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Batteries, Volume 2, Issue 3 (September 2016)

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Open AccessArticle
Fundamentals of Using Battery Energy Storage Systems to Provide Primary Control Reserves in Germany
Batteries 2016, 2(3), 29; https://doi.org/10.3390/batteries2030029 - 13 Sep 2016
Cited by 24 | Viewed by 5505
Abstract
The application of stationary battery storage systems to German electrical grids can help with various storage services. This application requires controlling the charge and discharge power of such a system. For example, photovoltaic (PV) home storage, uninterruptible power supply, and storage systems for [...] Read more.
The application of stationary battery storage systems to German electrical grids can help with various storage services. This application requires controlling the charge and discharge power of such a system. For example, photovoltaic (PV) home storage, uninterruptible power supply, and storage systems for providing ancillary services such as primary control reserves (PCRs) represent battery applications with positive profitability. Because PCRs are essential for stabilizing grid frequency and maintaining a robust electrical grid, German transmission system operators (TSOs) released strict regulations in August 2015 for providing PCRs with battery storage systems as part of regulating the International Grid Control Cooperation (IGCC) region in Europe. These regulations focused on the permissible state of charge (SoC) of the battery during nominal and extreme conditions. The concomitant increased capacity demand oversizing may result in a significant profitability reduction, which can be attenuated only by using an optimal parameterization of the control algorithm for energy management of the storage systems. In this paper, the sizing optimization is achieved and a recommendation for a control algorithm that includes the appropriate parameters for the requirements in the German market is given. Furthermore, the storage cost is estimated, including battery aging simulations for different aging parameter sets to allow for a realistic profitability calculation. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Durability and Reliability of Electric Vehicle Batteries under Electric Utility Grid Operations. Part 1: Cell-to-Cell Variations and Preliminary Testing
Batteries 2016, 2(3), 28; https://doi.org/10.3390/batteries2030028 - 09 Sep 2016
Cited by 14 | Viewed by 5780
Abstract
Vehicle-to-grid (V2G) and grid-to-vehicle (G2V) strategies are considered to help stabilize the electric grid but their true impact on battery degradation is still unknown. The intention of this study is to test the impact of such strategies on the degradation of commercial Li-ion [...] Read more.
Vehicle-to-grid (V2G) and grid-to-vehicle (G2V) strategies are considered to help stabilize the electric grid but their true impact on battery degradation is still unknown. The intention of this study is to test the impact of such strategies on the degradation of commercial Li-ion batteries. This first part looks into the preliminary testing performed prior to the start of degradation studies to ensure that the selected cells are compatible. Both the thermodynamic and kinetic cell-to-cell variation within the selected batch and the diagnostic-ability of the cells were investigated. The cells were found to have low cell-to-cell variations and are thus consistent. Moreover, the emulation of the full cell from the half-cell data prepared from harvested electrodes was successful and the degradation forecast showed that the main degradation modes can be differentiated. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Lithium Ion Batteries)
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Open AccessArticle
Studies on MgNi-Based Metal Hydride Electrode with Aqueous Electrolytes Composed of Various Hydroxides
Batteries 2016, 2(3), 27; https://doi.org/10.3390/batteries2030027 - 19 Aug 2016
Cited by 10 | Viewed by 4168
Abstract
Compositions of MgNi-based amorphous-monocrystalline thin films produced by radio frequency (RF) sputtering with a varying composition target have been optimized. The composition Mg52Ni39Co3Mn6 is identified to possess the highest initial discharge capacity of 640 mAh·g−1 [...] Read more.
