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Fluids, Volume 5, Issue 3 (September 2020) – 62 articles

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Open AccessArticle
Detailed Simulation of the Nominal Flow and Temperature Conditions in a Pre-Konvoi PWR Using Coupled CFD and Neutron Kinetics
Fluids 2020, 5(3), 161; https://doi.org/10.3390/fluids5030161 - 22 Sep 2020
Viewed by 271
Abstract
The aim of the numerical study was the detection of possible vortices in the upper part of the core of a Pre-Konvoi Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR) which could lead to temperature cycling. In addition, the practical application of this Computational Fluid Dynamic (CFD) [...] Read more.
The aim of the numerical study was the detection of possible vortices in the upper part of the core of a Pre-Konvoi Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR) which could lead to temperature cycling. In addition, the practical application of this Computational Fluid Dynamic (CFD) simulation exists in the full 3D analysis of the coolant flow behavior in the reactor pressure vessel of a nuclear PWR. It also helps to improve the design of future reactor types. Therefore, a CFD simulation of the flow conditions was carried out based on a complex 3D model. The geometry of the model includes the entire Reactor Pressure Vessel (RPV) plus all relevant internals. The core is modelled using the porous body approach, the different pressure losses along and transverse to the main flow direction were considered. The spacer-grid levels were taken into account to the extent that in these areas no cross-flow is possible. The calculation was carried out for nominal operating conditions, i.e., for full load operation. Furthermore, a prototypical End of Cycle (EOC) power distribution was assumed. For this, a power distribution was applied as obtained from a stationary full-core calculation with the 3D neutron kinetics code DYN3D. In order to be able to adequately reproduce flow vortexes, the calculation was performed transiently with suitable Detached Eddy Simulations (DES) turbulence models. The calculation showed fluctuating transverse flow in the upper part of the core, starting at the 8th spacer grid but also revealed that no large dominant vortices exists in this region. It seems that the core acts as a rectifier attenuating large-scale vortices. The analyses included several spacer grid levels in the core and showed that in some areas of the core cross-section an upward increasingly directed transversal flow to the outlet nozzle occurs. In other areas of the core cross-section, on the other hand, there is nearly any cross-flow. However, the following limitations of the model apply: In the model all fuel elements are treated identical and cross flows due to different axial pressure losses for different FA types cannot be displayed. The complex structure of the FAs (eg. flow vanes in spacer grids) could also influence the formation of large-scale vortices. Also, the possible influence of two-phase flows was not considered. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Influence of Wind Buffers on the Aero-Thermal Performance of Skygardens
Fluids 2020, 5(3), 160; https://doi.org/10.3390/fluids5030160 - 18 Sep 2020
Viewed by 342
Abstract
Many high-rise buildings have semi-enclosed landscaped spaces, which act as design elements to improve the social and environmental aspects of the building. Designs such as skygardens are open to outdoor airflow and allow occupants to observe the city skyline from a height. Due [...] Read more.
Many high-rise buildings have semi-enclosed landscaped spaces, which act as design elements to improve the social and environmental aspects of the building. Designs such as skygardens are open to outdoor airflow and allow occupants to observe the city skyline from a height. Due to their often high location, they are subjected to strong wind speeds and extreme environmental conditions. The current study investigates the effects of three common wind buffers (railing, hedges, and trees) located at a height of 92 m on the performance of a skygarden, in terms of occupants’ wind comfort. Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations were carried out using the realisable k-epsilon method, where the vegetation was modelled as a porous zone with cooling capacity. The computational modelling of the high-rise building and vegetation were validated using previous works. The quality class (QC) of the Lawson comfort criteria was used for the evaluation of the wind comfort across the skygarden. The results indicate that, although the three wind buffers offer varying levels of wind reduction in the skygarden, the overall wind conditions generated are suitable for occupancy. Furthermore, vegetation is also able to offer slight temperature reductions in its wake. The right combination and dimension of these elements can greatly assist in generating aero-thermal comfort across skygardens. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers in Fluids)
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Open AccessArticle
Investigating the Formation of Submesoscale Structures along Mesoscale Fronts and Estimating Kinematic Quantities Using Lagrangian Drifters
Fluids 2020, 5(3), 159; https://doi.org/10.3390/fluids5030159 - 14 Sep 2020
Viewed by 404
Abstract
Much of the vertical transport near the surface of the ocean, which plays a critical role in the transport of dissolved nutrients and gases, is thought to be associated with ageostrophic submesoscale phenomena. Vertical velocities are challenging not only to model accurately, but [...] Read more.
Much of the vertical transport near the surface of the ocean, which plays a critical role in the transport of dissolved nutrients and gases, is thought to be associated with ageostrophic submesoscale phenomena. Vertical velocities are challenging not only to model accurately, but also to measure because of how difficult they are to locate in the surface waters of the ocean. Using unique massive drifter releases during the Lagrangian Submesoscale Experiment (LASER) campaign in the Gulf of Mexico and the Coherent Lagrangian Pathways from the Surface Ocean to the Interior (CALYPSO) experiment in the Mediterranean Sea, we investigate the generation of submesoscale structures along two different mesoscale fronts. We use a novel method to project Lagrangian trajectories to Eulerian velocity fields, in order to calculate horizontal velocity gradients at the surface, which are used as a proxy for vertical transport. The velocity reconstruction uses a squared-exponential covariance function, which characterizes velocity correlations in horizontal space and time, and determines the scales of variation using the data itself. SST and towed CTD measurements support the findings revealed by the drifter data. Due to the production of a submesoscale instability eddy in the Gulf of Mexico, convergence magnitudes of up to ∼20 times the planetary vorticity, f, are observed, the value of which is almost 3 times larger than that found in the mesoscale dominated Western Mediterranean Sea. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Lagrangian Transport in Geophysical Fluid Flows)
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Open AccessArticle
Direct Numerical Simulation of Water Droplets in Turbulent Flow
Fluids 2020, 5(3), 158; https://doi.org/10.3390/fluids5030158 - 11 Sep 2020
Viewed by 376
Abstract
Details on the fall speeds of raindrops are essential in both applications and natural events, such as rain-rate retrieval and soil erosion. Here, we examine the influence of turbulence on the terminal velocity of two water drops of different sizes. For the first [...] Read more.
