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Fluids, Volume 4, Issue 1 (March 2019)

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Open AccessArticle Stenosis Indicators Applied to Patient-Specific Renal Arteries without and with Stenosis
Fluids 2019, 4(1), 26; https://doi.org/10.3390/fluids4010026 (registering DOI)
Received: 28 December 2018 / Revised: 7 February 2019 / Accepted: 13 February 2019 / Published: 15 February 2019
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Abstract
Pulsatile flow in the abdominal aorta and the renal arteries of three patients was studied numerically. Two of the patients had renal artery stenosis. The aim of the study was to assess the use of four types of indicators for determining the risk [...] Read more.
Pulsatile flow in the abdominal aorta and the renal arteries of three patients was studied numerically. Two of the patients had renal artery stenosis. The aim of the study was to assess the use of four types of indicators for determining the risk of new stenosis after revascularization of the affected arteries. The four indicators considered include the time averaged wall shear stress (TAWSS), the oscillatory shear index (OSI), the relative reference time (RRT) and a power law model based in platelet activation modeling but applied to the endothelium, named endothelium activation indicator (EAI). The results show that the indicators can detect the existing stenosis but are less successful in the revascularized cases. The TAWSS and, more clearly, the EAI approach seem to be better in predicting the risk for stenosis relapse at the original location and close to the post-stenotic dilatation. The shortcomings of the respective indicators are discussed along with potential improvements to endothelial activation modeling and its use as an indicator for risks of restenosis. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Cardiovascular Flows)
Open AccessArticle A Numerical Study of Particle Migration and Sedimentation in Viscoelastic Couette Flow
Received: 16 January 2019 / Revised: 30 January 2019 / Accepted: 2 February 2019 / Published: 11 February 2019
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Abstract
In this work, a systematic investigation of the migration of sedimenting particles in a viscoelastic Couette flow is presented, using finite element 3D simulations. To this end, a novel computational approach is presented, which allows us to simulate a periodic configuration of rigid [...] Read more.
In this work, a systematic investigation of the migration of sedimenting particles in a viscoelastic Couette flow is presented, using finite element 3D simulations. To this end, a novel computational approach is presented, which allows us to simulate a periodic configuration of rigid spherical particles accurately and efficiently. To study the different contributions to the particle migration, we first investigate the migration of particles sedimenting near the inner wall, without an externally-imposed Couette flow, followed by the migration of non-sedimenting particles in an externally-imposed Couette flow. Then, both flows are combined, i.e., sedimenting particles with an externally-imposed Couette flow, which was found to increase the migration velocity significantly, yielding migration velocities that are higher than the sum of the combined flows. It was also found that the trace of the conformation tensor becomes asymmetric with respect to the particle center when the particle is initially placed close to the inner cylinder. We conclude by investigating the sedimentation velocity with an imposed orthogonal shear flow. It is found that the sedimentation velocity can be both higher or lower then the Newtonian case, depending on the rheology of the suspending fluid. Specifically, a shear-thinning viscosity is shown to play an important role, which is in-line with previously-published results. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Drop, Bubble and Particle Dynamics in Complex Fluids)
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Open AccessReview Steady Two-Dimensional Free-Surface Flow Past Disturbances in an Open Channel: Solutions of the Korteweg–De Vries Equation and Analysis of the Weakly Nonlinear Phase Space
Received: 11 December 2018 / Revised: 23 January 2019 / Accepted: 1 February 2019 / Published: 4 February 2019
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Abstract
Two-dimensional free-surface flow past disturbances in an open channel is a classical problem in hydrodynamics—a problem that has received considerable attention over the last two centuries (e.g., see Lamb’s Treatise, 1879). With traces back to Russell’s experimental observations of the Great Wave of [...] Read more.
Two-dimensional free-surface flow past disturbances in an open channel is a classical problem in hydrodynamics—a problem that has received considerable attention over the last two centuries (e.g., see Lamb’s Treatise, 1879). With traces back to Russell’s experimental observations of the Great Wave of Translation in 1834, Korteweg and de Vries (1895), and others, derived an unforced equation to describe the balance between nonlinearity and dispersion required to model the solitary wave. More recently, Akylas (1984) derived a forced KdV equation to model a pressure distribution on the free-surface (e.g., a ship). Since then, the forced KdV equation has been shown to be a useful model approximation for two-dimensional flow past disturbances in an open channel. In this paper, we review the stationary solutions of the forced KdV equation for four types of localised disturbances: (i) a flat plate separating two free surfaces; (ii) a compact bump, or dip in the channel bottom topography; (iii) a compact distribution of pressure on the free surface and (iv) a step-wise change in the otherwise constant horizontal level of the channel bottom topography. Moreover, Dias and Vanden-Broeck (2002) developed a phase plane method to analyse flow over a bump, and this general approach has also been applied to the three other types of forcing (see Binder et al., 2005–2015, and others). In this study, we use eleven basic flow types to classify the steady solutions of the forced KdV equation using the phase plane method. Additionally, considering solutions that are wave-free both far upstream and far downstream, we compare KdV model approximations of the uniform flow conditions in the far-field with exact solutions of the full problem. In particular, we derive a new KdV model approximation for the upstream dimensionless flow-rate which is conveniently given in terms of the known downstream dimensionless flow-rate. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Free surface flows)
Open AccessArticle Piezo-Plunger Jetting Technology: An Experimental Study on Jetting Characteristics of Filled Epoxy Polymers
Received: 1 December 2018 / Revised: 10 January 2019 / Accepted: 22 January 2019 / Published: 1 February 2019
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Abstract
The droplet formation of Newtonian fluids and suspensions modified by spherical, non-colloidal particles has attracted much interest in practical and theoretical research. For the present study, a jetting technique was used which accelerates a geometrically defined plunger by a piezoelectric actuator. Changing rheological [...] Read more.
