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Tomography, Volume 7, Issue 4 (December 2021) – 40 articles

Cover Story (view full-size image): This paper evaluates the reliability and reproducibility of a semi-automated method of calculating total kidney volumes (TKVs) in patients with autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD). TKVs correlate with progression to end stage renal disease (ESRD) as higher number and increasing size of cysts continuously compromises renal function, however a simple and reliable method of measurement has been challenging to develop. Our method addresses prior limitations without requiring additional MRI sequences or significant extra time on the part of the radiologist to interpret the examination. Clinicians are provided with an additional tool in managing their ADPKD patients as new treatments are developed and come to market.View this paper
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Article
Practical Application of DaTQUANT with Optimal Threshold for Diagnostic Accuracy of Dopamine Transporter SPECT
Tomography 2021, 7(4), 980-989; https://doi.org/10.3390/tomography7040081 - 18 Dec 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1946
Abstract
Evaluation of Parkinsonian Syndromes (PS) with Ioflupane iodine-123 dopamine transporter single photon emission computed tomography (DaT-SPECT), in conjunction with history and clinical examination, aids in diagnosis. FDA-approved, semi-quantitative software, DaTQUANTTM (GE Healthcare, Chicago, IL, USA) is available to assist in interpretation. This [...] Read more.
Evaluation of Parkinsonian Syndromes (PS) with Ioflupane iodine-123 dopamine transporter single photon emission computed tomography (DaT-SPECT), in conjunction with history and clinical examination, aids in diagnosis. FDA-approved, semi-quantitative software, DaTQUANTTM (GE Healthcare, Chicago, IL, USA) is available to assist in interpretation. This study aims to evaluate the optimal variables and thresholds of DaTQUANT to yield the optimal diagnostic accuracy. It is a retrospective review with three different patient populations. DaT-SPECT images from all three study groups were evaluated using DaTQUANTTM software, and both single and multi-variable logistic regression were used to model PS status. The optimal models were chosen via accuracy, sensitivity, and specificity, then evaluated on the other study groups. Among single variable models, the posterior putamen yielded the highest accuracy (84% to 95%), while balancing sensitivity and specificity. Multi-variable models did not substantially improve the accuracy. When the optimal single variable models for each group were used to evaluate the remaining two groups, comparable results were achieved. In typical utilization of DaT-SPECT for differentiation between nigrostriatal degenerative disease (NSDD) and non-NSDD, the posterior putamen was the single variable that yielded the highest accuracy across three different patient populations. The posterior putamen’s recommended thresholds for DaTQUANT are SBR ≤ 1.0, z-score of ≤−1.8 and percent deviation ≤ −0.34. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Neuro-Imaging in Parkinson’s Disease)
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Article
Abdominal Imaging Utilization during the First COVID-19 Surge and Utility of Abdominal MRI
Tomography 2021, 7(4), 972-979; https://doi.org/10.3390/tomography7040080 - 15 Dec 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1571
Abstract
We sought to determine relative utilization of abdominal imaging modalities in coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients at a single institution during the first surge and evaluate whether abdominal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) changed diagnosis and management. 1107 COVID-19 patients who had abdominal imaging [...] Read more.
We sought to determine relative utilization of abdominal imaging modalities in coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients at a single institution during the first surge and evaluate whether abdominal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) changed diagnosis and management. 1107 COVID-19 patients who had abdominal imaging were analyzed for modality and imaging setting. Patients who underwent abdominal MRI were reviewed to determine impact on management. Of 2259 examinations, 80% were inpatient, 14% were emergency, and 6% were outpatient consisting of 55% radiograph (XR), 31% computed tomography (CT), 13% ultrasound (US), and 0.6% MRI. Among 1107 patients, abdominal MRI was performed in 12 within 100 days of positive SARS-CoV-2 PCR. Indications were unrelated to COVID-19 in 75% while MRI was performed for workup of acute liver dysfunction in 25%. In 1 of 12 patients, MRI resulted in change to management unrelated to COVID-19 diagnosis. During the first surge of COVID-19 at one institution, the most common abdominal imaging examinations were radiographs and CT followed by ultrasound with the majority being performed as inpatients. Future COVID-19 surges may place disproportionate demands on inpatient abdominal radiography and CT resources. Abdominal MRI was rarely performed and did not lead to change in diagnosis or management related to COVID-19 but needs higher patient numbers for accurate assessment of utility. Full article
Article
Qualitative Heterogeneous Signal Drop on Chemical Shift (CS) MR Imaging: Correlative Quantitative Analysis between CS Signal Intensity Index and Contrast Washout Parameters Using T1-Weighted Sequences
Tomography 2021, 7(4), 961-971; https://doi.org/10.3390/tomography7040079 - 14 Dec 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1366
Abstract
The aim of this study was to calculate MRI quantitative parameters extracted from chemical-shift (CS) and dynamic contrast-enhanced (DCE) T1-weighted (T1-WS) images of adrenal lesions (AL) with qualitative heterogeneous signal drop on CS T1-WS and compare them to those of AL with homogeneous [...] Read more.
The aim of this study was to calculate MRI quantitative parameters extracted from chemical-shift (CS) and dynamic contrast-enhanced (DCE) T1-weighted (T1-WS) images of adrenal lesions (AL) with qualitative heterogeneous signal drop on CS T1-WS and compare them to those of AL with homogeneous or no signal drop on CS T1-WS. On 3 T MRI, 65 patients with a total of 72 AL were studied. CS images were qualitatively assessed for grouping AL as showing homogeneous (Group 1, n = 19), heterogeneous (Group 2, n = 23), and no (Group 3, n = 30) signal drop. Histopathology or follow-up data served as reference standard to classify AL. ROIs were drawn both on CS and DCE images to obtain adrenal CS signal intensity index (ASII), absolute (AWO), and relative washout (RWO) values. Quantitative parameters (QP) were compared with ANOVA analysis and post hoc Dunn’s test. The performance of QP to classify AL was assessed with receiver operating characteristic analysis. CS ASII values were significantly different among the three groups (p < 0.001) with median values of 71%, 53%, and 3%, respectively. AWO/RWO values were similar in Groups 1 (adenomas) and 2 (benign AL) but significantly (p < 0.001) lower in Group 3 (20 benign AL and 10 malignant AL). With cut-offs, respectively, of 60% (Group 1 vs. 2), 20% (Group 2 vs. 3), and 37% (Group 1 vs. 3), CS ASII showed areas under the curve of 0.85, 0.96, and 0.93 for the classification of AL, overall higher than AWO/RWO. In conclusion, AL with qualitative heterogeneous signal drop at CS represent benign AL with QP by DCE sequence similar to those of AL with homogeneous signal drop at CS, but different to those of AL with no signal drop at CS; ASII seems to be the only quantitative parameter able to differentiate AL among the three different groups. Full article
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Article
Evaluation of a Deep Learning Algorithm for Automated Spleen Segmentation in Patients with Conditions Directly or Indirectly Affecting the Spleen
Tomography 2021, 7(4), 950-960; https://doi.org/10.3390/tomography7040078 - 13 Dec 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1659
Abstract
The aim of this study was to develop a deep learning-based algorithm for fully automated spleen segmentation using CT images and to evaluate the performance in conditions directly or indirectly affecting the spleen (e.g., splenomegaly, ascites). For this, a 3D U-Net was trained [...] Read more.
