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J. Funct. Morphol. Kinesiol., Volume 6, Issue 4 (December 2021) – 7 articles

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Systematic Review
Effects of Warm-Up on Sprint Swimming Performance, Rating of Perceived Exertion, and Blood Lactate Concentration: A Systematic Review
J. Funct. Morphol. Kinesiol. 2021, 6(4), 85; https://doi.org/10.3390/jfmk6040085 - 19 Oct 2021
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Abstract
(1) Background: warm-ups precede physical exertion and has been shown to have positive and negative effects on performance. Positive effects include elevating body temperature, heart rate, and VO2. Negative effects include increasing fatigue and blood lactate concentration. The most effective warm-up [...] Read more.
(1) Background: warm-ups precede physical exertion and has been shown to have positive and negative effects on performance. Positive effects include elevating body temperature, heart rate, and VO2. Negative effects include increasing fatigue and blood lactate concentration. The most effective warm-up format is still unknown, particularly in competitive swimming. The purpose of this systematic review was to determine the most beneficial warm-up for maximal performance in sprint swimming events; (2) Methods: a structured search was carried out following the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic review and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines in the PubMed, SportDiscus, and Google Scholar databases until March 2021. Studies with double-blind and randomized designs in which different types of warm-up were compared to each other or an identical placebo condition (no warm-up) were considered. Fourteen published studies were included. The effects of warm-up on sprint swimming performance, rating of perceived exertion (RPE) and blood lactate concentration (La) were investigated. (3) Results: in half of the studies, swimmers performed significantly better after a regular warm-up; however, the effect of warm-up on performance was small. Warm-ups had a medium to large effect on RPE and a small to medium effect on La. (4) Conclusions: the findings of this review suggest that warm-ups do influence performance, although the magnitude is small. Future studies are needed in larger populations to clarify whether warm ups improve swim performance, to what extent, and the potential role of variables related to participant characteristics and swimming competitions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Challenges of Open Water Swimmers)
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Article
Protections in the Recreational Practice of Ski and Snowboard—An Age and Gender Discussion? A Case Study in Spain
J. Funct. Morphol. Kinesiol. 2021, 6(4), 84; https://doi.org/10.3390/jfmk6040084 - 14 Oct 2021
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Abstract
The objective of this research was to evaluate the protections taken by ski and snowboard recreational athletes of the winter stations Sierra Nevada and Alto Campoo (Spain), regarding gender, age, and practiced sport. A total of 520 users participated, Sierra Nevada (n [...] Read more.
The objective of this research was to evaluate the protections taken by ski and snowboard recreational athletes of the winter stations Sierra Nevada and Alto Campoo (Spain), regarding gender, age, and practiced sport. A total of 520 users participated, Sierra Nevada (n = 306 (58.8%)); Alto Campoo (n = 214 (42.2%)), 257 of them were men (49.4%) and 263 (50.6%) were women, from 6 to 64 years old, classified by 4 stages of development (Childhood (n = 106 (20.4%)); Teenagers (n = 110 (21.2%)); Youth (n = 101 (19.4%)); Adults (n = 203 (39.0%))). For the data collection, an Ad Hoc questionnaire was used (Socio-demographic data, use/no use of protection). The data revealed that 23.5% of the participants did not use any protection. Regarding the development stage, 1% of the children did not use any protection, neither did 3.1% of the teenagers, 6.7% of the youth, or 12.7% of the adults (p < 0.001). Regarding gender, a total of 17.1% of men did not use protection, and regarding women, 6.3% of them did not use it (p < 0.001). In relation to the practiced sport, 15.8% of the skiers did not use it against 7.7% of the snowboarders (p = 0.006). The use of protection for the practice in winter sports is not enough to reduce the injury risk in these sports and, in the worst cases, fatal accidents. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Health and Performance through Sports at All Ages)
Article
Association of Performance in Strength and Plyometric Tests with Change of Direction Performance in Young Female Team-Sport Athletes
J. Funct. Morphol. Kinesiol. 2021, 6(4), 83; https://doi.org/10.3390/jfmk6040083 - 14 Oct 2021
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Abstract
The change of direction (COD) ability is a task-specific skill dependent on different factors such as the degree of the turn, which has led to differentiating CODs as more force- (>90°) or velocity-oriented (<90°). Considering force and velocity requirements is of importance when [...] Read more.