Compositions of MgNi-based amorphous-monocrystalline thin films produced by radio frequency (RF) sputtering with a varying composition target have been optimized. The composition Mg52Ni39Co3Mn6 is identified to possess the highest initial discharge capacity of 640 mAh·g−1 with a 50 mA·g−1 discharge current density. Reproduction in bulk form of Mg52Ni39Co3Mn6 alloy composition was prepared through a combination of melt spinning (MS) and mechanical alloying (MA), shows a sponge-like microstructure with >95% amorphous content, and is chosen as the metal hydride (MH) alloy for a sequence of electrolyte experiments with various hydroxides including LiOH, NaOH, KOH, RbOH, CsOH, and (C2H5)4N(OH). The electrolyte conductivity is found to be closely related to cation size in the hydroxide compound used as 1 M additive to the 4 M KOH aqueous solution. The degradation performance of Mg52Ni39Co3Mn6 alloy through cycling demonstrates a strong correlation with the redox potential of the cation in the alkali hydroxide compound used as 1 M additive to the 5 M KOH aqueous solution. NaOH, CsOH, and (C2H5)4N(OH) additions are found to achieve a good balance between corrosion and conductivity performances. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nickel Metal Hydride Batteries) Printed Edition available
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Open AccessArticle
Microstructure Investigation on Metal Hydride Alloys by Electron Backscatter Diffraction Technique
Batteries 2016, 2(3), 26; https://doi.org/10.3390/batteries2030026 - 01 Aug 2016
Cited by 15 | Viewed by 4091
Abstract
The microstructures of two metal hydride (MH) alloys, a Zr7Ni10 based Ti15Zr26Ni59 and a C14 Laves phase based Ti12Zr21.5V10Ni36.2Cr4.5Mn13.6Sn0.3Co2.0Al [...] Read more.
The microstructures of two metal hydride (MH) alloys, a Zr7Ni10 based Ti15Zr26Ni59 and a C14 Laves phase based Ti12Zr21.5V10Ni36.2Cr4.5Mn13.6Sn0.3Co2.0Al0.4, were studied using the electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD) technique. The first alloy was found to be composed of completely aligned Zr7Ni10 grains with a ZrO2 secondary phase randomly scattered throughout and a C15 secondary phase precipitated along the grain boundary. Two sets of orientation alignments were found between the Zr7Ni10 grains and the C15 phase: (001)Zr7Ni10A//(110)C15 and [100]Zr7Ni10A//[0 1 ¯ 1]C15, and (01 1 ¯ )Zr7Ni10B//( 1 ¯ 00)C15 and [100]Zr7Ni10B//[313]C15. The grain growth direction is close to [313]Zr7Ni10B//[ 1 ¯ 11]C15. The second alloy is predominated by a C14 phase, as observed from X-ray diffraction analysis. Both the matrix and dendrite seen through a scanning electron microscope arise from the same C14 structure with a similar chemical composition, but different orientations, as the matrix with the secondary phases in the form of intervening Zr7Ni10/Zr9Ni11/(Zr,Ni)Ti needle-like phase coated with a thin layer of C15 phase. The crystallographic orientation of the C15 phase is in alignment with the neighboring C14 phase, with the following relationships: (111)C15//(0001)C14 and [1 1 ¯ 0]C15//[11 2 ¯ 0]C14. The alignments in crystallographic orientations among the phases in these two multi-phase MH alloys confirm the cleanliness of the interface (free of amorphous region), which is necessary for the hydrogen-storage synergetic effects in both gaseous phase reaction and electrochemistry. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nickel Metal Hydride Batteries) Printed Edition available
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Open AccessArticle
The Importance of Rare-Earth Additions in Zr-Based AB2 Metal Hydride Alloys
Batteries 2016, 2(3), 25; https://doi.org/10.3390/batteries2030025 - 11 Jul 2016
Cited by 15 | Viewed by 4316
Abstract
Effects of substitutions of rare earth (RE) elements (Y, La, Ce, and Nd) to the Zr-based AB2 multi-phase metal hydride (MH) alloys on the structure, gaseous phase hydrogen storage (H-storage), and electrochemical properties were studied and compared. Solubilities of the RE atoms [...] Read more.
