance in a short recording period, in which the number of trials seems to be the experimental condition that stabilizes the fit. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Visual Neuroscience)
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Article
Exfoliation Syndrome and Exfoliation Glaucoma in the Navajo Nation
Vision 2022, 6(4), 61; https://doi.org/10.3390/vision6040061 - 03 Oct 2022
Viewed by 533
Abstract
(1) Background: Exfoliation syndrome (XFS) is a common cause of secondary open angle glaucoma. In 1971, Faulkner et al. estimated the prevalence of XFS among 50 Navajo Nation residents as 38%. Given that XFS can cause irreversible blindness secondary to glaucoma (XFG), this [...] Read more.
(1) Background: Exfoliation syndrome (XFS) is a common cause of secondary open angle glaucoma. In 1971, Faulkner et al. estimated the prevalence of XFS among 50 Navajo Nation residents as 38%. Given that XFS can cause irreversible blindness secondary to glaucoma (XFG), this study aims to identify the current prevalence of XFS among Navajo Nation residents within the Four Corners region of the U.S. (2) Methods: A retrospective chart review was conducted from 2016 to 2021 for patients aged 18 and older. All patients with XFS or XFG diagnosed by slit lamp exam were identified through chart review. (3) Results: Of the 1152 patient charts available for review, eight patients (11 eyes) were diagnosed with XFS with three patients (4 eyes) demonstrating concomitant XFG. Within this XFS population, 50% of the patients identified as male, with a mean age of 73 years. The overall prevalence of XFS was 0.7% and the overall prevalence of XFG was found to be 0.26%. The rate of XFG among patients with XFS was 37.5%. (4) Conclusion: Compared to Faulkner’s study of Navajo Nation residents in 1971, our findings show a considerably lower prevalence of XFS at 0.7%. We present the largest study to date of XFS among this population. Full article
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Systematic Review
“Vision Loss” and COVID-19 Infection: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis
Vision 2022, 6(4), 60; https://doi.org/10.3390/vision6040060 - 23 Sep 2022
Viewed by 745
Abstract
Background: Visual impairment in terms of reduced visual acuity and “visual loss” has been reported as an atypical symptom in patients with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection. This systematic review and meta-analysis aims to assess the cumulative incidence of “visual loss” [...] Read more.
Background: Visual impairment in terms of reduced visual acuity and “visual loss” has been reported as an atypical symptom in patients with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection. This systematic review and meta-analysis aims to assess the cumulative incidence of “visual loss” during coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) and review the current evidence regarding “visual loss” caused by SARS-CoV-2 infection. Methods: We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis of studies following Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses guidelines. We systematically searched the PubMed, Embase, and Scopus databases for relevant studies published that clearly described “vision loss” and SARS-CoV-2 infection. All studies reporting concomitant “vision loss” and laboratory-confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection were included. Meta-analyses were conducted using the measurement of risk and a 95% confidence interval for each study. Results: Our search identified 1143 manuscripts published in the English language. After study screening, twenty-nine articles were selected: two cross-sectional studies, twenty-four case reports, and three case series. A random-effect meta-analysis demonstrated that the pooled “visual loss” cumulative incidence in COVID-19 patients was 0.16 (95% CI 0.12–0.21). The quality rating of the cross-sectional studies averaged four out of the maximum score on the Newcastle–Ottawa scale. Conclusions: COVID-19 infection might cause “visual loss”. Even if the current evidence is limited, ophthalmological assessment should be promptly provided to all patients experiencing visual impairment symptoms during SARS-CoV-2 infection. Full article
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Article
The Colours of Octopus: Using Spectral Data to Measure Octopus Camouflage
Vision 2022, 6(4), 59; https://doi.org/10.3390/vision6040059 - 22 Sep 2022
Viewed by 706
Abstract
No animal can so effectively camouflage in such a wide range of environments as the octopus. Thanks to their highly malleable skin, they are capable of adapting their body patterns to the brightness and texture of their immediate environment, and they often seemingly [...] Read more.