Details on the fall speeds of raindrops are essential in both applications and natural events, such as rain-rate retrieval and soil erosion. Here, we examine the influence of turbulence on the terminal velocity of two water drops of different sizes. For the first time, computations of droplets in turbulent surroundings are conducted with a direct numerical simulation code based on a volume of fluid method. Both the drop surface deformation and internal circulation are captured. The turbulence intensity at the inflow area, as well as the turbulence length scale are varied. In turbulent flow, we find a decline in the terminal velocities for both drops. Based on the study of the wake flow characteristics and drop surface deformation, the decrease in the terminal velocity is found to be directly linked to a shortening of the wake recirculation region resulting from an earlier and more drastic increase in the turbulence kinetic energy in the shear layer. The turbulent surroundings trigger substantial rises in the drop axis ratio amplitude and a slight increase in the drop oscillation frequency, but barely influence the time-averaged drop axis length. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Modelling of Reactive and Non-reactive Multiphase Flows)
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Open AccessArticle
Numerical Computations of Vortex Formation Length in Flow Past an Elliptical Cylinder
Fluids 2020, 5(3), 157; https://doi.org/10.3390/fluids5030157 - 10 Sep 2020
Viewed by 290
Abstract
We examine two dimensional properties of vortex shedding past elliptical cylinders through numerical simulations. Specifically, we investigate the vortex formation length in the Reynolds number regime 10 to 100 for elliptical bodies of aspect ratio in the range 0.4 to 1.4. Our computations [...] Read more.
We examine two dimensional properties of vortex shedding past elliptical cylinders through numerical simulations. Specifically, we investigate the vortex formation length in the Reynolds number regime 10 to 100 for elliptical bodies of aspect ratio in the range 0.4 to 1.4. Our computations reveal that in the steady flow regime, the change in the vortex length follows a linear profile with respect to the Reynolds number, while in the unsteady regime, the time averaged vortex length decreases in an exponential manner with increasing Reynolds number. The transition in profile is used to identify the critical Reynolds number which marks the bifurcation of the Karman vortex from steady symmetric to the unsteady, asymmetric configuration. Additionally, relationships between the vortex length and aspect ratio are also explored. The work presented here is an example of a module that can be used in a project based learning course on computational fluid dynamics. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Teaching and Learning of Fluid Mechanics, Volume II)
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Open AccessArticle
Control and Optimization of Interfacial Flows Using Adjoint-Based Techniques
Fluids 2020, 5(3), 156; https://doi.org/10.3390/fluids5030156 - 10 Sep 2020
Viewed by 289
Abstract
The applicability of adjoint-based gradient computation is investigated in the context of interfacial flows. Emphasis is set on the approximation of the transport of a characteristic function in a potential flow by means of an algebraic volume-of-fluid method. A class of optimisation problems [...] Read more.
The applicability of adjoint-based gradient computation is investigated in the context of interfacial flows. Emphasis is set on the approximation of the transport of a characteristic function in a potential flow by means of an algebraic volume-of-fluid method. A class of optimisation problems with tracking-type functionals is proposed. Continuous (differentiate-then-discretize) and discrete (discretize-then-differentiate) adjoint-based gradient computations are formulated and compared in a one-dimensional configuration, the latter being ultimately used to perform optimisation in two dimensions. The gradient is used in truncated Newton and steepest descent optimisers, and the algorithms are shown to recover optimal solutions. These validations raise a number of open questions, which are finally discussed with directions for future work. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Numerical Methods for Multiphase Flows)
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
Flow and Convection in Metal Foams: A Survey and New CFD Results
Fluids 2020, 5(3), 155; https://doi.org/10.3390/fluids5030155 - 06 Sep 2020
Viewed by 371
Abstract
Metal foams are widely studied as possible tools for the enhancement of heat transfer from hot bodies. The basic idea is that a metal foam tends to significantly increase the heat exchange area between the hot solid body and the external cooling fluid. [...] Read more.
Metal foams are widely studied as possible tools for the enhancement of heat transfer from hot bodies. The basic idea is that a metal foam tends to significantly increase the heat exchange area between the hot solid body and the external cooling fluid. For this reason, this class of porous materials is considered as a good candidate for an alternative to finned surfaces, with different pros and cons. Among the pros, we mention the generally wider area of contact per unit volume between solid and fluid. Among the cons is the difficulty to produce different specimens with the same inner structure, with the consequence that their performance may be significantly variable. This paper will offer a survey of the literature with a focus on the main heat transfer characteristics of the metal foams and the energy balance model based on Local Thermal Non-Equilibrium (LTNE). Then, a numerical simulation of the heat transfer at the pore-scale level for an artificial foam with a spatially periodic structure will be discussed. Finally, these numerical results will be employed to assess the macroscopic modeling of the flow and heat transfer in a metal foam. More precisely, the Darcy–Forchheimer model and the LTNE model adopted to describe the momentum and energy transfer in metal foams have been validated for metallic periodic structures. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Classical and Modern Topics in Fluid Dynamics and Transport Phenomena)
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
An Elastic Collision Model for Impulsive Jumping by Small Planktonic Organisms
Fluids 2020, 5(3), 154; https://doi.org/10.3390/fluids5030154 - 05 Sep 2020
Viewed by 335
Abstract
Many small marine planktonic organisms converge on similar propulsion mechanisms that involve impulsively generated viscous wake vortex rings, and small-scale fluid physics is key to mechanistically understanding the adaptive values of this important behavioral trait. Here, a theoretical fluid mechanics model is developed [...] Read more.