Effects of substitutions of rare earth (RE) elements (Y, La, Ce, and Nd) to the Zr-based AB2 multi-phase metal hydride (MH) alloys on the structure, gaseous phase hydrogen storage (H-storage), and electrochemical properties were studied and compared. Solubilities of the RE atoms in the main Laves phases (C14 and C15) are very low, and therefore the main contributions of the RE additives are through the formation of the RENi phase and change in TiNi phase abundance. Both the RENi and TiNi phases are found to facilitate the bulk diffusion of hydrogen but impede the surface reaction. The former is very effective in improving the activation behaviors. −40 °C performances of the Ce-doped alloys are slightly better than the Nd-doped alloys but not as good as those of the La-doped alloys, which gained the improvement through a different mechanism. While the improvement in ultra-low-temperature performance of the Ce-containing alloys can be associated with a larger amount of metallic Ni-clusters embedded in the surface oxide, the improvement in the La-containing alloys originates from the clean alloy/oxide interface as shown in an earlier transmission electron microscopy study. Overall, the substitution of 1 at% Ce to partially replace Zr gives the best electrochemical performances (capacity, rate, and activation) and is recommended for all the AB2 MH alloys for electrochemical applications. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nickel Metal Hydride Batteries) Printed Edition available
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Open AccessArticle
Gaseous Phase and Electrochemical Hydrogen Storage Properties of Ti50Zr1Ni44X5 (X = Ni, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, or Cu) for Nickel Metal Hydride Battery Applications
Batteries 2016, 2(3), 24; https://doi.org/10.3390/batteries2030024 - 08 Jul 2016
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 4193
Abstract
Structural, gaseous phase hydrogen storage, and electrochemical properties of a series of the Ti50Zr1Ni44X5 (X = Ni, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, or Cu) metal hydride alloys were studied. X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy [...] Read more.
Structural, gaseous phase hydrogen storage, and electrochemical properties of a series of the Ti50Zr1Ni44X5 (X = Ni, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, or Cu) metal hydride alloys were studied. X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) revealed the multi-phase nature of all alloys, which were composed of a stoichiometric TiNi matrix, a hyperstoichiometric TiNi minor phase, and a Ti2Ni secondary phase. Improvement in synergetic effects between the main TiNi and secondary Ti2Ni phases, determined by the amount of distorted lattice region in TiNi near Ti2Ni, was accomplished by the substitution of an element with a higher work function, which consequently causes a dramatic increase in gaseous phase hydrogen storage capacity compared to the Ti50Zr1Ni49 base alloy. Capacity performance is further enhanced in the electrochemical environment, especially in the cases of the Ti50Zr1Ni49 base alloy and Ti50Zr1Ni44Co5 alloy. Although the TiNi-based alloys in the current study show poorer high-rate performances compared to the commonly used AB5, AB2, and A2B7 alloys, they have adequate capacity performances and also excel in terms of cost and cycle stability. Among the alloys investigated, the Ti50Zr1Ni44Fe5 alloy demonstrated the best balance among capacity (394 mAh·g−1), high-rate performance, activation, and cycle stability and is recommended for follow-up full-cell testing and as the base composition for future formula optimization. A review of previous research works regarding the TiNi metal hydride alloys is also included. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nickel Metal Hydride Batteries) Printed Edition available
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Open AccessArticle
First-Principles Point Defect Models for Zr7Ni10 and Zr2Ni7 Phases
Batteries 2016, 2(3), 23; https://doi.org/10.3390/batteries2030023 - 30 Jun 2016
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 3724
Abstract
Synergetic effects in multi-phased AB2 Laves-phase-based metal hydride (MH) alloys enable the access of high hydrogen storage secondary phases, despite the lower absorption/desorption kinetics found in nickel/metal hydride (Ni/MH) batteries. Alloy design strategies to further tune the electrochemical properties of these secondary [...] Read more.
Synergetic effects in multi-phased AB2 Laves-phase-based metal hydride (MH) alloys enable the access of high hydrogen storage secondary phases, despite the lower absorption/desorption kinetics found in nickel/metal hydride (Ni/MH) batteries. Alloy design strategies to further tune the electrochemical properties of these secondary phases include the use of additives and processing techniques to manipulate the chemical nature and the microstructure of these materials. It is also of particular interest to observe the engineering of constitutional point defects and how they may affect electrochemical properties and performance. The Zr7Ni10 phase appears particularly prone to point defects, and we use density functional theory (DFT) calculations coupled with a statistical mechanics model to study the theoretical point defects. The Zr2Ni7 phase appears less prone to point defects, and we use the Zr2Ni7 point defect model, as well as experimental lattice parameters, with Zr7Ni10 phases from X-ray diffraction (XRD) as points of comparison. The point defect models indicate that anti-site defects tend to form in the Zr7Ni10 phase, and that these defects form more easily in the Zr7Ni10 phase than the Zr2Ni7 phase, as expected. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nickel Metal Hydride Batteries) Printed Edition available
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Open AccessArticle
Clean Grain Boundary Found in C14/Body-Center-Cubic Multi-Phase Metal Hydride Alloys
Batteries 2016, 2(3), 22; https://doi.org/10.3390/batteries2030022 - 30 Jun 2016
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 4116
Abstract
The grain boundaries of three Laves phase-related body-center-cubic (bcc) solid-solution, metal hydride (MH) alloys with different phase abundances were closely examined by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and more importantly, electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD) techniques. By using EBSD, we were [...] Read more.