No animal can so effectively camouflage in such a wide range of environments as the octopus. Thanks to their highly malleable skin, they are capable of adapting their body patterns to the brightness and texture of their immediate environment, and they often seemingly match the colour of background objects. However, octopuses are colour-blind as their eyes have only one type of visual pigment. Therefore, chromatophores in their skin are likely to respond to changes in brightness, not chromaticity. To determine whether octopuses actually match background colours, we used a SpectraScan® PR-655 spectroradiometer to measure the reflectance spectra of Octopus tetricus skin in captivity. The spectra were compared with those of green algae, brown algae, and sponges—all of these being colourful objects commonly found in the octopus’s natural environment. Even though we show that octopuses change both lightness and chromaticity, allowing them to potentially camouflage in a wide range of backgrounds in an effective manner, the overall octopus colours did not reach the same level of saturation compared to some background objects. Spectra were then modelled under the visual systems of four potential octopus predators: one dichromatic fish (Heller’s barracuda), two trichromatic fish (blue-spotted stingray and two-spotted red snapper), and one tetrachromatic bird (wedge-tailed shearwater). We show that octopuses are able to match certain background colours for some visual systems. How a colour-blind animal is capable of colour-matching is still unknown. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Vision in Aquatic Environment)
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Article
Fibroblast Growth Factor-2 (FGF-2) Expression in Pterygia Using Cell Spot Arrays
Vision 2022, 6(4), 58; https://doi.org/10.3390/vision6040058 - 22 Sep 2022
Viewed by 436
Abstract
Fibroblast growth factor (FGF) is a main regulator of cell differentiation, cell migration and angiogenesis in normal and abnormal conjunctiva epithelia, but specific mechanisms of its aberrant expression are yet to be investigated. In the present study, we investigated FGF-2 protein expression within [...] Read more.
Fibroblast growth factor (FGF) is a main regulator of cell differentiation, cell migration and angiogenesis in normal and abnormal conjunctiva epithelia, but specific mechanisms of its aberrant expression are yet to be investigated. In the present study, we investigated FGF-2 protein expression within several pterygia. Using a liquid-based cytology assay, we obtained cell specimens from pterygia and healthy tissues directly from patients. A combination of immunocytochemistry followed by digital image analysis showed significant overexpression of FGF-2 in all the examined pterygia. In 30/60 (50%) cases there were high levels of staining intensity, whereas in the remaining 30/60 (50%) cases there were moderate levels of expression. FGF-2 levels of the control group were significantly lower in comparison with the pterygia group. There was no significant correlation between FGF-2 levels and either sex or location of the pterygium. FGF-2 levels had a significant correlation with morphological characteristics of the pterygia. More specifically, FGF-2 levels were significantly higher in the pterygia with a fleshy morphology. Interestingly, recurrent lesions demonstrated high expression levels. An overexpression of FGF-2 has been observed frequently in pterygia, where it may play a crucial role in determining the lesion’s progression. FGF-2 upregulation correlates with the morphology of pterygia and its tendency to recur. Cell spot analysis based on liquid-based cytology is a simple, yet effective, method for detecting a broad spectrum of protein markers and could be useful in analyzing potential pterygia patient samples. Full article
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Conference Report
Abstracts of Scottish Vision Group 2022 Meeting
Vision 2022, 6(4), 57; https://doi.org/10.3390/vision6040057 - 20 Sep 2022
Viewed by 391
Abstract
Since it was first launched in 2001, the Scottish Vision Group (SVG) has been a key meeting for vision scientists in Scotland, and has attracted vision scientists from the United Kingdom, Europe and beyond. This small conference is held annually at different places [...] Read more.
Since it was first launched in 2001, the Scottish Vision Group (SVG) has been a key meeting for vision scientists in Scotland, and has attracted vision scientists from the United Kingdom, Europe and beyond. This small conference is held annually at different places in Scotland. Its friendly atmosphere and stunning Scottish sceneries provide a great environment for relaxed scientific discussions. In particular, it is an excellent opportunity for scientists at an early stage of their career to give a talk about their work. The 2022 edition of SVG was held in St Leonard’s Hall at the University of Edinburgh. The meeting started with a panel discussion on camouflage led by Prof Nick Scott-Samuel (University of Bristol), Dr George Lovell (Abertay University) and Dr Rebecca Sharman (Abertay University). Research into camouflage has expanded remarkably over the last decade or so, with interdisciplinarity proving to be a key feature for progress. The discussion focussed on the different types of objectives and research techniques that are prominent in the field. The round table was sponsored by Meta Reality Labs. In the keynote lecture, sponsored by MDPI Vision, Prof Ute Leonards (University of Bristol) discussed the outcomes of her research programme investigating the crosstalk between visual cognition research and locomotion research. The outcomes of this Gibsonian approach do not just provide important insights into active vision but also outline the promising possibilities of sustainable urban design inspired by vision sciences. The rest of the conference was dedicated to talks on a variety of topics, including, but not limited to, attention, eye movements, visual search, motion perception, multisensory perception, colour and 3D vision. We present a selection of these abstracts. An associated Special Issue captures in fuller detail some of the research presented at SVG’s 2022 edition. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Selected Papers from the Scottish Vision Group Meeting 2022)
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