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Fishes, Volume 3, Issue 4 (December 2018)

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Open AccessCase Report Outbreak of Mortality Associated with Acipenser Iridovirus European (AcIV-E) Detection in Siberian Sturgeon (Acipenser baerii) Farmed in Sweden
Received: 5 September 2018 / Revised: 27 September 2018 / Accepted: 5 October 2018 / Published: 16 October 2018
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Abstract
Infectious disease is a major challenge in aquaculture and poses a constraint for the development of farming of new species. In 2017, Siberian sturgeon (Acipenser baerii) juveniles were imported from Italy to a Swedish farm. Transport conditions were suboptimal. Thirty percent
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Infectious disease is a major challenge in aquaculture and poses a constraint for the development of farming of new species. In 2017, Siberian sturgeon (Acipenser baerii) juveniles were imported from Italy to a Swedish farm. Transport conditions were suboptimal. Thirty percent died during transport and within the first days after arrival. Ten days after arrival, mortalities started to occur again, which prompted initiation of an investigation into the mortalities. Diseased fish were transported live to the National Veterinary Institute (SVA) for necropsy and further analysis. Pathological and histopathological investigation was conducted. Virology was performed on gills and internal organs by cell culture isolation and using specific PCR protocols against nervous necrosis virus (NNV) and Acipenser iridovirus European (AcIV-E). The juveniles displayed neurological signs such as lethargy, inability to maintain an upright position, and erratic swimming. Body condition was below normal, and gills were pale. One fish had petechial hemorrhages on the abdomen and the snout. Two specimens had intestinal hyperemia. Ventricles were air-filled, and swim bladders were deflated. Viral cell cultures gave negative results, but PCR analysis of gills and internal organs detected the presence of AcIV-E. We conclude that AcIV-E was associated with disease and high mortality in the sturgeon juveniles, and stress probably aggravated the course of the infection. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Viral Diseases of Fish and Shellfish)
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Open AccessReview Biological and Ecological Roles of External Fish Mucus: A Review
Received: 20 September 2018 / Revised: 3 October 2018 / Accepted: 3 October 2018 / Published: 9 October 2018
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Abstract
Fish mucus layers are the main surface of exchange between fish and the environment, and they possess important biological and ecological functions. Fish mucus research is increasing rapidly, along with the development of high-throughput techniques, which allow the simultaneous study of numerous genes
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Fish mucus layers are the main surface of exchange between fish and the environment, and they possess important biological and ecological functions. Fish mucus research is increasing rapidly, along with the development of high-throughput techniques, which allow the simultaneous study of numerous genes and molecules, enabling a deeper understanding of the fish mucus composition and its functions. Fish mucus plays a major role against fish infections, and research has mostly focused on the study of fish mucus bioactive molecules (e.g., antimicrobial peptides and immune-related molecules) and associated microbiota due to their potential in aquaculture and human medicine. However, external fish mucus surfaces also play important roles in social relationships between conspecifics (fish shoaling, spawning synchronisation, suitable habitat finding, or alarm signals) and in interspecific interactions such as prey-predator relationships, parasite–host interactions, and symbiosis. This article reviews the biological and ecological roles of external (gills and skin) fish mucus, discussing its importance in fish protection against pathogens and in intra and interspecific interactions. We also discuss the advances that “omics” sciences are bringing into the fish mucus research and their importance in studying the fish mucus composition and functions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Mucosal Health in Aquaculture Organisms)
Open AccessAddendum Addendum: Lindseth, A. and Lobel, P.S. Underwater Soundscape Monitoring and Fish Bioacoustics: A Review. Fishes 2018, 3, 36
Received: 8 October 2018 / Accepted: 8 October 2018 / Published: 8 October 2018
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Abstract
Two videos have been added to the original manuscript [1] as supplementary material together with a description of the recording method.[...] Full article
Open AccessArticle Assessing the Viability of Reintroduction of Locally Extinct Migratory Fish Brycon orbignyanus: Successful Growth, Dispersal and Maturation
Received: 3 August 2018 / Revised: 26 September 2018 / Accepted: 26 September 2018 / Published: 1 October 2018
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Abstract
The reintroduction of threatened fish species in areas where wild populations have been depleted due to anthropogenic impacts is an increasingly popular conservation tool and mitigation policy. Despite the importance of fish reintroduction for conservation purposes, little is known about its efficiency. Here,