The change of direction (COD) ability is a task-specific skill dependent on different factors such as the degree of the turn, which has led to differentiating CODs as more force- (>90°) or velocity-oriented (<90°). Considering force and velocity requirements is of importance when designing sport-specific training programs for enhancing COD performance. Thus, 25 female handball and soccer players participated in this study, which investigated the association between three different strength and plyometric exercises and force- and velocity-oriented COD performance. By utilizing the median split analysis, the participants were further divided into a fast (n = 8) and a slow (n = 8) COD group, to investigate differences in step kinematics between fast and slow performers. The correlational analysis revealed that the bilateral back squat and unilateral quarter squat were significantly associated with several force- and velocity-oriented COD performance (r = −0.46 to −0.64), while the association between plyometric and COD performance was limited (r < 0.44). The fast COD group revealed higher levels of strength, jump height, peak velocities, higher step frequencies, shorter ground contact times, and greater acceleration and braking power (d > 1.29, p < 0.03). It was concluded that the observed correlation between strength and COD performance might be due to stronger athletes being able to produce more workload in a shorter time, which was supported by the step kinematics. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Exercise Evaluation and Prescription-2nd Edition)
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Article
Trunk Angle Modulates Feedforward and Feedback Control during Single-Limb Squatting
J. Funct. Morphol. Kinesiol. 2021, 6(4), 82; https://doi.org/10.3390/jfmk6040082 - 07 Oct 2021
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Abstract
Trunk positioning and unexpected perturbations are high-risk conditions at the time of anterior cruciate ligament injury. The influence of trunk positioning on motor control responses to perturbation during dynamic performance is not known. We tested the influence of trunk position on feedforward and [...] Read more.
Trunk positioning and unexpected perturbations are high-risk conditions at the time of anterior cruciate ligament injury. The influence of trunk positioning on motor control responses to perturbation during dynamic performance is not known. We tested the influence of trunk position on feedforward and feedback control during unexpected perturbations while performing a novel single-limb squatting task. We also assessed the degree that feedforward control was predictive of feedback responses. In the flexed trunk condition, there were increased quadriceps (p < 0.026) and gluteus medius long-latency reflexes (p < 0.001) and greater quadriceps-to-hamstrings co-contraction during feedforward (p = 0.017) and feedback (p = 0.007) time bins. Soleus long-latency reflexes increased more than 100% from feedforward muscle activity regardless of trunk condition. Feedforward muscle activity differentially predicted long-latency reflex responses depending on the muscle (R2: 0.47–0.97). These findings support the concept that trunk positioning influences motor control responses to perturbation and that feedback responses may be invariant to the feedforward control strategy. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Gait and Posture)
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Article
Effectiveness of On-Court Resistive Warm-Ups on Change of Direction Speed and Smash Velocity during a Simulated Badminton Match Play in Well-Trained Players
J. Funct. Morphol. Kinesiol. 2021, 6(4), 81; https://doi.org/10.3390/jfmk6040081 - 27 Sep 2021
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Abstract
In badminton, power production can be enhanced through the fundamental practice of a dynamic warm-up with resistance conditioning activity to induce a post-activation performance enhancement (PAPE) effect. The use of heavy resistance exercise in the form of heavy weights to induce PAPE during [...] Read more.
In badminton, power production can be enhanced through the fundamental practice of a dynamic warm-up with resistance conditioning activity to induce a post-activation performance enhancement (PAPE) effect. The use of heavy resistance exercise in the form of heavy weights to induce PAPE during competition is not logistically practical in the badminton arena. Thus, there is a need to investigate the use of easily available alternative preconditioning stimuli to induce a similar potentiating effect in badminton-specific performance. This study adopted a repeated-measures design of three warm-up conditions: control (CON), weighted wearable resistance (WWR), and resistance band variable resistance (BVR). Fourteen badminton players from the national training squad (11 males, 3 females, age 18 ± 1 y) completed the experimental sessions in random order. Change of direction speed (CODS) and smash velocity (SV) tests were performed at five timepoints—baseline test after the warm-up and at the end of each of the four exercise blocks of a simulated match play protocol. CODS was significantly faster under the two resistance warm-up conditions (WWR and BVR) compared to the CON condition at baseline (−0.2 s ± 0.39 and −0.2 s ± 0.46, p = 0.001 and 0.03, g = 0.47 and 0.40, respectively), but there were no differences at the other timepoints (all p > 0.05). SV was significantly faster for all the four exercise blocks than at baseline under all three warm-up conditions (p = 0.02), but there were no differences in SV between the three warm-up conditions across all the five measured timepoints (p = 0.15). In conclusion, implementing resistance (~10% body weight) in sport-specific plyometric exercises using WWR or BVR during warm-up routines may induce PAPE effects on the change of direction speed but not smash velocity, in well-trained badminton players, as compared with the same warm-up exercises using bodyweight (i.e., CON condition). The positive effects of CODS were, however, observed only at the start of the match and possibly lasted for up to between 5 and 10 min of match play. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Applied Sport Physiology and Performance - 2nd Edition)
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Article
Tensiomyographic Responses to Warm-Up Protocols in Collegiate Male Soccer Athletes
J. Funct. Morphol. Kinesiol. 2021, 6(4), 80; https://doi.org/10.3390/jfmk6040080 - 23 Sep 2021
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Abstract
The mechanical properties of knee flexors and extensors in 15 collegiate male soccer players following different warm-up protocols [small-sided games (SSG), dynamic (DYN), and plyometric (PLY)] were evaluated. Tensiomyography (TMG) was used to assess contraction time (Tc), delay time (Td) and maximal displacement [...] Read more.
