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Volume 7, September

Tomography, Volume 7, Issue 4 (December 2021) – 11 articles

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Systematic Review
Cervical Spine Pedicle Screw Accuracy in Fluoroscopic, Navigated and Template Guided Systems—A Systematic Review
by , , , , and
Tomography 2021, 7(4), 614-622; https://doi.org/10.3390/tomography7040052 (registering DOI) - 22 Oct 2021
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Abstract
Background: Pedicle screws provide excellent fixation for a wide range of indications. However, their adoption in the cervical spine has been slower than in the thoracic and lumbar spine, which is largely due to the smaller pedicle sizes and the proximity to the [...] Read more.
Background: Pedicle screws provide excellent fixation for a wide range of indications. However, their adoption in the cervical spine has been slower than in the thoracic and lumbar spine, which is largely due to the smaller pedicle sizes and the proximity to the neurovascular structures in the neck. In recent years, technology has been developed to improve the accuracy and thereby the safety of cervical pedicle screw placement over traditional fluoroscopic techniques, including intraoperative 3D navigation, computer-assisted Systems and 3D template moulds. We have performed a systematic review into the accuracy rates of the various systems. Methods: The PubMed and Cochrane Library databases were searched for eligible papers; 9 valid papers involving 1427 screws were found. Results: fluoroscopic methods achieved an 80.6% accuracy and navigation methods produced 91.4% and 96.7% accuracy for templates. Conclusion: Navigation methods are significantly more accurate than fluoroscopy, they reduce radiation exposure to the surgical team, and improvements in technology are speeding up operating times. Significantly superior results for templates over fluoroscopy and navigation are complemented by reduced radiation exposure to patient and surgeon; however, the technology requires a more invasive approach, prolonged pre-operative planning and the development of an infrastructure to allow for their rapid production and delivery. We affirm the superiority of navigation over other methods for providing the most accurate and the safest cervical pedicle screw instrumentation, as it is more accurate than fluoroscopy and lacks the limitations of templates. Full article
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Technical Note
Implementation of a Technique Based on Hounsfield Units and Hounsfield Density to Determine Kidney Stone Composition
Tomography 2021, 7(4), 606-613; https://doi.org/10.3390/tomography7040051 - 20 Oct 2021
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Abstract
Hounsfield units (HU) are a measure of radiodensity, related to the density of a tissue and the composition of kidney stones. Hounsfield density is what is related to the composition of kidney stones. In the standard acquisition method, these measures are arbitrary and [...] Read more.
Hounsfield units (HU) are a measure of radiodensity, related to the density of a tissue and the composition of kidney stones. Hounsfield density is what is related to the composition of kidney stones. In the standard acquisition method, these measures are arbitrary and dependent on the operator. This study describes the implementation of a technique based on the HU and Hounsfield density to predict the stone compositions of patients with nephrolithiasis. By conventional percutaneous nephrolithotomy, thirty kidney stone samples corresponding to the cortex, middle, and nucleus were obtained. The HU were obtained by CT scanning with a systematic grid. Hounsfield density was calculated as the HU value divided by the stone’s greatest diameter (HU/mm). With that method and after analyzing the samples by IR-spectroscopy, anhydrous uric acid and ammonium magnesium phosphate were identified as the compounds of kidney stones. Additionally, anhydrous uric acid, magnesium ammonium phosphate, and calcium oxalate monohydrate were identified via Hounsfield density calculation. The study identified HU ranges for stone compounds using a systematic technique that avoids bias in its analysis. In addition, this work could contribute to the timely diagnosis and development of personalized therapies for patients with this pathology. Full article
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Review
SPECT/CT in the Evaluation of Suspected Skeletal Pathology
Tomography 2021, 7(4), 581-605; https://doi.org/10.3390/tomography7040050 - 11 Oct 2021
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Abstract
Dedicated multi-slice single-photon emission computed tomography/computed tomography (SPECT/CT) cameras have become widely available and are becoming a mainstay of clinical practice. The integration of SPECT and CT allow for precise anatomic location of scintigraphic findings. Fusion imaging with SPECT/CT can improve both sensitivity [...] Read more.