The droplet formation of Newtonian fluids and suspensions modified by spherical, non-colloidal particles has attracted much interest in practical and theoretical research. For the present study, a jetting technique was used which accelerates a geometrically defined plunger by a piezoelectric actuator. Changing rheological properties of materials and extending deformation rates towards nonlinear viscoelastic regimes created the requirement to extend dosage impulses towards larger magnitudes. To mimic the rheological characteristics of nonconductive adhesives we modified Newtonian epoxy resins by thixotropic additives and micro-scale glass spheres. Rheological analysis at steady shear and oscillatory shear ensured a differentiation between material and process-related factors. Evaluation of high-speed images allowed the investigation of drop dynamics and highlighted the dispense impulse reduction by material-specific dampening properties. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Experimental and Computational Rheology)
Open AccessArticle A Comparison of the Effect of Temperature on the Rheological Properties of Diutan and Rhamsan Gum Aqueous Solutions
Received: 15 December 2018 / Revised: 13 January 2019 / Accepted: 19 January 2019 / Published: 1 February 2019
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Abstract
The rheological properties exhibited by gums make its use in applications interesting, such as foods, cosmetics, enhanced oil recovery, or constructions materials. Regardless of application field, the effect of temperature on these properties is of great importance, since these properties can be modified [...] Read more.
The rheological properties exhibited by gums make its use in applications interesting, such as foods, cosmetics, enhanced oil recovery, or constructions materials. Regardless of application field, the effect of temperature on these properties is of great importance, since these properties can be modified and cause the gum not to be useful for those conditions. Diutan and rhamsan gums are biopolymers, belonging to the sphingans, with similar structures which differ in the substituents of their side chains. It is known that both gums exhibit suitable viscoelastic properties and flow behavior when used as a stabilizer, gelling agent, or thickener. Both gums are widely used in food industry, personal care products, construction materials, oil operations, etc. For this reason, to know the effect of the temperature on their rheological properties is very helpful. For this purpose, small amplitude oscillatory shear measurements and flow curves, as a function of the temperature from 10 °C to 60 °C, have been performed, and the results obtained for both gums compared. The obtained results provide interesting information from an industrial point of view, since they reveal that the rheological properties remained almost unaltered in the temperature range assessed with diutan gum aqueous solutions, being slightly more viscous and viscoelastic than rhamsan gum solutions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Experimental and Computational Rheology)
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Open AccessArticle A Continuum Model for Complex Flows of Shear Thickening Colloidal Solutions
Received: 15 December 2018 / Revised: 14 January 2019 / Accepted: 21 January 2019 / Published: 1 February 2019
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Abstract
Colloidal shear thickening fluids (STFs) have applications ranging from commercial use to those of interest to the army and law enforcement, and the oil industry. The theoretical understanding of the flow of these particulate suspensions has predominantly been focused through detailed particle simulations. [...] Read more.
Colloidal shear thickening fluids (STFs) have applications ranging from commercial use to those of interest to the army and law enforcement, and the oil industry. The theoretical understanding of the flow of these particulate suspensions has predominantly been focused through detailed particle simulations. While these simulations are able to accurately capture and predict the behavior of suspensions in simple flows, they are not tractable for more complex flows such as those occurring in applications. The model presented in this work, a modification of an earlier constitutive model by Stickel et al. J. Rheol. 2006, 50, 379–413, describes the evolution of a structure tensor, which is related to the particle mean free-path length. The model contains few adjustable parameters, includes nonlinear terms in the structure, and is able to predict the full range of rheological behavior including shear and extensional thickening (continuous and discontinuous). In order to demonstrate its capability for complex flow simulations, we compare the results of simulations of the model in a simple one-dimensional channel flow versus a full two-dimensional simulation. Ultimately, the model presented is a continuum model shown to predict shear and extensional thickening, as observed in experiment, with a connection to the physical microstructure, and has the capability of helping understand the behavior of STFs in complex flows. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Experimental and Computational Rheology)
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Open AccessArticle A Model for Fuel Spray Formation with Atomizing Air
Received: 28 November 2018 / Revised: 12 January 2019 / Accepted: 19 January 2019 / Published: 29 January 2019
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Abstract
The formation of a liquid spray emanating from a nozzle in the presence of atomizing air was studied using a computational model approach that accounted for the deformation and break up of droplets. Particular attention was given to the formation of sprays under [...] Read more.