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The reintroduction of threatened fish species in areas where wild populations have been depleted due to anthropogenic impacts is an increasingly popular conservation tool and mitigation policy. Despite the importance of fish reintroduction for conservation purposes, little is known about its efficiency. Here, we assessed the viability of reintroduction of the endangered migratory fish, Brycon orbignyanus, in an area of the Upper Uruguay River basin where the species has not been reported for more than 30 years. We released 4000 yearling juveniles in the Pelotas River in 2014 and maintained 400 juveniles in captivity as a control population. After three years, a total of 13 individuals was recaptured, of which, 10 were considered sexually mature with first maturation being recorded in animals larger than 42 cm in total body length. The age–length comparison with a control population growth curve showed that recaptured fish were slightly bigger than those in captivity. Furthermore, important ecological attributes as schooling behavior and dispersal capacity were recorded for all recaptured individuals. Combined, our results suggest that the re-establishment of a self-sustained population of locally extinct species B. orbignyanus in the Pelotas River may be successful if sustained over time and supported by conservation policies. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Relative Mass of Brain- and Intestinal Tissue in Juvenile Brown Trout: No Long-Term Effects of Compensatory Growth; with Additional Notes on Emerging Sex-Differences
Received: 8 August 2018 / Revised: 25 September 2018 / Accepted: 26 September 2018 / Published: 28 September 2018
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Abstract
This study investigated whether compensatory growth causes long-term effects in relative brain- or intestine size in a wild, predominantly anadromous, population of brown trout (Salmo trutta). The subject fish belonged to two treatment groups; one group had undergone starvation and subsequent
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This study investigated whether compensatory growth causes long-term effects in relative brain- or intestine size in a wild, predominantly anadromous, population of brown trout (Salmo trutta). The subject fish belonged to two treatment groups; one group had undergone starvation and subsequent growth compensation, while the other were unrestricted controls. The main hypothesis that compensatory growth would negatively affect brain and intestinal size, as a consequence of growth trade-offs during the compensatory phase, could not be supported as no significant differences were detected between the treatment groups. Further exploratory analyses suggested that males and females started to diverge in both brain and intestine size at around 130 mm fork length, with females developing relatively smaller brains and larger intestines. The size at which the differences appear is a typical size for smoltification (saltwater preadaptation), and females tend to smoltify to a higher proportion than males. Smoltification is known to cause a more elongated morphology and relatively smaller heads in salmonids, and the marine lifestyle is associated with rapid growth, which could require relatively larger intestines. Hence, these emerging sex differences could be a consequence of sex-biased smoltification rates. An investigation of wild smolts of both sexes indicated no differences in brain or intestine mass between male and female smolts. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Invasive Rainbow Trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) Are Not Affected by Different Land Uses in a Multi-Use, Mediterranean Climate Landscape
Received: 1 August 2018 / Revised: 20 September 2018 / Accepted: 21 September 2018 / Published: 26 September 2018
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Abstract
Land use carries implications for freshwater fish conservation. Plantation forestry practices have been shown to have negative impacts on resident fish fauna, but little work has been conducted to assess these impacts on invasive vs. native fish populations. Ten headwater catchments in the
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Land use carries implications for freshwater fish conservation. Plantation forestry practices have been shown to have negative impacts on resident fish fauna, but little work has been conducted to assess these impacts on invasive vs. native fish populations. Ten headwater catchments in the Mediterranean climate zone of Chile were used to assess the impacts of land use (pine plantations vs. native forests) on fish condition (length-weight relationship) and abundance (catch-per-unit-effort (CPUE)) of the invasive trout Oncorhynchus mykiss and the threatened native catfish Nematogenys inermis. Negative impacts on trout condition were associated with a lack of canopy cover and river topology. The presence of N. inermis was associated with catchment factors less favourable to trout. Current environmental regulations and forestry management practices do not appear to create negative pressures on invasive trout from land use practices, despite expectations from the literature. Assessing how land use management regulations impact invasive and native fishes should be a part of species conservation and territorial planning. Full article
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