Dedicated multi-slice single-photon emission computed tomography/computed tomography (SPECT/CT) cameras have become widely available and are becoming a mainstay of clinical practice. The integration of SPECT and CT allow for precise anatomic location of scintigraphic findings. Fusion imaging with SPECT/CT can improve both sensitivity and specificity by reducing equivocal interpretation in comparison to planar scintigraphy or SPECT alone. This review article addresses the technique, basic science principles, and applications of integrated SPECT/CT in the evaluation of musculoskeletal pathology. Full article
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Article
Semi-Automated 3D Volumetric Renal Measurements in Polycystic Kidney Disease Using b0-Images—A Feasibility Study
Tomography 2021, 7(4), 573-580; https://doi.org/10.3390/tomography7040049 - 10 Oct 2021
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Abstract
Autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) eventually leads to end stage renal disease (ESRD) with an increase in size and number of cysts over time. Progression to ESRD has previously been shown to correlate with total kidney volume (TKV). An accurate and relatively [...] Read more.
Autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) eventually leads to end stage renal disease (ESRD) with an increase in size and number of cysts over time. Progression to ESRD has previously been shown to correlate with total kidney volume (TKV). An accurate and relatively simple method to perform measurement of TKV has been difficult to develop. We propose a semi-automated approach of calculating TKV inclusive of all cysts in ADPKD patients based on b0 images relatively quickly without requiring any calculations or additional MRI time. Our purpose is to evaluate the reliability and reproducibility of our method by raters of various training levels within the environment of an advanced 3D viewer. Thirty patients were retrospectively identified who had DWI performed as part of 1.5T MRI renal examination. Right and left TKVs were calculated by five radiologists of various training levels. Interrater reliability (IRR) was estimated by computing the intraclass correlation (ICC) for all raters. ICC values calculated for TKV measurements between the five raters were 0.989 (95% CI = (0.981, 0.994), p < 0.01) for the right and 0.961 (95% CI = (0.936, 0.979), p < 0.01) for the left. Our method shows excellent intraclass correlation between raters, allowing for excellent interrater reliability. Full article
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Article
Improved Image Quality for Static BLADE Magnetic Resonance Imaging Using the Total-Variation Regularized Least Absolute Deviation Solver
Tomography 2021, 7(4), 555-572; https://doi.org/10.3390/tomography7040048 - 08 Oct 2021
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Abstract
In order to improve the image quality of BLADE magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) using the index tensor solvers and to evaluate MRI image quality in a clinical setting, we implemented BLADE MRI reconstructions using two tensor solvers (the least-squares solver and the L1 [...] Read more.
In order to improve the image quality of BLADE magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) using the index tensor solvers and to evaluate MRI image quality in a clinical setting, we implemented BLADE MRI reconstructions using two tensor solvers (the least-squares solver and the L1 total-variation regularized least absolute deviation (L1TV-LAD) solver) on a graphics processing unit (GPU). The BLADE raw data were prospectively acquired and presented in random order before being assessed by two independent radiologists. Evaluation scores were examined for consistency and then by repeated measures analysis of variance (ANOVA) to identify the superior algorithm. The simulation showed the structural similarity index (SSIM) of various tensor solvers ranged between 0.995 and 0.999. Inter-reader reliability was high (Intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) = 0.845, 95% confidence interval: 0.817, 0.87). The image score of L1TV-LAD was significantly higher than that of vendor-provided image and the least-squares method. The image score of the least-squares method was significantly lower than that of the vendor-provided image. No significance was identified in L1TV-LAD with a regularization strength of λ= 0.4–1.0. The L1TV-LAD with a regularization strength of λ= 0.4–0.7 was found consistently better than least-squares and vendor-provided reconstruction in BLADE MRI with a SENSitivity Encoding (SENSE) factor of 2. This warrants further development of the integrated computing system with the scanner. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Brain Imaging)
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Article
Simultaneous Multislice Brain MRI T1 Mapping with Improved Low-Rank Modeling
Tomography 2021, 7(4), 545-554; https://doi.org/10.3390/tomography7040047 - 07 Oct 2021
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Abstract
To accelerate data acquisition speed in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), multiple slices are simultaneously acquired using multiband pulses. Simultaneous multislice (SMS) imaging typically unfolds slice aliasing from the acquired collapsed slices. In this study, we extended the SMS framework to accelerated MR parameter [...] Read more.
To accelerate data acquisition speed in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), multiple slices are simultaneously acquired using multiband pulses. Simultaneous multislice (SMS) imaging typically unfolds slice aliasing from the acquired collapsed slices. In this study, we extended the SMS framework to accelerated MR parameter quantification such as T1 mapping. Assuming that the slice-specific null space and signal subspace are invariant along the parameter dimension, we formulated the SMS framework as a constrained optimization problem under a joint reconstruction framework such that the noise and signal subspaces are used for slice separation and recovery, respectively. The proposed method was validated on 3T MR human brain scans. We successfully demonstrated that the proposed method outperforms competing methods in suppressing aliasing artifacts and noise at high SMS accelerations, thus leading to accurate T1 maps. Full article
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Article
Non-Hemorrhagic Adrenal Infarction during Pregnancy: The Diagnostic Imaging Keys
Tomography 2021, 7(4), 533-544; https://doi.org/10.3390/tomography7040046 - 06 Oct 2021
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Abstract
Background: non-hemorrhagic adrenal infarction (NHAI) is a rare cause of acute abdominal/flank pain during pregnancy; in order to ensure prompt and appropriate treatment, this diagnosis should not be overlooked. This case series highlights pertinent imaging findings, including ultrasounds (USs), computed tomography (CT), and [...] Read more.