The formation of a liquid spray emanating from a nozzle in the presence of atomizing air was studied using a computational model approach that accounted for the deformation and break up of droplets. Particular attention was given to the formation of sprays under non-swirling flow conditions. The instantaneous fluctuating fluid velocity and velocity gradient components were evaluated with the use of a probability density function (PDF)-based Langevin equation. Motions of atomized fuel droplets were analyzed, and ensemble and time averaging were used for evaluating the statistical properties of the spray. Effects of shape change of droplets, and their breakup, as well as evaporation, were included in the model. The simulation results showed that the mean-square fluctuation velocities of the droplets vary significantly with their size and shape. Furthermore, the mean-square fluctuation velocities of the evaporating droplet differed somewhat from non-evaporating droplets. Droplet turbulence diffusivities, however, were found to be close to the diffusivity of fluid point particles. The droplet velocity, concentration, and size of the simulated spray were compared with the experimental data and reasonable agreement was found. Full article
Open AccessArticle Use of Computational Fluid Dynamics to Analyze Blood Flow, Hemolysis and Sublethal Damage to Red Blood Cells in a Bileaflet Artificial Heart Valve
Received: 6 December 2018 / Revised: 15 January 2019 / Accepted: 22 January 2019 / Published: 29 January 2019
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Abstract
Artificial heart valves may expose blood to flow conditions that lead to unnaturally high stress and damage to blood cells as well as issues with thrombosis. The purpose of this research was to predict the trauma caused to red blood cells (RBCs), including [...] Read more.
Artificial heart valves may expose blood to flow conditions that lead to unnaturally high stress and damage to blood cells as well as issues with thrombosis. The purpose of this research was to predict the trauma caused to red blood cells (RBCs), including hemolysis, from the stresses applied to them and their exposure time as determined by analysis of simulation results for blood flow through both a functioning and malfunctioning bileaflet artificial heart valve. The calculations provided the spatial distribution of the Kolmogorov length scales that were used to estimate the spatial and size distributions of the smallest turbulent flow eddies in the flow field. The number and surface area of these eddies in the blood were utilized to predict the amount of hemolysis experienced by RBCs. Results indicated that hemolysis levels are low while suggesting stresses at the leading edge of the leaflet may contribute to subhemolytic damage characterized by shortened circulatory lifetimes and reduced RBC deformability. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Cardiovascular Flows)
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Open AccessArticle A Three-Dimensional Flow and Sediment Transport Model for Free-Surface Open Channel Flows on Unstructured Flexible Meshes
Received: 7 December 2018 / Revised: 20 December 2018 / Accepted: 20 January 2019 / Published: 24 January 2019
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Abstract
Three-dimensional (3D) hydrostatic-pressure-assumption numerical models are widely used for environmental flows with free surfaces and phase interfaces. In this study, a new flow and sediment transport model is developed, aiming to be general and more flexible than existing models. A general set of [...] Read more.
Three-dimensional (3D) hydrostatic-pressure-assumption numerical models are widely used for environmental flows with free surfaces and phase interfaces. In this study, a new flow and sediment transport model is developed, aiming to be general and more flexible than existing models. A general set of governing equations are used for the flow and suspended sediment transport, an improved solution algorithm is proposed, and a new mesh type is developed based on the unstructured polygonal mesh in the horizontal plane and a terrain-following sigma mesh in the vertical direction. The new flow model is verified first with the experimental cases, to ensure the validity of flow and free surface predictions. The model is then validated with cases having the suspended sediment transport. In particular, turbidity current flows are simulated to examine how the model predicts the interface between the fluid and sediments. The predicted results agree well with the available experimental data for all test cases. The model is generally applicable to all open-channel flows, such as rivers and reservoirs, with both flow and suspended sediment transport issues. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Free surface flows)
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Open AccessArticle Computational Study of the Interaction of a PEGylated Hyperbranched Polymer/Doxorubicin Complex with a Bilipid Membrane
Received: 13 December 2018 / Revised: 10 January 2019 / Accepted: 19 January 2019 / Published: 24 January 2019
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Abstract
Fully atomistic molecular dynamics simulations are employed to study in detail the interactions between a complex comprised by a PEGylated hyperbranched polyester (HBP) and doxorubicin molecules, with a model dipalmitoylphosphatidylglycerol membrane in an aqueous environment. The effects of the presence of the lipid [...] Read more.