The aim of this study was to develop a deep learning-based algorithm for fully automated spleen segmentation using CT images and to evaluate the performance in conditions directly or indirectly affecting the spleen (e.g., splenomegaly, ascites). For this, a 3D U-Net was trained on an in-house dataset (n = 61) including diseases with and without splenic involvement (in-house U-Net), and an open-source dataset from the Medical Segmentation Decathlon (open dataset, n = 61) without splenic abnormalities (open U-Net). Both datasets were split into a training (n = 32.52%), a validation (n = 9.15%) and a testing dataset (n = 20.33%). The segmentation performances of the two models were measured using four established metrics, including the Dice Similarity Coefficient (DSC). On the open test dataset, the in-house and open U-Net achieved a mean DSC of 0.906 and 0.897 respectively (p = 0.526). On the in-house test dataset, the in-house U-Net achieved a mean DSC of 0.941, whereas the open U-Net obtained a mean DSC of 0.648 (p < 0.001), showing very poor segmentation results in patients with abnormalities in or surrounding the spleen. Thus, for reliable, fully automated spleen segmentation in clinical routine, the training dataset of a deep learning-based algorithm should include conditions that directly or indirectly affect the spleen. Full article
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Article
Degradation-Aware Deep Learning Framework for Sparse-View CT Reconstruction
Tomography 2021, 7(4), 932-949; https://doi.org/10.3390/tomography7040077 - 09 Dec 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1718
Abstract
Sparse-view CT reconstruction is a fundamental task in computed tomography to overcome undesired artifacts and recover the details of textual structure in degraded CT images. Recently, many deep learning-based networks have achieved desirable performances compared to iterative reconstruction algorithms. However, the performance of [...] Read more.
Sparse-view CT reconstruction is a fundamental task in computed tomography to overcome undesired artifacts and recover the details of textual structure in degraded CT images. Recently, many deep learning-based networks have achieved desirable performances compared to iterative reconstruction algorithms. However, the performance of these methods may severely deteriorate when the degradation strength of the test image is not consistent with that of the training dataset. In addition, these methods do not pay enough attention to the characteristics of different degradation levels, so solely extending the training dataset with multiple degraded images is also not effective. Although training plentiful models in terms of each degradation level can mitigate this problem, extensive parameter storage is involved. Accordingly, in this paper, we focused on sparse-view CT reconstruction for multiple degradation levels. We propose a single degradation-aware deep learning framework to predict clear CT images by understanding the disparity of degradation in both the frequency domain and image domain. The dual-domain procedure can perform particular operations at different degradation levels in frequency component recovery and spatial details reconstruction. The peak signal-to-noise ratio (PSNR), structural similarity (SSIM) and visual results demonstrate that our method outperformed the classical deep learning-based reconstruction methods in terms of effectiveness and scalability. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advance in CT Imaging Using Deep Learning)
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Article
Longitudinal Assessment Using Optical Coherence Tomography in Patients with Friedreich’s Ataxia
Tomography 2021, 7(4), 915-931; https://doi.org/10.3390/tomography7040076 - 08 Dec 2021
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1622
Abstract
Ocular abnormalities occur frequently in Friedreich’s ataxia (FRDA), although visual symptoms are not always reported. We evaluated a cohort of patients with FRDA to characterise the clinical phenotype and optic nerve findings as detected with optical coherence tomography (OCT). A total of 48 [...] Read more.
Ocular abnormalities occur frequently in Friedreich’s ataxia (FRDA), although visual symptoms are not always reported. We evaluated a cohort of patients with FRDA to characterise the clinical phenotype and optic nerve findings as detected with optical coherence tomography (OCT). A total of 48 patients from 42 unrelated families were recruited. Mean age at onset was 13.8 years (range 4–40), mean disease duration 19.5 years (range 5–43), mean disease severity as quantified with the Scale for the Assessment and Rating of Ataxia 22/40 (range 4.5–38). All patients displayed variable ataxia and two-thirds had ocular abnormalities. Statistically significant thinning of average retinal nerve fibre layer (RNFL) and thinning in all but the temporal quadrant compared to controls was demonstrated on OCT. Significant RNFL and macular thinning was documented over time in 20 individuals. Disease severity and visual acuity were correlated with RNFL and macular thickness, but no association was found with disease duration. Our results highlight that FDRA is associated with subclinical optic neuropathy. This is the largest longitudinal study of OCT findings in FRDA to date, demonstrating progressive RNFL thickness decline, suggesting that RNFL thickness as measured by OCT has the potential to become a quantifiable biomarker for the evaluation of disease progression in FRDA. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Neuroimaging)
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Review
Diastolic Cardiac Function by MRI—Imaging Capabilities and Clinical Applications
Tomography 2021, 7(4), 893-914; https://doi.org/10.3390/tomography7040075 - 08 Dec 2021
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1972
Abstract
Most cardiac studies focus on evaluating left ventricular (LV) systolic function. However, the assessment of diastolic cardiac function is becoming more appreciated, especially with the increasing prevalence of pathologies associated with diastolic dysfunction like heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF). Diastolic dysfunction [...] Read more.