Background: non-hemorrhagic adrenal infarction (NHAI) is a rare cause of acute abdominal/flank pain during pregnancy; in order to ensure prompt and appropriate treatment, this diagnosis should not be overlooked. This case series highlights pertinent imaging findings, including ultrasounds (USs), computed tomography (CT), and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of recent NHAI cases. Methods: we compiled all consecutive NHAI cases from two university hospitals over a two-year period and checked the relevant clinical, laboratory, and imaging findings. Relevant articles on NHAI published from January 2010 to March 2021 were analyzed. Results: six cases were found in our database. CT-scans typically showed enlarged, hypodense, and non-enhanced adrenal glands. Unenhanced MRIs allowed for diagnoses and showed enlarged adrenal glands in the signal hyperintensity on T2 and diffusion-weighted imaging, without any signal hyperintensity on T1. In two of our six cases, USs showed swollen adrenal glands with fluid collection. Conclusion: NHAI and its differential diagnosis—in cases of acute pain during pregnancy—highlight the crucial roles of integrated radiological examination and cooperation between obstetricians and radiologists, both of whom should consider the location of the pain, the accessibility and tolerance of MRI, and the radiation exposure of CT. Despite its supposed poor sensitivity, an US performed because the patient reports pain should also be used to examine the adrenal gland regions. Non-enhanced MRI is clearly of value and access to it in emergencies is important to avoid radiation exposure Full article
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Article
Is It Worth Considering Multicentric High-Grade Glioma a Surgical Disease? Analysis of Our Clinical Experience and Literature Review
Tomography 2021, 7(4), 523-532; https://doi.org/10.3390/tomography7040045 - 05 Oct 2021
Viewed by 285
Abstract
Introduction. The simultaneous presence of multiple foci of high-grade glioma is a rare condition with a poor prognosis. By definition, if an anatomical connection through white matter bundles cannot be hypothesized, multiple lesions are defined as multicentric glioma (MC); on the other hand, [...] Read more.
Introduction. The simultaneous presence of multiple foci of high-grade glioma is a rare condition with a poor prognosis. By definition, if an anatomical connection through white matter bundles cannot be hypothesized, multiple lesions are defined as multicentric glioma (MC); on the other hand, when this connection exists, it is better defined as multifocal glioma (MF). Whether surgery can be advantageous for these patients has not been established yet. The aim of our study was to critically review our experience and to compare it to the existing literature. Materials and Methods. Retrospective analysis of patients operated on for MC HGG in two Italian institutions was performed. Distinction between MC and MF was achieved through revision of MR FLAIR images. Clinical and radiological preoperative and postoperative data were analyzed through chart revision and phone interviews. The same data were extracted from literature review. Univariate and multivariate analyses were conducted for the literature review only, and the null hypothesis was rejected for a p-value ≥ 0.05. Results. Sixteen patients met the inclusion criteria; male predominance and an average age of 66.5 years were detected. Sensory/motor deficit was the main onset symptom both in clinical study and literature review. A tendency to operate on the largest symptomatic lesion was reported and GTR was reached in the majority of cases. GBM was the histological diagnosis in most part of the patients. OS was 8.7 months in our series compared to 7.5 months from the literature review. Age ≤ 70 years, a postoperative KPS ≥ 70, a GTR/STR, a second surgery and adjuvant treatment were shown to be significantly associated with a better prognosis. Pathological examination revealed that MC HGG did not originate by LGG. Conclusions. MC gliomas are rare conditions with high malignancy and a poor prognosis. A maximal safe resection should be attempted whenever possible, especially in younger patients with life-threatening large mass. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Clinical and Molecular Analytic in Neuro-Oncology)
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Article
Carotid Phase-Contrast Magnetic Resonance before Treatment: 4D-Flow versus Standard 2D Imaging
Tomography 2021, 7(4), 513-522; https://doi.org/10.3390/tomography7040044 - 28 Sep 2021
Viewed by 336
Abstract
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the level of agreement between flow/velocity data obtained from 2D-phase-contrast (PC) and 4D-flow in patients scheduled for treatment of carotid artery stenosis. Image acquisition was performed using a 1.5 T scanner. We compared mean flow [...] Read more.