Many small marine planktonic organisms converge on similar propulsion mechanisms that involve impulsively generated viscous wake vortex rings, and small-scale fluid physics is key to mechanistically understanding the adaptive values of this important behavioral trait. Here, a theoretical fluid mechanics model is developed for plankton jumping, based on observations that the initial acceleration phase for a jumping plankter to attain its maximum speed is nearly impulsive, taking only a small fraction of the viscous timescale, and therefore can be regarded as nearly inviscid, analogous to a one-dimensional elastic collision. Flow circulation time-series data measured by particle image velocimetry (PIV) are input into the model and Froude propulsion efficiencies are calculated for several plankton species. Jumping by the tailed ciliate Pseudotontonia sp. has a high Froude propulsion efficiency ~0.9. Copepod jumping also has a very high efficiency, usually >0.95. Jumping by the squid Doryteuthis pealeii paralarvae has an efficiency of 0.44 ± 0.16 (SD). Jumping by the small medusa Sarsia tubulosa has an efficiency of 0.38 ± 0.26 (SD). Differences in the calculated efficiencies are attributed to the different ways by which these plankters impart momentum on the water during the initial acceleration phase as well as the accompanied different added mass coefficients. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Fluid Mechanics of Plankton)
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Open AccessArticle
Mass Transport and Turbulent Statistics within Two Branching Coral Colonies
Fluids 2020, 5(3), 153; https://doi.org/10.3390/fluids5030153 - 04 Sep 2020
Viewed by 393
Abstract
Large eddy simulations were performed to characterize the flow and mass transport mechanisms in the interior of two Pocillopora coral colonies with different geometries, one with a relatively loosely branched morphology (P. eydouxi), and the other with a relatively densely branched [...] Read more.
Large eddy simulations were performed to characterize the flow and mass transport mechanisms in the interior of two Pocillopora coral colonies with different geometries, one with a relatively loosely branched morphology (P. eydouxi), and the other with a relatively densely branched structure (P. meandrina). Detailed velocity vector and streamline fields were obtained inside both corals for the same unidirectional oncoming flow, and significant differences were found between their flow profiles and mass transport mechanisms. For the densely branched P. meandrina colony, a significant number of vortices were shed from individual branches, which passively stirred the water column and enhanced the mass transport rate inside the colony. In contrast, vortices were mostly absent within the more loosely branched P. eydouxi colony. To further understand the impact of the branch density on internal mass transport processes, the non-dimensional Stanton number for mass transfer, St, was calculated based on the local flow time scale and compared between the colonies. The results showed up to a 219% increase in St when the mean vortex diameter was used to calculate St, compared to calculations based on the mean branch diameter. Turbulent flow statistics, including the fluctuating velocity components, the mean Reynolds stress, and the variance of the velocity components were calculated and compared along the height of the flow domain. The comparison of turbulent flow statistics showed similar Reynolds stress profiles for both corals, but higher velocity variations, in the interior of the densely branched coral, P. meandrina. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Classical and Modern Topics in Fluid Dynamics and Transport Phenomena)
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Open AccessArticle
Effects of Composition Heterogeneities on Flame Kernel Propagation: A DNS Study
Fluids 2020, 5(3), 152; https://doi.org/10.3390/fluids5030152 - 04 Sep 2020
Viewed by 299
Abstract
In this study, a new set of direct numerical simulations is generated and used to examine the influence of mixture composition heterogeneities on the propagation of a premixed iso-octane/air spherical turbulent flame, with a representative chemical description. The dynamic effects of both turbulence [...] Read more.
In this study, a new set of direct numerical simulations is generated and used to examine the influence of mixture composition heterogeneities on the propagation of a premixed iso-octane/air spherical turbulent flame, with a representative chemical description. The dynamic effects of both turbulence and combustion heterogeneities are considered, and their competition is assessed. The results of the turbulent homogeneous case are compared with those of heterogeneous cases which are characterized by multiple stratification length scales and segregation rates in the regime of a wrinkled flame. The comparison reveals that stratification does not alter turbulent flame behaviors such as the preferential alignment of the convex flame front with the direction of the compression. However, we find that the overall flame front propagation is slower in the presence of heterogeneities because of the differential on speed propagation. Furthermore, analysis of different displacement speed components is performed by taking multi-species formalism into account. This analysis shows that the global flame propagation front slows down due to the heterogeneities caused by the reaction mechanism and the differential diffusion accompanied by flame surface density variations. Quantification of the effects of each of these mechanisms shows that their intensity increases with the increase in stratification’s length scale and segregation rate. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Numerical Study on the Flow and Heat Transfer Coupled in a Rectangular Mini-Channel by Finite Element Method for Industrial Micro-Cooling Technologies
Fluids 2020, 5(3), 151; https://doi.org/10.3390/fluids5030151 - 03 Sep 2020
Viewed by 357
Abstract
Nowadays, cooling high thermal flows in compact volumes continues to be one of the crucial problems in the industry. With the advent of advanced technologies, much more attention has been paid to how to improve the performance of cooling systems in the area [...] Read more.