Most cardiac studies focus on evaluating left ventricular (LV) systolic function. However, the assessment of diastolic cardiac function is becoming more appreciated, especially with the increasing prevalence of pathologies associated with diastolic dysfunction like heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF). Diastolic dysfunction is an indication of abnormal mechanical properties of the myocardium, characterized by slow or delayed myocardial relaxation, abnormal LV distensibility, and/or impaired LV filling. Diastolic dysfunction has been shown to be associated with age and other cardiovascular risk factors such as hypertension and diabetes mellitus. In this context, cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has the capability for differentiating between normal and abnormal myocardial relaxation patterns, and therefore offers the prospect of early detection of diastolic dysfunction. Although diastolic cardiac function can be assessed from the ratio between early and atrial filling peaks (E/A ratio), measuring different parameters of heart contractility during diastole allows for evaluating spatial and temporal patterns of cardiac function with the potential for illustrating subtle changes related to age, gender, or other differences among different patient populations. In this article, we review different MRI techniques for evaluating diastolic function along with clinical applications and findings in different heart diseases. Full article
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Article
Convolutional Neural Network Addresses the Confounding Impact of CT Reconstruction Kernels on Radiomics Studies
Tomography 2021, 7(4), 877-892; https://doi.org/10.3390/tomography7040074 - 03 Dec 2021
Viewed by 1789
Abstract
Achieving high feature reproducibility while preserving biological information is one of the main challenges for the generalizability of current radiomics studies. Non-clinical imaging variables, such as reconstruction kernels, have shown to significantly impact radiomics features. In this study, we retrain an open-source convolutional [...] Read more.
Achieving high feature reproducibility while preserving biological information is one of the main challenges for the generalizability of current radiomics studies. Non-clinical imaging variables, such as reconstruction kernels, have shown to significantly impact radiomics features. In this study, we retrain an open-source convolutional neural network (CNN) to harmonize computerized tomography (CT) images with various reconstruction kernels to improve feature reproducibility and radiomic model performance using epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) mutation prediction in lung cancer as a paradigm. In the training phase, the CNN was retrained and tested on 32 lung cancer patients’ CT images between two different groups of reconstruction kernels (smooth and sharp). In the validation phase, the retrained CNN was validated on an external cohort of 223 lung cancer patients’ CT images acquired using different CT scanners and kernels. The results showed that the retrained CNN could be successfully applied to external datasets with different CT scanner parameters, and harmonization of reconstruction kernels from sharp to smooth could significantly improve the performance of radiomics model in predicting EGFR mutation status in lung cancer. In conclusion, the CNN based method showed great potential in improving feature reproducibility and generalizability by harmonizing medical images with heterogeneous reconstruction kernels. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Quantitative Imaging Network)
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Article
Stability of Liver Radiomics across Different 3D ROI Sizes—An MRI In Vivo Study
Tomography 2021, 7(4), 866-876; https://doi.org/10.3390/tomography7040073 - 03 Dec 2021
Viewed by 1687
Abstract
We aimed to evaluate the stability of radiomic features in the liver of healthy individuals across different three-dimensional regions of interest (3D ROI) sizes in T1-weighted (T1w) and T2-weighted (T2w) images from different MR scanners. We retrospectively included 66 examinations of patients without [...] Read more.
We aimed to evaluate the stability of radiomic features in the liver of healthy individuals across different three-dimensional regions of interest (3D ROI) sizes in T1-weighted (T1w) and T2-weighted (T2w) images from different MR scanners. We retrospectively included 66 examinations of patients without known diseases or pathological imaging findings acquired on three MRI scanners (3 Tesla I: 25 patients, 3 Tesla II: 19 patients, 1.5 Tesla: 22 patients). 3D ROIs of different diameters (10, 20, 30 mm) were drawn on T1w GRE and T2w TSE images into the liver parenchyma (segment V–VIII). We extracted 93 radiomic features from the different ROIs and tested features for significant differences with the Mann–Whitney-U (MWU)-test. The MWU-test revealed significant differences for most second- and higher-order features, indicating a systematic difference dependent on the ROI size. The features mean, median, root mean squared (RMS), 10th percentile, and 90th percentile were not significantly different. We also assessed feature robustness to ROI size variation with overall concordance correlation coefficients (OCCCs). OCCCs across the different ROI-sizes for mean, median, and RMS were excellent (>0.90) in both sequences on all three scanners. These features, therefore, seem robust to ROI-size variation and suitable for radiomic studies of liver MRI. Full article
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Article
Comparison of Incidence of Adjacent Segment Pathology between Anterior Lumbar Interbody Fusion and Transforaminal Lumbar Interbody Fusion Treatments for Lumbosacral Junction
Tomography 2021, 7(4), 855-865; https://doi.org/10.3390/tomography7040072 - 02 Dec 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1599
Abstract
This research compared the incidence of adjacent segment pathology (ASP) between anterior interbody lumbar fusion (ALIF) treatment and transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion (TLIF) treatment. Seventy patients were included in this retrospective study: 30 patients received ALIF treatment, and 40 patients received TLIF treatment [...] Read more.
This research compared the incidence of adjacent segment pathology (ASP) between anterior interbody lumbar fusion (ALIF) treatment and transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion (TLIF) treatment. Seventy patients were included in this retrospective study: 30 patients received ALIF treatment, and 40 patients received TLIF treatment at a single medical center between 2011 and 2020 with a follow-up of at least 12 months. The outcomes were radiographic adjacent segment pathology (RASP) and clinical adjacent segment pathology (CASP). The mean follow-up period was 42.10 ± 22.61 months in the ALIF group and 56.20 ± 29.91 months in the TLIF group. Following single-level lumbosacral fusion, ALIF is superior to TLIF in maintaining lumbar lordosis, whereas the risk of adjacent instability in the ALIF group is significantly higher. Regarding ASP, the incidence of overall RASP and CASP did not differ significantly between ALIF and TLIF groups. Full article
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Review
[18F] Sodium Fluoride PET Kinetic Parameters in Bone Imaging
Tomography 2021, 7(4), 843-854; https://doi.org/10.3390/tomography7040071 - 01 Dec 2021
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2513
Abstract
This report describes the significance of the kinetic parameters (k-values) obtained from the analysis of dynamic positron emission tomography (PET) scans using the Hawkins model describing the pharmacokinetics of sodium fluoride ([18F]NaF) to understand bone physiology. Dynamic [18F]NaF PET [...] Read more.
This report describes the significance of the kinetic parameters (k-values) obtained from the analysis of dynamic positron emission tomography (PET) scans using the Hawkins model describing the pharmacokinetics of sodium fluoride ([18F]NaF) to understand bone physiology. Dynamic [18F]NaF PET scans may be useful as an imaging biomarker in early phase clinical trials of novel drugs in development by permitting early detection of treatment-response signals that may help avoid late-stage attrition. Full article
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Article
Physicochemical and Biological Study of 99mTc and 68Ga Radiolabelled Ciprofloxacin and Evaluation of [99mTc]Tc-CIP as Potential Diagnostic Radiopharmaceutical for Diabetic Foot Syndrome Imaging
Tomography 2021, 7(4), 829-842; https://doi.org/10.3390/tomography7040070 - 01 Dec 2021
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1637
Abstract
This paper presents the application of ciprofloxacin as a biologically active molecule (vector) for delivering diagnostic radiopharmaceuticals to the sites of bacterial infection. Ciprofloxacin-based radioconjugates containing technetium-99m or gallium-68 radionuclides were synthesised, and their physicochemical (stability, lipophilicity) and biological (binding study to Staphylococcus [...] Read more.