The mechanical properties of knee flexors and extensors in 15 collegiate male soccer players following different warm-up protocols [small-sided games (SSG), dynamic (DYN), and plyometric (PLY)] were evaluated. Tensiomyography (TMG) was used to assess contraction time (Tc), delay time (Td) and maximal displacement (Dm) of the rectus femoris (RF) and biceps femoris (BF) of both legs before and after each warm-up, while countermovement jump height variables, 20 m sprint, t-test and sit-and-reach were measured following the warm-ups. TMG was analyzed using a three-way [condition × time × leg] ANOVA, while performance variables were analyzed with a repeated measures ANOVA. Main effects of time were observed for BF-Tc (p = 0.035), RF-Td (p < 0.001), and BF-Td, (p = 0.008), and a main effect of condition was seen for RF-Tc (p = 0.038). Moreover, participants’ 20 m sprint improved following SSG (p = 0.021) compared to DYN and PLY. Sit-and-reach was greater following PLY (p = 0.021). No significant interactions were noted for the measured TMG variables. Warm-up-specific improvements were demonstrated in sprint speed and flexibility following SSG and PLY, respectively. The present study revealed changes in certain TMG measures following the warm-ups that suggest enhanced response of lower leg muscles regardless of specific activities used. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Exercise Evaluation and Prescription-2nd Edition)
Article
The Associations between Asymmetric Handgrip Strength and Chronic Disease Status in American Adults: Results from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey
J. Funct. Morphol. Kinesiol. 2021, 6(4), 79; https://doi.org/10.3390/jfmk6040079 - 23 Sep 2021
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Abstract
This study examined the associations between asymmetric handgrip strength (HGS) and multimorbidity in American adults. Secondary analyses of data from persons aged at least 40 years from the 2011–2012 and 2013–2014 waves of the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey were conducted. A [...] Read more.
This study examined the associations between asymmetric handgrip strength (HGS) and multimorbidity in American adults. Secondary analyses of data from persons aged at least 40 years from the 2011–2012 and 2013–2014 waves of the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey were conducted. A handheld dynamometer collected HGS on each hand and persons with a strength imbalance >10% between hands were classified as having asymmetric HGS. Adults with the presence of ≥2 of the following conditions had multimorbidity: cardiovascular disease, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, chronic kidney disease, asthma, arthritis, cancer, obesity, stroke, hypertension, high cholesterol, and diabetes. Of the n = 3483 participants included, n = 2700 (77.5%) had multimorbidity. A greater proportion of adults with multimorbidity had HGS asymmetry (n = 1234 (45.7%)), compared to persons living without multimorbidity (n = 314 (40.1%); p < 0.05). Relative to individuals without asymmetry, adults with asymmetric HGS had 1.31 (95% confidence interval (CI): 1.03–1.67) greater odds for multimorbidity. Moreover, persons with HGS asymmetry had 1.22 (CI: 1.04–1.44) greater odds for accumulating morbidities. Asymmetric strength, as another indicator of diminished muscle function, is linked to chronic morbidity status. Healthcare providers should recommend healthy behaviors for reducing asymmetries to improve muscle function and mitigate morbidity risk after completing asymmetry screenings. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Motor Control and Rehabilitation)
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