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the level of agreement between flow/velocity data obtained from 2D-phase-contrast (PC) and 4D-flow in patients scheduled for treatment of carotid artery stenosis. Image acquisition was performed using a 1.5 T scanner. We compared mean flow rates, vessel areas, and peak velocities obtained during the acquisition with both techniques in 20 consecutive patients, 15 males and 5 females aged 69 ± 5 years (mean ± standard deviation). There was a good correlation between both techniques for the CCA flow (r = 0.65, p < 0.001), whereas for the ICA flow and ECA flow the correlation was only moderate (r = 0.4, p = 0.011 and r = 0.45, p = 0.003, respectively). Correlations of peak velocities between methods were good for CCA (r = 0.56, p < 0.001) and moderate for ECA (r = 0.41, p = 0.008). There was no correlation for ICA (r = 0.04, p = 0.805). Cross-sectional area values between methods showed no significant correlations for CCA (r = 0.18, p = 0.269), ICA (r = 0.1, p = 0.543), and ECA (r = 0.05, p = 0.767). Conclusion: the 4D-flow imaging provided a good correlation of CCA and a moderate correlation of ICA flow rates against 2D-PC, underestimating peak velocities and overestimating cross-sectional areas in all carotid segments. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue AI Imaging Diagnostic Tools)
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Article
Diagnostic Accuracy of Coronary Artery Occlusion and Myocardial Perfusion Defect on Non-Gated Enhanced Chest CT in Predicting Acute Myocardial Infarction
Tomography 2021, 7(4), 504-512; https://doi.org/10.3390/tomography7040043 - 27 Sep 2021
Viewed by 273
Abstract
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of coronary artery occlusion (CAO) and myocardial perfusion defect (MPD) identified on non-gated enhanced chest CT in patients with acute myocardial infarction (AMI). We retrospectively assessed 99 patients with AMI (group 1, [...] Read more.
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of coronary artery occlusion (CAO) and myocardial perfusion defect (MPD) identified on non-gated enhanced chest CT in patients with acute myocardial infarction (AMI). We retrospectively assessed 99 patients with AMI (group 1, n = 33) and without AMI (group 2, n = 66) who underwent non-gated chest CT. We analyzed the presence of MPD and CAO on non-gated chest CT. MPD on the CT was categorized using a three-point scale (0 = no definite MPD; 1 = probable artifact or questionable MPD; 2 = probable MPD). Presence of CAO was defined as an abrupt change of contrast enhancement in a coronary artery segment with no or minimal coronary motion on the CT. There were 42.4% and 12.1% patients with probable MPD (p = 0.002), and 18.2% and 0% patients with CAO (p = 0.001) in groups 1 and 2, respectively. Probable MPD alone and simultaneous presence of CAO and probable MPD to predict AMI resulted in sensitivity, specificity, negative predictive value, and positive predictive valve of 42.4%, 87.9%, 75.3%, and 63.6%, respectively, and 12.1%, 100%, 69.5%, and 100%, respectively. In conclusion, probable MPD alone on non-gated chest CT demonstrated a relatively low sensitivity, high specificity, and modest positive predictive value for the prediction of AMI on non-gated enhanced chest CT. Although it is rare, simultaneous presence of CAO and probable MPD had a high positive predictive value to predict AMI on non-gated enhanced chest CT. Full article
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Review
SLAC and SNAC Wrist: The Top Five Things That General Radiologists Need to Know
Tomography 2021, 7(4), 488-503; https://doi.org/10.3390/tomography7040042 - 23 Sep 2021
Viewed by 286
Abstract
Wrist osteoarthritis (OA) is a common painful condition that affects the patient’s quality of life by limiting the range of wrist motion and grip strength. Wrist OA often results from scapholunate advanced collapse (SLAC) or scaphoid nonunion advanced collapse (SNAC). Early diagnosis of [...] Read more.
Wrist osteoarthritis (OA) is a common painful condition that affects the patient’s quality of life by limiting the range of wrist motion and grip strength. Wrist OA often results from scapholunate advanced collapse (SLAC) or scaphoid nonunion advanced collapse (SNAC). Early diagnosis of SLAC and SNAC is crucial because it affects treatment planning. Thus, radiologists should be able to interpret the early imaging findings. This pictorial review discusses the pathophysiology and the clinical symptoms of SLAC and SNAC and presents the imaging findings with emphasis on the proper imaging algorithm. Finally, it focuses on the treatment according to the degenerative status of each of these patterns. Full article
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