This paper presents the application of ciprofloxacin as a biologically active molecule (vector) for delivering diagnostic radiopharmaceuticals to the sites of bacterial infection. Ciprofloxacin-based radioconjugates containing technetium-99m or gallium-68 radionuclides were synthesised, and their physicochemical (stability, lipophilicity) and biological (binding study to Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa) properties were investigated. Both the tested radiopreparations met the requirements for radiopharmaceuticals, and technetium-99m-labelled ciprofloxacin turned out to be a good radiotracer for the tomography of diabetic foot syndrome using SPECT. Full article
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Article
Low kV Computed Tomography of Parenchymal Abdominal Organs—A Systematic Animal Study of Different Contrast Media Injection Protocols
Tomography 2021, 7(4), 815-828; https://doi.org/10.3390/tomography7040069 - 29 Nov 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1602
Abstract
Objectives: To evaluate multiphase low kV computed tomography (CT) imaging of the abdomen with reduced contrast media (CM) dose using different injection protocols. Methods: Two injection protocols were evaluated for use with low kV (80 kV) multiphase abdominal imaging in comparison to the [...] Read more.
Objectives: To evaluate multiphase low kV computed tomography (CT) imaging of the abdomen with reduced contrast media (CM) dose using different injection protocols. Methods: Two injection protocols were evaluated for use with low kV (80 kV) multiphase abdominal imaging in comparison to the standard procedure acquired at 120 kV (500 mgI/kg; 5 mL/s). This evaluation was conducted in a highly standardized animal study (5 Goettingen minipigs). The low kV protocols consisted of (a) a single-flow (SF) injection with 40% reduced CM dose and injection rate (300 mgI/kg; 3 mL/s) and (b) a DualFlow (DF) injection protocol consisting of 60%/40% contrast to saline ratio administered at 5 mL/s. Dynamic CT was first performed within representative liver regions to determine optimal contrast phases, followed by evaluation of the three protocols in multiphase abdominal CT imaging. The evaluation criteria included contrast enhancement (CE) of abdominal organs and vasculature. Results: The 80 kV DF injection protocol showed similar CE of the abdominal parenchymatous organs and vessels to the 120 kV reference and the 80 kV SF protocol. Hepatic parenchyma showed comparable CT values for all contrast phases. In particular, in the portal venous parenchymal phase, the 80 kV DF protocol demonstrated higher hepatic parenchymal enhancement; however, results were statistically non-significant. Similarly, CE of the kidney, pancreas, and abdominal arterial/venous vessels showed no significant differences between injection protocols. Conclusions: Adapted SF and DF injection protocols with reduced IDR/iodine load offer the potential to calibrate optimal CM doses to the tube voltage in abdominal multiphase low kV CT imaging. The data suggest that the DF approach allows the use of predefined injection protocols and adaption of the contrast to saline ratio to an individualized kV setting and yields the potential for patient-individualized CM adaption. Full article
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Article
Intracranial Hemorrhage from Dural Arteriovenous Fistulas: What Can We Find with CT Angiography?
Tomography 2021, 7(4), 804-814; https://doi.org/10.3390/tomography7040068 - 25 Nov 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1674
Abstract
(1) Background: Dural arteriovenous fistulas (DAVF) represent a rare acquired intracranial vascular malformation, with a variety of clinical signs and symptoms, which make their diagnosis difficult. Intracranial hemorrhage is one of the most serious clinical manifestations. In this paper the authors’ goal was [...] Read more.
(1) Background: Dural arteriovenous fistulas (DAVF) represent a rare acquired intracranial vascular malformation, with a variety of clinical signs and symptoms, which make their diagnosis difficult. Intracranial hemorrhage is one of the most serious clinical manifestations. In this paper the authors’ goal was to verify the accuracy and utility of contrast-enhanced brain CT angiography (CTA) for the identification and the characterization of dural arteriovenous fistulas (DAVFs) in patients who presented with brain hemorrhage compared to 3D digital subtraction angiography (3D DSA); (2) a retrospective study of 26 patients with DAVFs who presented with intracranial hemorrhage to our institution was performed. The information reviewed included clinical presentation, location and size of hemorrhage, brain CTA and 3D DSA findings; (3) results: 61% (16/26) of DAVFs were identified by CTA. The vast majority of patients were male (69%, 18/26) and the most common presenting symptom was sudden onset headache. All DAVFs had cortical venous drainage and about one-third were associated with a venous varix. The most common location was tentorial (73%, 19/26); (4) conclusions: CTA can represent a valid alternative diagnostic method to 3D DSA for the study of DAVF in the initial and preliminary diagnostic approach, especially in emergency situations. In fact, it represents a fast, inexpensive, non-invasive and above all, easily accessible and available diagnostic technique, unlike DSA or MRI, allowing to provide information necessary for the identification, classification and treatment planning of DAVFs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Imaging in Non-Traumatic Emergencies)
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Editorial
Honorary Authorship: Is There Any Chance to Stop It? Analysis of the Literature and a Personal Opinion
Tomography 2021, 7(4), 801-803; https://doi.org/10.3390/tomography7040067 - 15 Nov 2021
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 1778
Abstract
Honorary authorship corresponds to the intentional misrepresentation of credit to an individual whose contributions to a biomedical article do not meet the criteria for authorship established by the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors (ICMJE) [...] Full article
Article
The Combination of Stent and Antiplatelet Therapy May Be Responsible of Parenchymal Magnetic Susceptibility Artifacts after Endovascular Procedure
Tomography 2021, 7(4), 792-800; https://doi.org/10.3390/tomography7040066 - 13 Nov 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1570
Abstract
The aim was to assess the occurrence of magnetic susceptibility artifacts (MSA) following endovascular treatment of intracranial aneurysm by stent using susceptibility weighted imaging (SWI). Imaging and clinical data of 46 patients who underwent stent placement in the case of intracranial aneurysm endovascular [...] Read more.