Nowadays, cooling high thermal flows in compact volumes continues to be one of the crucial problems in the industry. With the advent of advanced technologies, much more attention has been paid to how to improve the performance of cooling systems in the area of micro-technologies. Rectangular mini-channels are typical representatives which commonly used for cooling applications. However, micro-technologies still face the problem of low performance due to the low productivity of cooling related to unbefitting physical parameter values. Here, this work studies the applicability of the heat transfer scheme of convective flow and flow boiling in a rectangular mini-channel for satisfying the cooling requirement of industrial micro-technologies, through a simulation model governed by the coupled mechanism from Navier-Stokes (N-S) equation and heat transfer equations with phase change effect. In this work, various hydraulic diameters and different inlet fluid speed are used to calculate the different velocity profiles, pressure drops, coefficients of friction and finally, the distribution of the temperatures and dissipated heat flux. The simulation results show the applicability of the rectangular mini-channel in diverse applications such as engine cooling, electronic components, automotive on-board electronics and aerospace engineering. Flow boiling simulation results reveal that the obtained patterns were smooth mixture flow and discrete flow. The dissipated heat flux can reach 1.02–5.34 MW/m2 for a hydraulic diameter of 0.5 mm. We show that the system with the gradient temperature that evolves increasingly along the top and bottom walls of the channels presents the highest heat flux dissipated in flow boiling. Additionally, the fin efficiency of the system is 0.88 and the coefficient value of convective heat transfer is in the range between 5000 < h < 100,000, which indicates the flow boiling heat transfer is effective in the mini-channel when the Reynolds number is less than 400. It provides a significant heat exchange for cooling in these application areas. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Numerical Methods for Multiphase Flows)
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Open AccessArticle
New Generalized Viscosity Model for Non-Colloidal Suspensions and Emulsions
Fluids 2020, 5(3), 150; https://doi.org/10.3390/fluids5030150 - 01 Sep 2020
Viewed by 542
Abstract
The viscous behavior of solids-in-liquid suspensions and liquid-in-liquid emulsions of non-Brownian solid particles and liquid droplets dispersed in Newtonian liquids is thoroughly discussed and reviewed. The full concentration range of the dispersed particles/droplets is covered, that is, 0<ϕ<ϕm [...] Read more.
The viscous behavior of solids-in-liquid suspensions and liquid-in-liquid emulsions of non-Brownian solid particles and liquid droplets dispersed in Newtonian liquids is thoroughly discussed and reviewed. The full concentration range of the dispersed particles/droplets is covered, that is, 0<ϕ<ϕm, where ϕ is the volume fraction of inclusions (particles or droplets) and ϕm is the maximum packing volume fraction of inclusions. The existing viscosity models for suspensions and emulsions are evaluated using a large pool of experimental viscosity data on suspensions and emulsions. A new generalized model for the viscosity of suspensions and emulsions is proposed and evaluated. The model takes into consideration the influence of shear-induced aggregation of particles and droplets. It also includes the effect of the droplet-to-matrix viscosity ratio λ on the viscosity of emulsions. In the limit of high ratio of droplet viscosity to matrix viscosity (λ), the model reduces to the suspension viscosity model. The proposed model uncovers some important and novel characteristics of suspension systems rarely discussed heretofore in the literature. The model is validated using twenty sets of experimental viscosity data on solids-in-liquid suspensions and twenty-three sets of experimental viscosity data on liquid-in-liquid emulsions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Fluid Mechanics of Suspensions and Emulsions)
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Open AccessArticle
Staggered Conservative Scheme for 2-Dimensional Shallow Water Flows
Fluids 2020, 5(3), 149; https://doi.org/10.3390/fluids5030149 - 31 Aug 2020
Viewed by 481
Abstract
Simulating discontinuous phenomena such as shock waves and wave breaking during wave propagation and run-up has been a challenging task for wave modeller. This requires a robust, accurate, and efficient numerical implementation. In this paper, we propose a two-dimensional numerical model for simulating [...] Read more.
Simulating discontinuous phenomena such as shock waves and wave breaking during wave propagation and run-up has been a challenging task for wave modeller. This requires a robust, accurate, and efficient numerical implementation. In this paper, we propose a two-dimensional numerical model for simulating wave propagation and run-up in shallow areas. We implemented numerically the 2-dimensional Shallow Water Equations (SWE) on a staggered grid by applying the momentum conserving approximation in the advection terms. The numerical model is named MCS-2d. For simulations of wet–dry phenomena and wave run-up, a method called thin layer is used, which is essentially a calculation of the momentum deactivated in dry areas, i.e., locations where the water thickness is less than the specified threshold value. Efficiency and robustness of the scheme are demonstrated by simulations of various benchmark shallow flow tests, including those with complex bathymetry and wave run-up. The accuracy of the scheme in the calculation of the moving shoreline was validated using the analytical solutions of Thacker 1981, N-wave by Carrier et al., 2003, and solitary wave in a sloping bay by Zelt 1986. Laboratory benchmarking was performed by simulation of a solitary wave run-up on a conical island, as well as a simulation of the Monai Valley case. Here, the embedded-influxing method is used to generate an appropriate wave influx for these simulations. Simulation results were compared favorably to the analytical and experimental data. Good agreement was reached with regard to wave signals and the calculation of moving shoreline. These observations suggest that the MCS method is appropriate for simulations of varying shallow water flow. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Mathematical and Numerical Modeling of Water Waves)
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Open AccessArticle
Mean Drift Forces on Vertical Cylindrical Bodies Placed in Front of a Breakwater
Fluids 2020, 5(3), 148; https://doi.org/10.3390/fluids5030148 - 31 Aug 2020
Viewed by 374
Abstract
This paper presents a numerical and experimental investigation of the second-order steady horizontal and vertical drift forces acting on cylindrical bodies in regular waves. The examined bodies are either kept restrained in front of a vertical breakwater or are considered free- floating when [...] Read more.
This paper presents a numerical and experimental investigation of the second-order steady horizontal and vertical drift forces acting on cylindrical bodies in regular waves. The examined bodies are either kept restrained in front of a vertical breakwater or are considered free- floating when alone in the wave field. Two principally different approaches for mean drift forces determination are described: the momentum conservation principle and the direct integration of all pressure contributions upon the instantaneous wetted surface of the bodies, whereas, for the solution of the associated diffraction and motion radiation problems, analytical and panel methodologies are applied. The hydrodynamic interaction phenomenon between the bodies and the adjacent breakwater are taken into account by using the method of images. Theoretical and numerical results, concerning the horizontal and the vertical drift forces, are presented and compared with each other. Furthermore, additional comparisons are made with experimental data obtained during an experimental campaign at French research institute for exploitation of the sea (IFREMER), in France. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Wind and Wave Renewable Energy Systems)
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Open AccessArticle
From Mixing to the Large Scale Circulation: How the Inverse Cascade Is Involved in the Formation of the Subsurface Currents in the Gulf of Guinea
Fluids 2020, 5(3), 147; https://doi.org/10.3390/fluids5030147 - 29 Aug 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 484
Abstract
In this paper, we analyse the results from a numerical model at high resolution. We focus on the formation and maintenance of subsurface equatorial currents in the Gulf of Guinea and we base our analysis on the evolution of potential vorticity (PV). We [...] Read more.