Fully atomistic molecular dynamics simulations are employed to study in detail the interactions between a complex comprised by a PEGylated hyperbranched polyester (HBP) and doxorubicin molecules, with a model dipalmitoylphosphatidylglycerol membrane in an aqueous environment. The effects of the presence of the lipid membrane in the drug molecules’ spatial arrangement were examined in detail and the nature of their interaction with the latter were discussed and quantified where possible. It was found that a partial migration of the drug molecules towards the membrane’s surface takes place, driven either by hydrogen-bonding (for the protonated drugs) or by hydrophobic interactions (for the neutral drug molecules). The clustering behavior of the drug molecules appeared to be enhanced in the presence of the membrane, while the development of a charge excess close to the surface of the hyperbranched polymer and of the lipid membrane was observed. The uneven charge distribution created an effective overcharging of the HBP/drug complex and the membrane/drug surface. The translational motion of the drug molecules was found to be strongly affected by the presence of the membrane. The extent of the observed changes depended on the charge of the drug molecule. The build-up of the observed charge excesses close to the surface of the polymeric host and the membrane, together with the changes in the diffusional behavior of the drug molecules are of particular interest. Both phenomena could be important at the latest stages of the liposomal disruption and the release of the drug cargo in formulations based on relevant liposomal carriers. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Experimental and Numerical Studies in Biomedical Engineering)
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Open AccessArticle Cardiac Triangle Mapping: A New Systems Approach for Noninvasive Evaluation of Left Ventricular End Diastolic Pressure
Received: 20 November 2018 / Revised: 5 January 2019 / Accepted: 19 January 2019 / Published: 22 January 2019
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Abstract
Noninvasive and practical assessment of hemodynamics is a critical unmet need in the treatment of both chronic and acute cardiovascular diseases. Particularly, the ability to monitor left ventricular end-diastolic pressure (LVEDP) noninvasively offers enormous benefit for managing patients with chronic congestive heart failure. [...] Read more.
Noninvasive and practical assessment of hemodynamics is a critical unmet need in the treatment of both chronic and acute cardiovascular diseases. Particularly, the ability to monitor left ventricular end-diastolic pressure (LVEDP) noninvasively offers enormous benefit for managing patients with chronic congestive heart failure. Recently, we provided proof of concept that a new cardiac metric, intrinsic frequency (IF), derived from mathematical analysis of non-invasively captured arterial waveforms, can be used to accurately compute cardiovascular hemodynamic measures, such as left ventricle ejection fraction (LVEF), by using a smartphone. In this manuscript, we propose a new systems-based method called cardiac triangle mapping (CTM) for hemodynamics evaluation of the left ventricle. This method is based on intrinsic frequency (IF) and systolic time interval (STI) methods that allows computation of LVEDP from noninvasive measurements. Since the CTM method only requires arterial waveform and electrocardiogram (ECG), it can eventually be adopted as a simple smartphone-based device, an inexpensive hand-held device, or perhaps (with future design modifications) a wearable sensor. Such devices, combined with this method, would allow for remote monitoring of heart failure patients. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Cardiovascular Flows)
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Open AccessArticle Field Studies and 3D Modelling of Morphodynamics in a Meandering River Reach Dominated by Tides and Suspended Load
Received: 9 December 2018 / Revised: 11 January 2019 / Accepted: 20 January 2019 / Published: 22 January 2019
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Abstract
Meandering is a common feature in natural alluvial streams. This study deals with alluvial behaviors of a meander reach subjected to both fresh-water flow and strong tides from the coast. Field measurements are carried out to obtain flow and sediment data. Approximately 95% [...] Read more.
Meandering is a common feature in natural alluvial streams. This study deals with alluvial behaviors of a meander reach subjected to both fresh-water flow and strong tides from the coast. Field measurements are carried out to obtain flow and sediment data. Approximately 95% of the sediment in the river is suspended load of silt and clay. The results indicate that, due to the tidal currents, the flow velocity and sediment concentration are always out of phase with each other. The cross-sectional asymmetry and bi-directional flow result in higher sediment concentration along inner banks than along outer banks of the main stream. For a given location, the near-bed concentration is 2−5 times the surface value. Based on Froude number, a sediment carrying capacity formula is derived for the flood and ebb tides. The tidal flow stirs the sediment and modifies its concentration and transport. A 3D hydrodynamic model of flow and suspended sediment transport is established to compute the flow patterns and morphology changes. Cross-sectional currents, bed shear stress and erosion-deposition patterns are discussed. The flow in cross-section exhibits significant stratification and even an opposite flow direction during the tidal rise and fall; the vertical velocity profile deviates from the logarithmic distribution. During the flow reversal between flood and ebb tides, sediment deposits, which is affected by slack-water durations. The bed deformation is dependent on the meander asymmetry and the interaction between the fresh water flow and tides. The flood tides are attributable to the deposition, while the ebb tides, together with run-offs, lead to slight erosion. The flood tides play a key role in the morphodynamic changes of the meander reach. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Free surface flows)
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle Vortex Interactions Subjected to Deformation Flows: A Review
Received: 24 December 2018 / Revised: 13 January 2019 / Accepted: 15 January 2019 / Published: 18 January 2019
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Abstract
Deformation flows are the flows incorporating shear, strain and rotational components. These flows are ubiquitous in the geophysical flows, such as the ocean and atmosphere. They appear near almost any salience, such as isolated coherent structures (vortices and jets) and various fixed obstacles [...] Read more.