The aim was to assess the occurrence of magnetic susceptibility artifacts (MSA) following endovascular treatment of intracranial aneurysm by stent using susceptibility weighted imaging (SWI). Imaging and clinical data of 46 patients who underwent stent placement in the case of intracranial aneurysm endovascular treatment (S-Group) were retrospectively analyzed and compared to a control group (C-Group) in which 46 patients had coiling alone. The mean number of MSA was higher in the S-group than in the C-group on postprocedural SWI sequence (8.76, 95%CI [5.76; 11.76] vs. 0.78 [0.32; 1.25], respectively, p < 0.001) with a higher frequency of the appearance of MSA also in the S-group (78.26% vs. 21.74% in the C-group, p < 0.001). In the S-group, in the vascular territory of the treated artery, there was a higher number of MSA than in other vascular territories (mean of 5.18 [3.43; 6.92] vs. 3.08 [1.79; 4.36], p = 0.001). An odds ratio (OR) of 20.98 [5.24; 83.95] suggested a higher proportion of onset of MSA in the S-group than in the C-group (p < 0.001). The appearance of MSA after a treatment by stenting for intracranial aneurysm in patients under antiplatelet therapy was common, particularly in the treated artery territory. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Brain Imaging)
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Case Report
Imaging of Biliary Involvement in Sarcoidosis: Computed Tomography, Magnetic Resonance Cholangiopancreatography, and Gadolinium Ethoxybenzyl Diethylenetriamine Pentaacetic Acid-Enhanced Magnetic Resonance Imaging Findings
Tomography 2021, 7(4), 783-791; https://doi.org/10.3390/tomography7040065 - 13 Nov 2021
Viewed by 1674
Abstract
Sarcoidosis is a multisystem disease usually affecting the chest, hilar lymph nodes, and lungs, but can potentially involve any organ; therefore, its clinical presentation may vary. Hepatobiliary involvement is rare, and typically asymptomatic; however, it can lead to cirrhosis, and may require liver [...] Read more.
Sarcoidosis is a multisystem disease usually affecting the chest, hilar lymph nodes, and lungs, but can potentially involve any organ; therefore, its clinical presentation may vary. Hepatobiliary involvement is rare, and typically asymptomatic; however, it can lead to cirrhosis, and may require liver transplantation. In this report, we present a rare case of a patient affected by sarcoidosis with hepatobiliary involvement. He presented to our hospital complaining of dyspnea triggered by moderate efforts and oppressive thoracic discomfort. Chest X-ray showed multiple bilateral nodular opacities and enlargement of both hilar regions, confirmed by a subsequent total-body computed tomography scan and positron emission tomography, which also revealed cardiac, splenic, and hepatic involvement. Liver function was studied via gadolinium ethoxybenzyl diethylenetriamine pentaacetic acid (Gd-EOB-DTPA)-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging, and magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography (MRCP) was also performed. The diagnosis of sarcoidosis was finally achieved via liver biopsy, revealing non-necrotizing granulomas in the periportal space. The patient was treated with prednisone per os, with regression of all lesions at all levels. Although other cases of biliary sarcoidosis have been described, this report provides a complete image set of Gd-EOB-DTPA-enhanced magnetic resonance and MRCP images that is lacking in the English literature, and which may be useful for diagnosis. Full article
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Article
Generation of Vertebra Micro-CT-like Image from MDCT: A Deep-Learning-Based Image Enhancement Approach
Tomography 2021, 7(4), 767-782; https://doi.org/10.3390/tomography7040064 - 12 Nov 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2036
Abstract
This paper proposes a deep-learning-based image enhancement approach that can generate high-resolution micro-CT-like images from multidetector computed tomography (MDCT). A total of 12,500 MDCT and micro-CT image pairs were obtained from 25 vertebral specimens. Then, a pix2pixHD model was trained and evaluated using [...] Read more.
This paper proposes a deep-learning-based image enhancement approach that can generate high-resolution micro-CT-like images from multidetector computed tomography (MDCT). A total of 12,500 MDCT and micro-CT image pairs were obtained from 25 vertebral specimens. Then, a pix2pixHD model was trained and evaluated using the structural similarity index measure (SSIM) and Fréchet inception distance (FID). We performed subjective assessments of the micro-CT-like images based on five aspects. Micro-CT and micro-CT-like image-derived trabecular bone microstructures were compared, and the underlying correlations were analyzed. The results showed that the pix2pixHD method (SSIM, 0.804 ± 0.037 and FID, 43.598 ± 9.108) outperformed the two control methods (pix2pix and CRN) in enhancing MDCT images (p < 0.05). According to the subjective assessment, the pix2pixHD-derived micro-CT-like images showed no significant difference from the micro-CT images in terms of contrast and shadow (p > 0.05) but demonstrated slightly lower noise, sharpness and trabecular bone texture (p < 0.05). Compared with the trabecular microstructure parameters of micro-CT images, those of pix2pixHD-derived micro-CT-like images showed no significant differences in bone volume fraction (BV/TV) (p > 0.05) and significant correlations in trabecular thickness (Tb.Th) and trabecular spacing (Tb.Sp) (Tb.Th, R = 0.90, p < 0.05; Tb.Sp, R = 0.88, p < 0.05). The proposed method can enhance the resolution of MDCT and obtain micro-CT-like images, which may provide new diagnostic criteria and a predictive basis for osteoporosis and related fractures. Full article
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Article
Enamel Remineralization Competence of a Novel Fluoride-Incorporated Bioactive Glass Toothpaste—A Surface Micro-Hardness, Profilometric, and Micro-Computed Tomographic Analysis
Tomography 2021, 7(4), 752-766; https://doi.org/10.3390/tomography7040063 - 09 Nov 2021
Viewed by 2312
Abstract
This study aimed to analyze the enamel remineralization efficacy of a novel fluoridated bioactive glass (F-BG) toothpaste compared to a standard fluoride toothpaste. Seventy-two enamel blocks (N = 72) were divided into groups of twenty-four blocks according to the toothpaste exposure—group 1: brushed [...] Read more.