In this paper, we analyse the results from a numerical model at high resolution. We focus on the formation and maintenance of subsurface equatorial currents in the Gulf of Guinea and we base our analysis on the evolution of potential vorticity (PV). We highlight the link between submesoscale processes (involving mixing, friction and filamentation), mesoscale vortices and the mean currents in the area. In the simulation, eastward currents, the South and North Equatorial Undercurrents (SEUC and NEUC respectively) and the Guinea Undercurrent (GUC), are shown to be linked to the westward currents located equatorward. We show that east of 20° W, both westward and eastward currents are associated with the spreading of PV tongues by mesoscale vortices. The Equatorial Undercurrent (EUC) brings salty waters into the Gulf of Guinea. Mixing diffuses the salty anomaly downward. Meridional advection, mixing and friction are involved in the formation of fluid parcels with PV anomalies in the lower part and below the pycnocline, north and south of the EUC, in the Gulf of Guinea. These parcels gradually merge and vertically align, forming nonlinear anticyclonic vortices that propagate westward, spreading and horizontally mixing their PV content by stirring filamentation and diffusion, up to 20° W. When averaged over time, this creates regions of nearly homogeneous PV within zonal bands between 1.5° and 5° S or N. This mean PV field is associated with westward and eastward zonal jets flanking the EUC with the homogeneous PV tongues corresponding to the westward currents, and the strong PV gradient regions at their edges corresponding to the eastward currents. Mesoscale vortices strongly modulate the mean fields explaining the high spatial and temporal variability of the jets. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Submesoscale Processes in the Ocean)
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
Submesoscale Dynamics in the Gulf of Aden and the Gulf of Oman
Fluids 2020, 5(3), 146; https://doi.org/10.3390/fluids5030146 - 28 Aug 2020
Viewed by 517
Abstract
We have investigated the surface and subsurface submesoscale dynamics in the Gulf of Aden and the Gulf of Oman. Our results are based on the analyses of regional numerical simulations performed with a primitive equation model (HYCOM) at submesoscale permitting horizontal resolution. A [...] Read more.
We have investigated the surface and subsurface submesoscale dynamics in the Gulf of Aden and the Gulf of Oman. Our results are based on the analyses of regional numerical simulations performed with a primitive equation model (HYCOM) at submesoscale permitting horizontal resolution. A model zoom for each gulf was embedded in a regional mesoscale-resolving simulation. In the Gulf of Aden and the Gulf of Oman, the interactions of mesoscale structures and fronts instabilities form submesoscale eddies and filaments. Rotational energy spectra show that the Gulf of Aden has a higher ratio of submesoscale to mesocale energy than the Gulf of Oman. Fast waves (internal gravity waves, tidal waves, Kelvin waves) and slow waves (Rossby waves) were characterized via energy spectra of the divergent velocity. Local upwelling systems which shed cold filaments, coastal current instabilities at the surface, and baroclinic instability at capes in subsurface were identified as generators of submesocale structures. In particular, the Ras al Hamra and Ras al Hadd capes in the Gulf of Oman, and the Cape of Berbera in the Gulf of Aden, are loci of submesoscale eddy generation. To determine the instability mechanisms involved in these generations, we diagnosed the Ertel potential vorticity and the energy conversion terms: the horizontal and vertical Reynolds stresses and the vertical buoyancy flux. Finally, the impacts of the subsurface submesoscale eddy production at capes on the diffusion and fate of the Red Sea Water (in the Gulf of Aden) and the Persian Gulf Water (in the Gulf of Oman) are highlighted. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Submesoscale Processes in the Ocean)
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Open AccessArticle
Altimetry-Based Diagnosis of Deep-Reaching Sub-Mesoscale Ocean Fronts
Fluids 2020, 5(3), 145; https://doi.org/10.3390/fluids5030145 - 28 Aug 2020
Viewed by 349
Abstract
Recent studies demonstrate that energetic sub-mesoscale fronts (10–50 km width) extend in the ocean interior, driving large vertical velocities and associated fluxes. However, diagnosing the dynamics of these deep-reaching fronts from in situ observations remains challenging because of the lack of information on [...] Read more.
Recent studies demonstrate that energetic sub-mesoscale fronts (10–50 km width) extend in the ocean interior, driving large vertical velocities and associated fluxes. However, diagnosing the dynamics of these deep-reaching fronts from in situ observations remains challenging because of the lack of information on the 3-D structure of the horizontal velocity. Here, a realistic numerical simulation in the Antarctic Circumpolar Current (ACC) is used to study the dynamics of submesocale fronts in relation to velocity gradients, responsible for the formation of these fronts. Results highlight that the stirring properties of the flow at depth, which are related to the velocity gradients, can be inferred from finite-size Lyapunov exponent (FSLE) at the surface. Satellite altimetry observations of FSLE and velocity gradients are then used in combination with recent in situ observations collected by an elephant seal in the ACC to reconstruct frontal dynamics and their associated vertical velocities down to 500 m. The approach proposed here is well suited for the analysis of sub-mesoscale-resolving datasets and the design of future sub-mesoscale field campaigns. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Submesoscale Processes in the Ocean)
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Open AccessArticle
On the Optimal Control of Stationary Fluid–Structure Interaction Systems
Fluids 2020, 5(3), 144; https://doi.org/10.3390/fluids5030144 - 28 Aug 2020
Viewed by 303
Abstract
Fluid–structure interaction (FSI) systems consist of a fluid which flows and deforms one or more solid surrounding structures. In this paper, we study inverse FSI problems, where the goal is to find the optimal value of some control parameters, such that the FSI [...] Read more.