Deformation flows are the flows incorporating shear, strain and rotational components. These flows are ubiquitous in the geophysical flows, such as the ocean and atmosphere. They appear near almost any salience, such as isolated coherent structures (vortices and jets) and various fixed obstacles (submerged obstacles and continental boundaries). Fluid structures subject to such deformation flows may exhibit drastic changes in motion. In this review paper, we focus on the motion of a small number of coherent vortices embedded in deformation flows. Problems involving isolated one and two vortices are addressed. When considering a single-vortex problem, the main focus is on the evolution of the vortex boundary and its influence on the passive scalar motion. Two vortex problems are addressed with the use of point vortex models, and the resulting stirring patterns of neighbouring scalars are studied by a combination of numerical and analytical methods from the dynamical system theory. Many dynamical effects are reviewed with emphasis on the emergence of chaotic motion of the vortex phase trajectories and the scalars in their immediate vicinity. Full article
(This article belongs to the collection Geophysical Fluid Dynamics)
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Open AccessFeature PaperReview Rheology of Natural Hydraulic Lime Grouts for Conservation of Stone Masonry—Influence of Compositional and Processing Parameters
Received: 13 December 2018 / Revised: 14 January 2019 / Accepted: 16 January 2019 / Published: 18 January 2019
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Abstract
This review provides an overview of the recent progress in the field of the rheology of grouts for historic masonry consolidation. During the last two decades, significant research has been devoted on the grouting technique for stone masonry consolidation but most results are [...] Read more.
This review provides an overview of the recent progress in the field of the rheology of grouts for historic masonry consolidation. During the last two decades, significant research has been devoted on the grouting technique for stone masonry consolidation but most results are scattered by scientific papers, congress communications, and thesis. This paper compiles and briefly demonstrates the effect of several intrinsic and extrinsic parameters, such as admixtures, additions, pressure, temperature, and measuring instrumentation, on the rheological performance of natural hydraulic lime-based grouts. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Experimental and Computational Rheology)
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Open AccessArticle Effects of Lewis Number on the Evolution of Curvature in Spherically Expanding Turbulent Premixed Flames
Received: 30 November 2018 / Revised: 7 January 2019 / Accepted: 11 January 2019 / Published: 16 January 2019
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Abstract
The effects of Lewis number on the physical mechanisms pertinent to the curvature evolution have been investigated using three-dimensional Direct Numerical Simulation (DNS) of spherically expanding turbulent premixed flames with characteristic Lewis number of Le=0.8, 1.0 and 1.2. It [...] Read more.
The effects of Lewis number on the physical mechanisms pertinent to the curvature evolution have been investigated using three-dimensional Direct Numerical Simulation (DNS) of spherically expanding turbulent premixed flames with characteristic Lewis number of L e = 0.8 , 1.0 and 1.2. It has been found that the overall burning rate and the extent of flame wrinkling increase with decreasing Lewis number L e , and this tendency is particularly prevalent for the sub-unity Lewis number (e.g., L e = 0.8 ) case due to the occurrence of the thermo-diffusive instability. Accordingly, the L e = 0.8 case has been found to exhibit higher probability of finding saddle topologies with large magnitude negative curvatures in comparison to the corresponding L e = 1.0 and 1.2 cases. It has been found that the terms in the curvature transport equation due to normal strain rate gradients and curl of vorticity arising from both fluid flow and flame normal propagation play pivotal roles in the curvature evolution in all cases considered here. The net contribution of the source/sink terms of the curvature transport equation tends to increase the concavity and convexity of the flame surface in the negatively and positively curved locations, respectively for the L e = 0.8 case. This along with the occurrence of high and low temperature (and burning rate) values at the positively and negatively curved zones, respectively acts to augment positive and negative curved wrinkles induced by turbulence in the L e = 0.8 case, which is indicative of thermo-diffusive instability. By contrast, flame propagation effects tend to weakly promote the concavity of the negatively curved cusps, and act to decrease the convexity of the highly positively curved bulges in the L e = 1.0 and 1.2 cases, which are eventually smoothed out due to high and low values of displacement speed S d at negatively and positively curved locations, respectively. Thus, flame propagation tends to smoothen the flame surface in the L e = 1.0 and 1.2 cases. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Numerical Simulations of Turbulent Combustion)
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Open AccessArticle Fluid-Structure Interaction in Abdominal Aortic Aneurysms: Effect of Haematocrit
Received: 14 December 2018 / Accepted: 9 January 2019 / Published: 14 January 2019
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Abstract
The Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm (AAA) is a local dilation of the abdominal aorta and it is a cause for serious concern because of the high mortality associated with its rupture. Consequently, the understanding of the phenomena related to the creation and the progression [...] Read more.
The Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm (AAA) is a local dilation of the abdominal aorta and it is a cause for serious concern because of the high mortality associated with its rupture. Consequently, the understanding of the phenomena related to the creation and the progression of an AAA is of crucial importance. In this work, the complicated interaction between the blood flow and the AAA wall is numerically examined using a fully coupled Fluid-Structure Interaction (FSI) method. The study investigates the possible link between the dynamic behavior of an AAA and the blood viscosity variations attributed to the haematocrit value, while it also incorporates the pulsatile blood flow, the non-Newtonian behavior of blood and the hyperelasticity of the arterial wall. It was found that blood viscosity has no significant effect on von Mises stress magnitude and distribution, whereas there is a close relation between the haematocrit value and the Wall Shear Stress (WSS) magnitude in AAAs. This WSS variation can possibly alter the mechanical properties of the arterial wall and increase its growth rate or even its rupture possibility. The relationship between haematocrit and dynamic behavior of an AAA can be helpful in designing a patient specific treatment. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Experimental and Numerical Studies in Biomedical Engineering)
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Open AccessReview The Past and Present of Discharge Capacity Modeling for Spillways—A Swedish Perspective
Received: 9 December 2018 / Revised: 7 January 2019 / Accepted: 9 January 2019 / Published: 13 January 2019
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Abstract
Most of the hydropower dams in Sweden were built before 1980. The present dam-safety guidelines have resulted in higher design floods than their spillway discharge capacity and the need for structural upgrades. This has led to renewed laboratory model tests. For some dams, [...] Read more.
Most of the hydropower dams in Sweden were built before 1980. The present dam-safety guidelines have resulted in higher design floods than their spillway discharge capacity and the need for structural upgrades. This has led to renewed laboratory model tests. For some dams, even computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations are performed. This provides the possibility to compare the spillway discharge data between the model tests performed a few decades apart. The paper presents the hydropower development, the needs for the ongoing dam rehabilitations and the history of physical hydraulic modeling in Sweden. More than 20 spillways, both surface and bottom types, are analyzed to evaluate their discharge modeling accuracy. The past and present model tests are compared with each other and with the CFD results if available. Discrepancies do exist in the discharges between the model tests made a few decades apart. The differences fall within the range −8.3%–+11.2%. The reasons for the discrepancies are sought from several aspects. The primary source of the errors is seemingly the model construction quality and flow measurement method. The machine milling technique and 3D printing reduce the source of construction errors and improve the model quality. Results of the CFD simulations differ, at the maximum, by 3.8% from the physical tests. They are conducted without knowledge of the physical model results in advance. Following the best practice guidelines, CFD should generate results of decent accuracy for discharge prediction. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Free surface flows)
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Open AccessEditorial Acknowledgement to Reviewers of Fluids in 2018
Published: 10 January 2019
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Abstract
Rigorous peer-review is the corner-stone of high-quality academic publishing [...] Full article
Open AccessArticle Free-Flowing Shear-Thinning Liquid Film in Inclined μ-Channels
Received: 10 December 2018 / Revised: 2 January 2019 / Accepted: 7 January 2019 / Published: 10 January 2019
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Abstract
Among the most important variables in the design of falling film microreactors (FFMRs) is the liquid film thickness as well as the gas/liquid interfacial area, which dictate the mass and heat transfer rates. In a previous work conducted in our lab the characteristics [...] Read more.