The grain boundaries of three Laves phase-related body-center-cubic (bcc) solid-solution, metal hydride (MH) alloys with different phase abundances were closely examined by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and more importantly, electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD) techniques. By using EBSD, we were able to identify the alignment of the crystallographic orientations of the three major phases in the alloys (C14, bcc, and B2 structures). This finding confirms the presence of crystallographically sharp interfaces between neighboring phases, which is a basic assumption for synergetic effects in a multi-phase MH system. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nickel Metal Hydride Batteries) Printed Edition available
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Open AccessReview
Reviews on the Japanese Patent Applications Regarding Nickel/Metal Hydride Batteries
Batteries 2016, 2(3), 21; https://doi.org/10.3390/batteries2030021 - 30 Jun 2016
Cited by 15 | Viewed by 4921
Abstract
The Japanese Patent Applications filed on the topic of nickel/metal hydride (Ni/MH) batteries have been reviewed. Patent applications filed by the top nine battery manufacturers (Matsushita, Sanyo, Hitachi Maxell, Yuasa, Toshiba, FDK, Furukawa, Japan Storage, and Shin-kobe), five component suppliers (Tanaka, Mitsui, Santoku, [...] Read more.
The Japanese Patent Applications filed on the topic of nickel/metal hydride (Ni/MH) batteries have been reviewed. Patent applications filed by the top nine battery manufacturers (Matsushita, Sanyo, Hitachi Maxell, Yuasa, Toshiba, FDK, Furukawa, Japan Storage, and Shin-kobe), five component suppliers (Tanaka, Mitsui, Santoku, Japan Metals & Chemicals Co. (JMC), and Shin-Etsu), and three research institutes (Industrial Research Institute (ISI), Agency of Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), and Toyota R & D) were chosen as the main subjects for this review, based on their production volume and contribution to the field. By reviewing these patent applications, we can have a clear picture of the technology development in the Japanese battery industry. These patent applications also provide insights, know-how, and future directions for engineers and scientists working in the rechargeable battery field. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nickel Metal Hydride Batteries) Printed Edition available
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Open AccessArticle
Failure Mechanisms of Nickel/Metal Hydride Batteries with Cobalt-Substituted Superlattice Hydrogen-Absorbing Alloy Anodes at 50 °C
Batteries 2016, 2(3), 20; https://doi.org/10.3390/batteries2030020 - 24 Jun 2016
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 4146
Abstract
The incorporation of a small amount of Co in the A2B7 superlattice hydrogen absorbing alloy (HAA) can benefit its electrochemical cycle life performance at both room temperature (RT) and 50 °C. The electrochemical properties of the Co-substituted A2B [...] Read more.
The incorporation of a small amount of Co in the A2B7 superlattice hydrogen absorbing alloy (HAA) can benefit its electrochemical cycle life performance at both room temperature (RT) and 50 °C. The electrochemical properties of the Co-substituted A2B7 and the failure mechanisms of cells using such alloys cycled at RT have been reported previously. In this paper, the failure mechanisms of the same alloys cycled at 50 °C are reported. Compared to that at RT, the trend of the cycle life at 50 °C versus the Co content in the Co-substituted A2B7 HAAs is similar, but the cycle life is significantly shorter. Failure analysis of the cells at 50 °C was performed using X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS), and inductively coupled plasma (ICP) analysis. It was found that the elevated temperature accelerates electrolyte dry-out and the deterioration (both pulverization and oxidation) of the A2B7 negative electrode, which are major causes of cell failure when cycling at 50 °C. Cells from HAA with higher Co-content also showed micro-shortage in the separator from the debris of the corrosion of the negative electrode. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nickel Metal Hydride Batteries) Printed Edition available
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