Fluid–structure interaction (FSI) systems consist of a fluid which flows and deforms one or more solid surrounding structures. In this paper, we study inverse FSI problems, where the goal is to find the optimal value of some control parameters, such that the FSI solution is close to a desired one. Optimal control problems are formulated with Lagrange multipliers and adjoint variables formalism. In order to recover the symmetry of the stationary state-adjoint system an auxiliary displacement field is introduced and used to extend the velocity field from the fluid into the structure domain. As a consequence, the adjoint interface forces are balanced automatically. We present three different FSI optimal controls: inverse parameter estimation, boundary control and distributed control. The optimality system is derived from the first order necessary condition by taking the Fréchet derivatives of the augmented Lagrangian with respect to all the variables involved. The optimal solution is obtained through a gradient-based algorithm applied to the optimality system. In order to support the proposed approach and compare these three optimal control approaches numerical tests are performed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Classical and Modern Topics in Fluid Dynamics and Transport Phenomena)
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Open AccessArticle
Temperature Uniformity in Cross-Flow Double-Layered Microchannel Heat Sinks
Fluids 2020, 5(3), 143; https://doi.org/10.3390/fluids5030143 - 28 Aug 2020
Viewed by 250
Abstract
An in-house finite element method (FEM) procedure is used to carry out a numerical study on the thermal behavior of cross-flow double-layered microchannel heat sinks with an unequal number of microchannels in the two layers. The thermal performance is compared with those yielded [...] Read more.
An in-house finite element method (FEM) procedure is used to carry out a numerical study on the thermal behavior of cross-flow double-layered microchannel heat sinks with an unequal number of microchannels in the two layers. The thermal performance is compared with those yielded by other more conventional flow configurations. It is shown that if properly designed, i.e., with several microchannels in the top layer smaller than that in the bottom layer, cross-flow double-layered microchannel heat sinks can provide an acceptable thermal resistance and a reasonably good temperature uniformity of the heated base with a header design that is much simpler than that required by the counter-flow arrangement. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Advances in Single and Multiphase Flows in Microchannels)
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Open AccessArticle
A Geometric Perspective on the Modulation of Potential Energy Release by a Lateral Potential Vorticity Gradient
Fluids 2020, 5(3), 142; https://doi.org/10.3390/fluids5030142 - 28 Aug 2020
Viewed by 264
Abstract
The release of available potential energy by growing baroclinic instability requires the slope of the eddy fluxes to be shallower than that of mean density surfaces, where the amount of energy released depends on both the flux angle and the distance of fluid [...] Read more.
The release of available potential energy by growing baroclinic instability requires the slope of the eddy fluxes to be shallower than that of mean density surfaces, where the amount of energy released depends on both the flux angle and the distance of fluid parcel excursions against the background density gradient. The presence of a lateral potential vorticity (PV) gradient is known to affect the growth rate and energy release by baroclinic instability, but often makes the mathematics of formal linear stability analysis intractable. Here the effects of a lateral PV gradient on baroclinic growth are examined by considering its effects on the slope of the eddy fluxes. It is shown that the PV gradient systematically shifts the unstable modes toward higher wavenumbers and creates a cutoff to the instability at large scales, both of which steepen the eddy flux angle and limit the amount of energy released. This effect may contribute to the severe inhibition of baroclinic turbulence in systems dominated by barotropic jets, making them less likely to transition to turbulence-dominated flow regimes. Full article
(This article belongs to the collection Geophysical Fluid Dynamics)
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Open AccessArticle
Stability of the Plane Bingham–Poiseuille Flow in an Inclined Channel
Fluids 2020, 5(3), 141; https://doi.org/10.3390/fluids5030141 - 27 Aug 2020
Viewed by 355
Abstract
We study the stability of laminar Bingham–Poiseuille flows in a sheet of fluid (open channel) down an incline with constant slope angle β(0,π/2). This problem has geophysical applications to the evolution of landslides. In [...] Read more.
We study the stability of laminar Bingham–Poiseuille flows in a sheet of fluid (open channel) down an incline with constant slope angle β(0,π/2). This problem has geophysical applications to the evolution of landslides. In this article, we apply to this problem recent results of Falsaperla et al. for laminar Couette and Poiseuille flows of Newtonian fluids in inclined channels. The stability of the basic motion of the generalised Navier–Stokes system for a Bingham fluid in a horizontal channel against linear perturbations has been studied. In this article, we study the flows of a Bingham fluid when the channel is oblique and we prove a stabilizing effect of the Bingham parameter B. We also study the stability of the linear system with an energy method (Lyapunov functions) and prove that the streamwise perturbations are always stable, while the spanwise perturbations are energy-stable if the Reynolds number Re is less than the critical Reynolds number Rc obtained solving a generalised Orr equation of a maximum variational problem. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Classical and Modern Topics in Fluid Dynamics and Transport Phenomena)
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
The Propagation of Nonlinear Internal Waves under the Influence of Variable Topography and Earth’s Rotation in a Two-Layer Fluid
Fluids 2020, 5(3), 140; https://doi.org/10.3390/fluids5030140 - 26 Aug 2020
Viewed by 406
Abstract
A nonlinear equation of the Korteweg–de Vries equation usually describes internal solitary waves in the coastal ocean that lead to an exact solitary wave solution. However, in any real application, there exists the Earth’s rotation. Thus, an additional term is required, and consequently, [...] Read more.