Among the most important variables in the design of falling film microreactors (FFMRs) is the liquid film thickness as well as the gas/liquid interfacial area, which dictate the mass and heat transfer rates. In a previous work conducted in our lab the characteristics of a free-falling Newtonian liquid film have been studied and appropriate correlations have been proposed. In this work the geometrical characteristics of a non-Newtonian shear thinning liquid, flowing in an inclined open microchannel, have been experimentally investigated and design correlations that can predict with reasonable accuracy the features of a FFMR have been proposed. The test section used was an open μ-channel with square cross section (WO = 1200 μm) made of brass which can be set to various inclination angles. The liquid film characteristics were measured by a non-intrusive technique that is based on the features of a micro Particle Image Velocimetry (μ-PIV) system. Relevant computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations revealed that the volume average dynamic viscosity over the flow domain is practically the same as the corresponding asymptotic viscosity value, which can thus be used in the proposed design equations. Finally, a generalized algorithm for the design of FFMRs, containing non-Newtonian shear thinning liquids, is suggested. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Experimental and Numerical Studies in Biomedical Engineering)
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Open AccessArticle Relevance of Rheology on the Properties of PP/MWCNT Nanocomposites Elaborated with Different Irradiation/Mixing Protocols
Received: 3 December 2018 / Revised: 27 December 2018 / Accepted: 4 January 2019 / Published: 9 January 2019
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Abstract
Linear and nonlinear rheological features and electrical conductivity of two nanocomposite systems based on polypropylene/multiwall carbon nanotubes (PP/MWCNT) are investigated. The nanocomposites were irradiated with an electron beam following two different procedures. Protocol A, where the nanocomposite mixture is irradiated, and Protocol B [...] Read more.
Linear and nonlinear rheological features and electrical conductivity of two nanocomposite systems based on polypropylene/multiwall carbon nanotubes (PP/MWCNT) are investigated. The nanocomposites were irradiated with an electron beam following two different procedures. Protocol A, where the nanocomposite mixture is irradiated, and Protocol B where only the PP matrix is irradiated before mixing with MWCNT. The same irradiation dose adjusted to bring about long chain branching (LCB) but not crosslinking, is used in both types of nanocomposites. The modification of the polymer matrix viscosity caused by irradiation determines the MWCNT dispersion and therefore the rheological and percolation thresholds. Elongational flow results reveal that strain hardening, typical of irradiated PPs, is observed for the nanocomposites irradiated, but not for the nanocomposites prepared with the irradiated PP. The hypothesis of a shear flow modification that aligns the branches into the backbone, eliminating the strain hardening is considered. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Experimental and Computational Rheology)
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Open AccessArticle On the Steady-State Flow and Yielding Behaviour of Lubricating Greases
Received: 6 December 2018 / Revised: 26 December 2018 / Accepted: 4 January 2019 / Published: 9 January 2019
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Abstract
Practical steady-state flow curves were obtained from different rheological tests and protocols for five lubricating greases, containing thickeners of a rather different nature, i.e., aluminum complex, lithium, lithium complex, and calcium complex soaps and polyurea. The experimental results demonstrated the difficulty to reach [...] Read more.
Practical steady-state flow curves were obtained from different rheological tests and protocols for five lubricating greases, containing thickeners of a rather different nature, i.e., aluminum complex, lithium, lithium complex, and calcium complex soaps and polyurea. The experimental results demonstrated the difficulty to reach “real” steady-state flow conditions for these colloidal suspensions as a consequence of the strong time dependence and marked yielding behavior in a wide range of shear rates, resulting in flow instabilities such as shear banding and fracture. In order to better understand these phenomena, transient flow experiments, at constant shear rates, and creep tests, at constant shear stresses, were also carried out using controlled-strain and controlled-stress rheometers, respectively. The main objective of this work was to study the steady-state flow behaviour of lubricating greases, analyzing how the microstructural characteristics may affect the yielding flow behaviour. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Experimental and Computational Rheology)
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Open AccessArticle An Accurate Finite Element Method for the Numerical Solution of Isothermal and Incompressible Flow of Viscous Fluid
Received: 24 October 2018 / Revised: 18 December 2018 / Accepted: 3 January 2019 / Published: 8 January 2019
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Abstract
Despite its numerical challenges, finite element method is used to compute viscous fluid flow. A consensus on the cause of numerical problems has been reached; however, general algorithms—allowing a robust and accurate simulation for any process—are still missing. Either a very high computational [...] Read more.
Despite its numerical challenges, finite element method is used to compute viscous fluid flow. A consensus on the cause of numerical problems has been reached; however, general algorithms—allowing a robust and accurate simulation for any process—are still missing. Either a very high computational cost is necessary for a direct numerical solution (DNS) or some limiting procedure is used by adding artificial dissipation to the system. These stabilization methods are useful; however, they are often applied relative to the element size such that a local monotonous convergence is challenging to acquire. We need a computational strategy for solving viscous fluid flow using solely the balance equations. In this work, we present a general procedure solving fluid mechanics problems without use of any stabilization or splitting schemes. Hence, its generalization to multiphysics applications is straightforward. We discuss emerging numerical problems and present the methodology rigorously. Implementation is achieved by using open-source packages and the accuracy as well as the robustness is demonstrated by comparing results to the closed-form solutions and also by solving well-known benchmarking problems. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Advancing Chemical Risk Assessment through Human Physiology-Based Biochemical Process Modeling
Received: 30 September 2018 / Revised: 22 December 2018 / Accepted: 27 December 2018 / Published: 4 January 2019
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Abstract
Physiology-Based BioKinetic (PBBK) models are of increasing interest in modern risk assessment, providing quantitative information regarding the absorption, metabolism, distribution, and excretion (ADME). They focus on the estimation of the effective dose at target sites, aiming at the identification of xenobiotic levels that [...] Read more.