This study aimed to analyze the enamel remineralization efficacy of a novel fluoridated bioactive glass (F-BG) toothpaste compared to a standard fluoride toothpaste. Seventy-two enamel blocks (N = 72) were divided into groups of twenty-four blocks according to the toothpaste exposure—group 1: brushed with distilled water, group 2: brushed with fluoride toothpaste (ColgateTM), and group 3: brushed with F-BG toothpaste (BioMinFTM). Pre-brushing, enamel blocks were demineralized using 6 wt.% citric acid (pH = 2.4). Tooth brushing was performed using a mixture of respective toothpaste and artificial saliva (AS), and each enamel block received 5000 linear strokes. The samples were assessed for surface micro-hardness (to estimate Vickers hardness number, VHN), surface roughness (Ra), and volume loss/gain using micro-computed tomography (micro-CT). The highest increase in the VHN was noticed for group 3 (117.81) followed by group 2 (61.13), and all the intragroup comparisons were statistically significant (p < 0.05). Demineralization increased the Ra values, and a decrease was observed post-remineralization for all the groups. The maximum Ra decrease was observed for group 3 (−223.2 nm) followed by group 2 (−55.6 nm), and all the intragroup comparisons were again statistically significant (p < 0.05). Micro-CT investigation revealed that the enamel volume decreased after demineralization and increased after remineralization among all groups. The F-BG toothpaste showed greater enamel surface micro-hardness (increased VHN), smoother surface (low roughness), and better volume restoration (remineralization) in comparison to the fluoride toothpaste. Full article
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Article
Omission of Planning CT Reduces Patient Radiation Exposure during CT-Guided Bone Marrow Biopsy and Aspiration
Tomography 2021, 7(4), 747-751; https://doi.org/10.3390/tomography7040062 - 08 Nov 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1623
Abstract
The purpose of this study is to evaluate the impact of eliminating a preprocedural planning computed tomography during CT-guided bone marrow biopsy on the technical aspects of the procedure, including patient dose, sample quality, procedure time, and CT fluoroscopy usage. Retrospective analysis of [...] Read more.
The purpose of this study is to evaluate the impact of eliminating a preprocedural planning computed tomography during CT-guided bone marrow biopsy on the technical aspects of the procedure, including patient dose, sample quality, procedure time, and CT fluoroscopy usage. Retrospective analysis of 109 patients between 1 June 2018 and 1 January 2021 was performed. Patients were grouped based on whether they received a planning CT scan. Relative radiation exposure was measured using dose-length product (DLP). Secondary metrics included number of CT fluoroscopic acquisitions until target localization, total number of CT fluoroscopic acquisitions, biopsy diagnostic yield, and procedure time. A total of 43 bone marrow biopsies with planning CT scans (Group 1) and 66 bone marrow biopsies without planning CT scans (Group 2) were performed. The average total DLP for Group 1 and Group 2 was 268.73 mGy*cm and 50.92 mGy*cm, respectively. The mean radiation dose reduction between the groups was 81% (p < 0.0001). Significantly more CT fluoroscopy acquisitions were needed for needle localization in Group 2 than Group 1 (p < 0.0001). Total number of CT fluoroscopy acquisitions was four for Group 1 and eight for Group 2 (p = 0.0002). There was no significant difference between the groups in procedure time or diagnostic yield. Patients without a planning CT scan received more fluoroscopic CT acquisitions but overall were exposed to significantly less radiation without an increase in procedure time. Full article
Article
Feasibility and Safety of a Novel Leg Exercise Apparatus for Venous Thromboembolism Prophylaxis after Total Joint Arthroplasty of the Lower Extremities—A Pilot Study
Tomography 2021, 7(4), 734-746; https://doi.org/10.3390/tomography7040061 - 04 Nov 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1666
Abstract
Venous thromboembolism (VTE) is a severe complication in orthopedic surgeries. Herein, we developed a novel leg exercise apparatus (LEX) to encourage postoperative limb movement in bedridden patients to prevent VTE. We aimed to evaluate its feasibility and safety in individuals at risk of [...] Read more.
Venous thromboembolism (VTE) is a severe complication in orthopedic surgeries. Herein, we developed a novel leg exercise apparatus (LEX) to encourage postoperative limb movement in bedridden patients to prevent VTE. We aimed to evaluate its feasibility and safety in individuals at risk of VTE. Twenty patients (four men, 16 women) who underwent total joint arthroplasty in the lower extremity were enrolled in this prospective study. Exercise using the LEX was performed for 5 min at 30 cycles/min, four times/day during postoperative days 1–7. Clinical assessments included the evaluation of vital signs, venous ultrasonography, and blood tests within seven days postoperatively, and adverse events (pulmonary embolism and cerebral hemorrhage) were monitored. Overall, 16/20 (80%) patients completed the 7-day exercise regimen. There were no cases of severe adverse events, changes in vital signs, or lower-extremity deep vein thrombosis in patients who performed exercises with the LEX. Thus, the results of this pilot study show that this novel apparatus may be a safe and feasible tool for VTE prophylaxis after joint arthroplasty of the lower extremities. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Cardiovascular Imaging)
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Article
Development and Remodeling of Point-of-Care Ultrasound Education for Emergency Medicine Residents in Resource Limited Countries during the COVID-19 Pandemic
Tomography 2021, 7(4), 721-733; https://doi.org/10.3390/tomography7040060 - 03 Nov 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1896
Abstract
The administration of an accurate and effective POCUS course is a crucial tool in improving health education and thus the health care system in low- to middle-income countries. The development of the ultrasound curriculum in these countries during the pandemic era is a [...] Read more.
The administration of an accurate and effective POCUS course is a crucial tool in improving health education and thus the health care system in low- to middle-income countries. The development of the ultrasound curriculum in these countries during the pandemic era is a major challenge for medical educators. Therefore, this study aims to survey the learner experience after implementing the POCUS curriculum for first-year emergency medicine residents. All learners responded to the survey. Our results demonstrated that the ultrasound rotation and our ultra-sound learning materials were useful tools which showed a positive impact on POCUS knowledge for our learners. However, some obstacles of POCUS learning were identified to assist in closing faculty development gaps, including the availability of handheld devices, as well as the re-modeling of the ultrasound rotation course, which should be managed according to the feedback we received. This study demonstrated a clear need for constant updates in higher education, medical program development, accuracy of local learning materials, and the explosion of virtual and online learning platforms during this decade. Full article
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Article
Feasibility of Ultra-High Resolution Supra-Aortic CT Angiography: An Assessment of Diagnostic Image Quality and Radiation Dose
Tomography 2021, 7(4), 711-720; https://doi.org/10.3390/tomography7040059 - 01 Nov 2021
Viewed by 1940
Abstract
(1) Background: To evaluate diagnostic image quality and radiation exposure of ultra-high resolution cerebral Computed-Tomography (CT) angiography (CTA) obtained on an ultra-high resolution computed tomography scanner (UHR-CT). (2) Methods: Fifty consecutive patients with UHR-CTA were enrolled. Image reconstruction was processed with [...] Read more.