A nonlinear equation of the Korteweg–de Vries equation usually describes internal solitary waves in the coastal ocean that lead to an exact solitary wave solution. However, in any real application, there exists the Earth’s rotation. Thus, an additional term is required, and consequently, the Ostrovsky equation is developed. This additional term is believed to destroy the solitary wave solution and form a nonlinear envelope wave packet instead. In addition, an internal solitary wave is commonly disseminated over the variable topography in the ocean. Because of these effects, the Ostrovsky equation is retrieved by a variable-coefficient Ostrovsky equation. In this study, the combined effects of both background rotation and variable topography on a solitary wave in a two-layer fluid is studied since internal waves typically happen here. A numerical simulation for the variable-coefficient Ostrovsky equation with a variable topography is presented. Two basic examples of the depth profile are considered in detail and sustained by numerical results. The first one is the constant-slope bottom, and the second one is the specific bottom profile following the previous studies. These indicate that the combination of variable topography and rotation induces a secondary trailing wave packet. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Acceleration Waves in Rational Extended Thermodynamics of Rarefied Monatomic Gases
Fluids 2020, 5(3), 139; https://doi.org/10.3390/fluids5030139 - 25 Aug 2020
Viewed by 329
Abstract
Rational Extended Thermodynamics theories with different number of moments are usually introduced to study non-equilibrium phenomena in rarefied gases. Here, we use them to describe one-dimensional acceleration waves in a rarefied monatomic gas. In particular, we focus on the degeneracy of the acceleration [...] Read more.
Rational Extended Thermodynamics theories with different number of moments are usually introduced to study non-equilibrium phenomena in rarefied gases. Here, we use them to describe one-dimensional acceleration waves in a rarefied monatomic gas. In particular, we focus on the degeneracy of the acceleration wave to a shock wave, in order to test the validity of the models and the role played by an increasing number of moments. As a byproduct, some peculiarities of the characteristic velocities at equilibrium are analyzed as well. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Classical and Modern Topics in Fluid Dynamics and Transport Phenomena)
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Open AccessArticle
Parametric Study of Turbulent Couette Flow over Wavy Surfaces Using RANS Simulation: Effects of Aspect-Ratio, Wave-Slope and Reynolds Number
Fluids 2020, 5(3), 138; https://doi.org/10.3390/fluids5030138 - 25 Aug 2020
Viewed by 319
Abstract
A turbulent Couette flow over a wavy surface is subject to a detailed parametric study in which three parameters—Aspect Ratio, Wave Slope and Reynolds number—are independently varied over an order of magnitude to investigate their influence on the flow. Stdk−ε turbulence model [...] Read more.
A turbulent Couette flow over a wavy surface is subject to a detailed parametric study in which three parameters—Aspect Ratio, Wave Slope and Reynolds number—are independently varied over an order of magnitude to investigate their influence on the flow. Stdk−ε turbulence model with enhanced wall functions is used to simulate all cases in the study and the results are validated against experimental data as well as analytical theories pertaining to flow over wavy surfaces. Gross flow properties such as mean velocity profiles, mass flow rate, shear stress and pressure on the walls, as well as turbulent flow characteristics such as inner-wall coordinates, log-law fit, eddy viscosity profiles and turbulence kinetic energy across the domain, are presented and their corroboration with existing literature is discussed. The effect of the three parameters on the flow variables is investigated. It is observed that while all response flow variables scale monotonically with a progressive change in the parameters, there are certain flow characteristics that can be ascribed exclusively to one of the three parameters. The study also discusses the influence of the top plate, a much-needed discussion that seems to be absent in most literature pertaining to Couette flow in wavy channels. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Numerical Advances in Fluid Mechanics, Volume II)
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Open AccessArticle
Three-Dimensional Wind Field Construction and Wind Turbine Siting in an Urban Environment
Fluids 2020, 5(3), 137; https://doi.org/10.3390/fluids5030137 - 16 Aug 2020
Viewed by 355
Abstract
Three-dimensional urban wind field construction plays an important role not only in the analysis of pedestrian levels of comfort but also in the effectiveness of harnessing wind energy in an urban environment. However, it is challenging to accurately simulate urban wind flow due [...] Read more.
Three-dimensional urban wind field construction plays an important role not only in the analysis of pedestrian levels of comfort but also in the effectiveness of harnessing wind energy in an urban environment. However, it is challenging to accurately simulate urban wind flow due to the complex land use in urban environments. In this study, a three-dimensional numerical model was developed for urban wind flow construction. To obtain an accurate urban wind field, various turbulence models, including the Reynolds stress model (RSM), k-ω shear stress transport (SST), realizable k-ε, and (Re-Normalisation Group (RNG) k-ε models were tested. Simulation results were compared with experimental data in the literature. The RSM model showed promising potential in simulating urban wind flow. The model was then adopted to simulate urban wind flow for Purdue University Northwest, which is located in the Northwest Indiana urban region. Based on the simulation results, the optimal location was identified for urban wind turbine siting. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Wind and Wave Renewable Energy Systems)
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Open AccessArticle
3D Printed Structured Porous Treatments for Flow Control around a Circular Cylinder
Fluids 2020, 5(3), 136; https://doi.org/10.3390/fluids5030136 - 14 Aug 2020
Viewed by 528
Abstract
The use of porous coatings is one of the passive flow control methods used to reduce turbulence, noise and vibrations generated due to fluid flow. Porous coatings for flow stabilization have potential for a light-weight, cost-effective, and customizable solution. The design and performance [...] Read more.
The use of porous coatings is one of the passive flow control methods used to reduce turbulence, noise and vibrations generated due to fluid flow. Porous coatings for flow stabilization have potential for a light-weight, cost-effective, and customizable solution. The design and performance of a structured porous coating depend on multiple control parameters like lattice size, strut thickness, lattice structure/geometry, etc. This study investigated the suitability of MSLA 3D printers to manufacture porous coatings based on unit cell designs to optimize porous lattices for flow control behind a cylinder. The Reynolds number used was 6.1×1041.5×105 and the flow measurements were taken using a hotwire probe. Different experiment sets were conducted for single cylinder with varying control parameters to achieve best performing lattice designs. It was found that lattice structures with higher porosity produced lower turbulence intensity in the wake of the cylinder. However, for constant porosity lattice structures, there was negligible difference in turbulence and mean wake velocity levels. Coating thickness did not have a linear relationship with turbulence reduction, suggesting an optimal thickness value. For constant porosity coatings, cell count in coating thickness did not influence the turbulence or mean wake velocity. Partial coating designs like helical and spaced coatings had comparable performance to that of a full coating. MSLA printers were found capable of manufacturing thin and complex porous lattices. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Models and Applications of Acoustic for Fluids)
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Open AccessArticle
Theoretical Analysis of a Vertical Cylindrical Floater in Front of an Orthogonal Breakwater
Fluids 2020, 5(3), 135; https://doi.org/10.3390/fluids5030135 - 13 Aug 2020
Viewed by 336
Abstract
This study investigates the effect of an orthogonal-shaped reflecting breakwater on the hydrodynamic characteristics of a vertical cylindrical body. The reflecting walls are placed behind the body, which can be conceived as a floater for wave energy absorption. Linear potential theory is assumed, [...] Read more.
This study investigates the effect of an orthogonal-shaped reflecting breakwater on the hydrodynamic characteristics of a vertical cylindrical body. The reflecting walls are placed behind the body, which can be conceived as a floater for wave energy absorption. Linear potential theory is assumed, and the associated diffraction and motion radiation problems are solved in the frequency domain. Axisymmetric eigenfunction expansions of the velocity potential are introduced into properly defined ring-shaped fluid regions surrounding the floater. The hydrodynamic interaction phenomena between the body and the adjacent breakwaters are exactly taken into account by using the method of images. Results are presented and discussed concerning the exciting wave forces on the floater and its hydrodynamic coefficients, concluding that the hydrodynamics of a vertical cylindrical body in front of an orthogonally shaped breakwater differ from those in unbounded waters. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Wind and Wave Renewable Energy Systems)
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Open AccessArticle
Assessment of Cavitation Models for Compressible Flows Inside a Nozzle
Fluids 2020, 5(3), 134; https://doi.org/10.3390/fluids5030134 - 13 Aug 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 560
Abstract
This study assessed two cavitation models for compressible cavitating flows within a single hole nozzle. The models evaluated were SS (Schnerr and Sauer) and ZGB (Zwart-Gerber-Belamri) using realizable k-epsilon turbulent model, which was found to be the most appropriate model to use for [...] Read more.
This study assessed two cavitation models for compressible cavitating flows within a single hole nozzle. The models evaluated were SS (Schnerr and Sauer) and ZGB (Zwart-Gerber-Belamri) using realizable k-epsilon turbulent model, which was found to be the most appropriate model to use for this flow. The liquid compressibility was modeled using the Tait equation, and the vapor compressibility was modeled using the ideal gas law. Compressible flow simulation results showed that the SS model failed to capture the flow physics with a weak agreement with experimental data, while the ZGB model predicted the flow much better. Modeling vapor compressibility improved the distribution of the cavitating vapor across the nozzle with an increase in vapor volume compared to that of the incompressible assumption, particularly in the core region which resulted in a much better quantitative and qualitative agreement with the experimental data. The results also showed the prediction of a normal shockwave downstream of the cavitation region where the local flow transforms from supersonic to subsonic because of an increase in the local pressure. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Cavitating Flows)
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Open AccessArticle
A Simple Construction of a Thermodynamically Consistent Mathematical Model for Non-Isothermal Flows of Dilute Compressible Polymeric Fluids
Fluids 2020, 5(3), 133; https://doi.org/10.3390/fluids5030133 - 11 Aug 2020
Viewed by 332
Abstract
We revisit some classical models for dilute polymeric fluids, and we show that thermodynamically consistent models for non-isothermal flows of these fluids can be derived in a very elementary manner. Our approach is based on the identification of energy storage mechanisms and entropy [...] Read more.
We revisit some classical models for dilute polymeric fluids, and we show that thermodynamically consistent models for non-isothermal flows of these fluids can be derived in a very elementary manner. Our approach is based on the identification of energy storage mechanisms and entropy production mechanisms in the fluid of interest, which, in turn, leads to explicit formulae for the Cauchy stress tensor and for all of the fluxes involved. Having identified these mechanisms and derived the governing equations, we document the potential use of the thermodynamic basis of the model in a rudimentary stability analysis. In particular, we focus on finite amplitude (nonlinear) stability of a stationary spatially homogeneous state in a thermodynamically isolated system. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers in Fluids)
Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
Numerical Simulation of Fountain Formation due to Normal and Inclined Twin-Jet Impingement on Ground
Fluids 2020, 5(3), 132; https://doi.org/10.3390/fluids5030132 - 08 Aug 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 437
Abstract
The goal of this paper is to study numerically the flow physics of a fountain formed by twin-jet impingement on ground. The incompressible Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) equations with realizable k-ε and WA (Wray-Agarwal) turbulence model are employed in the numerical simulations with ANSYS [...] Read more.
The goal of this paper is to study numerically the flow physics of a fountain formed by twin-jet impingement on ground. The incompressible Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) equations with realizable k-ε and WA (Wray-Agarwal) turbulence model are employed in the numerical simulations with ANSYS Fluent. A series of numerical simulations for straight and inclined fountain formations are conducted by changing the geometric and flow parameters of twin jets and distance between them. The changes in parameters include variations in the jet Reynolds number from 2 × 104 to 8 × 104, impingement height, distance between the centerlines of the two jets from 1.4D to 16D where D is the jet diameter, and ratio of the Reynolds number of the two jets from 1 to 4. It is shown that different Reynolds numbers of the two jets can result in a fountain that inclines towards the jet with smaller Reynolds number. Detailed flow field simulations for a large number of cases are presented, and the flow physics of fountain formation is analyzed for the first time in the literature. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers in Fluids)
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