(1) Background: To evaluate diagnostic image quality and radiation exposure of ultra-high resolution cerebral Computed-Tomography (CT) angiography (CTA) obtained on an ultra-high resolution computed tomography scanner (UHR-CT). (2) Methods: Fifty consecutive patients with UHR-CTA were enrolled. Image reconstruction was processed with a 1024 × 1024 matrix and a slice thickness of 0.25 mm. Quantitative analyses comprising CT values, contrast–noise ratio (CNR) and signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) were performed. Subjective assessment of image quality, vessel contrast, noise, artefacts and delineation of different sized vessels were assessed by two readers on a 4-point scale. Radiation exposure was determined. (3) Results: Hounsfield values (ACI: 461.8 ± 16.8 HU; MCA: 406.1 ± 24.2 HU; BA: 412.2 ± 22.3 HU), SNR (ACI: 35.4 ± 13.1; MCA: 20.8 ± 12.4; BA: 23.7 ± 12.9) and CNR (ACI: 48.7 ± 21; MCA: 63.9 ± 26.9; BA: 48.1 ± 21.4) were remarkably high in all segments. Subjective analysis by two raters (fair agreement, k = 0.26) indicated excellent image qualities (image quality = 4; contrast = 4; noise = 3; artefacts = 4).Our analysis revealed a notably high traceability of the cerebral perforators (3 Points). Radiation exposure was at moderate dose levels (effective dose = 2.5 ± 0.6mSv). (4) Conclusions: UHR-CTA generates highly valuable image qualities that allow the depiction of vessels including cerebral perforators at acceptable dose levels. The UHR-CTA may therefore enhance the detection of small cerebral pathologies and may improve interpretability, especially in settings where high image qualities are crucial for the diagnostic accuracy. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Brain Imaging)
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Article
The Predictive Role of Artificial Intelligence-Based Chest CT Quantification in Patients with COVID-19 Pneumonia
Tomography 2021, 7(4), 697-710; https://doi.org/10.3390/tomography7040058 - 01 Nov 2021
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2575
Abstract
We sought to analyze the prognostic value of laboratory and clinical data, and an artificial intelligence (AI)-based algorithm for Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) severity scoring, on CT-scans of patients hospitalized with COVID-19. Moreover, we aimed to determine personalized probabilities of clinical deterioration. Data [...] Read more.
We sought to analyze the prognostic value of laboratory and clinical data, and an artificial intelligence (AI)-based algorithm for Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) severity scoring, on CT-scans of patients hospitalized with COVID-19. Moreover, we aimed to determine personalized probabilities of clinical deterioration. Data of symptomatic patients with COVID-19 who underwent chest-CT-examination at the time of hospital admission between April and November 2020 were analyzed. COVID-19 severity score was automatically quantified for each pulmonary lobe as the percentage of affected lung parenchyma with the AI-based algorithm. Clinical deterioration was defined as a composite of admission to the intensive care unit, need for invasive mechanical ventilation, use of vasopressors or in-hospital mortality. In total 326 consecutive patients were included in the analysis (mean age 66.7 ± 15.3 years, 52.1% male) of whom 85 (26.1%) experienced clinical deterioration. In the multivariable regression analysis prior myocardial infarction (OR = 2.81, 95% CI = 1.12–7.04, p = 0.027), immunodeficiency (OR = 2.08, 95% CI = 1.02–4.25, p = 0.043), C-reactive protein (OR = 1.73, 95% CI = 1.32–2.33, p < 0.001) and AI-based COVID-19 severity score (OR = 1.08; 95% CI = 1.02–1.15, p = 0.013) appeared to be independent predictors of clinical deterioration. Personalized probability values were determined. AI-based COVID-19 severity score assessed at hospital admission can provide additional information about the prognosis of COVID-19, possibly serving as a useful tool for individualized risk-stratification. Full article
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Article
Cryoablation in Locoregional Management of Complex Unresectable Chest Neoplasms
Tomography 2021, 7(4), 688-696; https://doi.org/10.3390/tomography7040057 - 01 Nov 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1646
Abstract
Rationale and Objectives: The aim of our retrospective study was to assess the safety and feasibility of cryoablation in high-risk patients with complex chest neoplastic lesions. Materials and Methods: Twenty patients with complex chest malignancies, both primary and secondary, located in the mediastinum, [...] Read more.
Rationale and Objectives: The aim of our retrospective study was to assess the safety and feasibility of cryoablation in high-risk patients with complex chest neoplastic lesions. Materials and Methods: Twenty patients with complex chest malignancies, both primary and secondary, located in the mediastinum, lung, and chest wall, underwent percutaneous CT-guided cryoablation treatments. Procedural success as well as complications were evaluated. Results: A total of 24 neoplastic lesions were treated (mean diameter: 27 mm; range: 7–54 mm). Technical success was obtained in all patients, without major complications or intraprocedural death. A pneumothorax not requiring a drainage tube placement was registered in 50% of patients, while 3/24 patients had a grade 3 pneumothorax requiring a chest tube placement. Conclusion: Percutaneous CT-guided cryoablation seems a safe and feasible treatment for complex thoracic lesions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Cancer Imaging)
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Article
Limbic Perfusion Is Reduced in Patients with Myalgic Encephalomyelitis/Chronic Fatigue Syndrome (ME/CFS)
Tomography 2021, 7(4), 675-687; https://doi.org/10.3390/tomography7040056 - 01 Nov 2021
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 8022
Abstract
Myalgic encephalomyelitis/chronic fatigue syndrome (ME/CFS) is an illness characterized by a diverse range of debilitating symptoms including autonomic, immunologic, and cognitive dysfunction. Although neurological and cognitive aberrations have been consistently reported, relatively little is known regarding the regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) in [...] Read more.
Myalgic encephalomyelitis/chronic fatigue syndrome (ME/CFS) is an illness characterized by a diverse range of debilitating symptoms including autonomic, immunologic, and cognitive dysfunction. Although neurological and cognitive aberrations have been consistently reported, relatively little is known regarding the regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) in ME/CFS. In this study, we studied a cohort of 31 ME/CSF patients (average age: 42.8 ± 13.5 years) and 48 healthy controls (average age: 42.9 ± 12.0 years) using the pseudo-continuous arterial spin labeling (PCASL) technique on a whole-body clinical 3T MRI scanner. Besides routine clinical MRI, the protocol included a session of over 8 min-long rCBF measurement. The differences in the rCBF between the ME/CSF patients and healthy controls were statistically assessed with voxel-wise and AAL ROI-based two-sample t-tests. Linear regression analysis was also performed on the rCBF data by using the symptom severity score as the main regressor. In comparison with the healthy controls, the patient group showed significant hypoperfusion (uncorrected voxel wise p ≤ 0.001, FWE p ≤ 0.01) in several brain regions of the limbic system, including the anterior cingulate cortex, putamen, pallidum, and anterior ventral insular area. For the ME/CFS patients, the overall symptom severity score at rest was significantly associated with a reduced rCBF in the anterior cingulate cortex. The results of this study show that brain blood flow abnormalities in the limbic system may contribute to ME/CFS pathogenesis. Full article
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Article
Initial Condition Assessment for Reaction-Diffusion Glioma Growth Models: A Translational MRI-Histology (In)Validation Study
Tomography 2021, 7(4), 650-674; https://doi.org/10.3390/tomography7040055 - 29 Oct 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2105
Abstract
Reaction-diffusion models have been proposed for decades to capture the growth of gliomas. Nevertheless, these models require an initial condition: the tumor cell density distribution over the whole brain at diagnosis time. Several works have proposed to relate this distribution to abnormalities visible [...] Read more.
Reaction-diffusion models have been proposed for decades to capture the growth of gliomas. Nevertheless, these models require an initial condition: the tumor cell density distribution over the whole brain at diagnosis time. Several works have proposed to relate this distribution to abnormalities visible on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). In this work, we verify these hypotheses by stereotactic histological analysis of a non-operated brain with glioblastoma using a 3D-printed slicer. Cell density maps are computed from histological slides using a deep learning approach. The density maps are then registered to a postmortem MR image and related to an MR-derived geodesic distance map to the tumor core. The relation between the edema outlines visible on T2-FLAIR MRI and the distance to the core is also investigated. Our results suggest that (i) the previously proposed exponential decrease of the tumor cell density with the distance to the core is reasonable but (ii) the edema outlines would not correspond to a cell density iso-contour and (iii) the suggested tumor cell density at these outlines is likely overestimated. These findings highlight the limitations of conventional MRI to derive glioma cell density maps and the need for other initialization methods for reaction-diffusion models to be used in clinical practice. Full article
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Article
Thoracic Aorta Calcium Detection and Quantification Using Convolutional Neural Networks in a Large Cohort of Intermediate-Risk Patients
Tomography 2021, 7(4), 636-649; https://doi.org/10.3390/tomography7040054 - 28 Oct 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1413
Abstract
Arterial calcification is an independent predictor of cardiovascular disease (CVD) events whereas thoracic aorta calcium (TAC) detection might anticipate extracoronary outcomes. In this work, we trained six convolutional neural networks (CNNs) to detect aortic calcifications and to automate the TAC score assessment in [...] Read more.
Arterial calcification is an independent predictor of cardiovascular disease (CVD) events whereas thoracic aorta calcium (TAC) detection might anticipate extracoronary outcomes. In this work, we trained six convolutional neural networks (CNNs) to detect aortic calcifications and to automate the TAC score assessment in intermediate CVD risk patients. Cardiac computed tomography images from 1415 patients were analyzed together with their aortic geometry previously assessed. Orthogonal patches centered in each aortic candidate lesion were reconstructed and a dataset with 19,790 images (61% positives) was built. Three single-input 2D CNNs were trained using axial, coronal and sagittal patches together with two multi-input 2.5D CNNs combining the orthogonal patches and identifying their best regional combination (BRC) in terms of lesion location. Aortic calcifications were concentrated in the descending (66%) and aortic arch (26%) portions. The BRC of axial patches to detect ascending or aortic arch lesions and sagittal images for the descending portion had the best performance: 0.954 F1-Score, 98.4% sensitivity, 87% of the subjects correctly classified in their TAC category and an average false positive TAC score per patient of 30. A CNN that combined axial and sagittal patches depending on the candidate aortic location ensured an accurate TAC score prediction. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Cardiovascular Imaging)
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Article
A Short Dynamic Scan Method of Measuring Bone Metabolic Flux Using [18F]NaF PET
Tomography 2021, 7(4), 623-635; https://doi.org/10.3390/tomography7040053 - 25 Oct 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1909
Abstract
[18F]NaF PET measurements of bone metabolic flux (Ki) are conventionally obtained with 60-min dynamic scans analysed using the Hawkins model. However, long scan times make this method expensive and uncomfortable for subjects. Therefore, we evaluated and compared measurements of [...] Read more.
[18F]NaF PET measurements of bone metabolic flux (Ki) are conventionally obtained with 60-min dynamic scans analysed using the Hawkins model. However, long scan times make this method expensive and uncomfortable for subjects. Therefore, we evaluated and compared measurements of Ki with shorter scan times analysed with fixed values of the Hawkins model rate constants. The scans were acquired in a trial in 30 postmenopausal women, half treated with teriparatide (TPT) and half untreated. Sixty-minute PET-CT scans of both hips were acquired at baseline and week 12 after injection with 180 MBq [18F]NaF. Scans were analysed using the Hawkins model by fitting bone time–activity curves at seven volumes of interest (VOIs) with a semi-population arterial input function. The model was re-run with fixed rate-constants for dynamic scan times from 0–12 min increasing in 4-min steps up to 0–60 min. Using the Hawkins model with fixed rate-constants, Ki measurements with statistical power equivalent or superior to conventionally analysed 60-min dynamic scans were obtained with scan times as short as 12 min. Full article
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Systematic Review
Cervical Spine Pedicle Screw Accuracy in Fluoroscopic, Navigated and Template Guided Systems—A Systematic Review
Tomography 2021, 7(4), 614-622; https://doi.org/10.3390/tomography7040052 - 22 Oct 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2508
Abstract
Background: Pedicle screws provide excellent fixation for a wide range of indications. However, their adoption in the cervical spine has been slower than in the thoracic and lumbar spine, which is largely due to the smaller pedicle sizes and the proximity to the [...] Read more.
Background: Pedicle screws provide excellent fixation for a wide range of indications. However, their adoption in the cervical spine has been slower than in the thoracic and lumbar spine, which is largely due to the smaller pedicle sizes and the proximity to the neurovascular structures in the neck. In recent years, technology has been developed to improve the accuracy and thereby the safety of cervical pedicle screw placement over traditional fluoroscopic techniques, including intraoperative 3D navigation, computer-assisted Systems and 3D template moulds. We have performed a systematic review into the accuracy rates of the various systems. Methods: The PubMed and Cochrane Library databases were searched for eligible papers; 9 valid papers involving 1427 screws were found. Results: fluoroscopic methods achieved an 80.6% accuracy and navigation methods produced 91.4% and 96.7% accuracy for templates. Conclusion: Navigation methods are significantly more accurate than fluoroscopy, they reduce radiation exposure to the surgical team, and improvements in technology are speeding up operating times. Significantly superior results for templates over fluoroscopy and navigation are complemented by reduced radiation exposure to patient and surgeon; however, the technology requires a more invasive approach, prolonged pre-operative planning and the development of an infrastructure to allow for their rapid production and delivery. We affirm the superiority of navigation over other methods for providing the most accurate and the safest cervical pedicle screw instrumentation, as it is more accurate than fluoroscopy and lacks the limitations of templates. Full article
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