Physiology-Based BioKinetic (PBBK) models are of increasing interest in modern risk assessment, providing quantitative information regarding the absorption, metabolism, distribution, and excretion (ADME). They focus on the estimation of the effective dose at target sites, aiming at the identification of xenobiotic levels that are able to result in perturbations to the biological pathway that are potentially associated with adverse outcomes. The current study aims at the development of a lifetime PBBK model that covers a large chemical space, coupled with a framework for human biomonitoring (HBM) data assimilation. The methodology developed herein was demonstrated in the case of bisphenol A (BPA), where exposure analysis was based on European HBM data. Based on our calculations, it was found that current exposure levels in Europe are below the temporary Tolerable Daily Intake (t-TDI) of 4 μg/kg_bw/day proposed by the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA). Taking into account age-dependent bioavailability differences, internal exposure was estimated and compared with the biologically effective dose (BED) resulting from translating the EFSA temporary total daily intake (t-TDI) into equivalent internal dose and an alternative internal exposure reference value, namely biological pathway altering dose (BPAD); the use of such a refined exposure metric, showed that environmentally relevant exposure levels are below the concentrations associated with the activation of biological pathways relevant to toxicity based on High Throughput Screening (HTS) in vitro studies. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Experimental and Numerical Studies in Biomedical Engineering)
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle Rheological Characterization of Carbopol® Dispersions in Water and in Water/Glycerol Solutions
Received: 15 December 2018 / Revised: 27 December 2018 / Accepted: 2 January 2019 / Published: 4 January 2019
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Abstract
The influence of the solvent type on the rheological properties of Carbopol® NF 980 dispersions in water and in water/glycerol solutions is investigated. The material formulation, preparation procedure, common experimental challenges and artifact sources are all addressed. Transient and steady-state experiments were [...] Read more.
The influence of the solvent type on the rheological properties of Carbopol ® NF 980 dispersions in water and in water/glycerol solutions is investigated. The material formulation, preparation procedure, common experimental challenges and artifact sources are all addressed. Transient and steady-state experiments were performed. For both solvent types, a clearly thixotropic behavior occurs slightly above the yield stress, where the avalanche effect is observed. For larger stresses, thixotropy is always negligible. Among other findings, it is observed that, for a given Carbopol concentration, the dispersion in the more viscous solvent possesses a lower yield stress and moduli, a larger power-law index, and a longer time to reach steady state. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Experimental and Computational Rheology)
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Open AccessArticle On the Generalized Kinetic Equation for Surface Gravity Waves, Blow-Up and Its Restraint
Received: 29 November 2018 / Revised: 19 December 2018 / Accepted: 24 December 2018 / Published: 30 December 2018
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Abstract
This article is concerned with the non-linear interaction of homogeneous random ocean surface waves. Under this umbrella, numerous kinetic equations have been derived to study the evolution of the spectral action density, each employing slightly different assumptions. Using analytical and numerical tools, and [...] Read more.
This article is concerned with the non-linear interaction of homogeneous random ocean surface waves. Under this umbrella, numerous kinetic equations have been derived to study the evolution of the spectral action density, each employing slightly different assumptions. Using analytical and numerical tools, and providing exact formulas, we demonstrate that the recently derived generalized kinetic equation exhibits blow up in finite time for certain degenerate quartets of waves. This is discussed in light of the assumptions made in the derivation, and this equation is contrasted with other kinetic equations for the spectral action density. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nonlinear Wave Hydrodynamics)
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Open AccessArticle Minkowski and Galilei/Newton Fluid Dynamics: A Geometric 3 + 1 Spacetime Perspective
Received: 12 November 2018 / Revised: 17 December 2018 / Accepted: 21 December 2018 / Published: 26 December 2018
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Abstract
A kinetic theory of classical particles serves as a unified basis for developing a geometric 3+1 spacetime perspective on fluid dynamics capable of embracing both Minkowski and Galilei/Newton spacetimes. Parallel treatment of these cases on as common a footing as possible [...] Read more.
A kinetic theory of classical particles serves as a unified basis for developing a geometric 3 + 1 spacetime perspective on fluid dynamics capable of embracing both Minkowski and Galilei/Newton spacetimes. Parallel treatment of these cases on as common a footing as possible reveals that the particle four-momentum is better regarded as comprising momentum and inertia rather than momentum and energy; and, consequently, that the object now known as the stress-energy or energy-momentum tensor is more properly understood as a stress-inertia or inertia-momentum tensor. In dealing with both fiducial and comoving frames as fluid dynamics requires, tensor decompositions in terms of the four-velocities of observers associated with these frames render use of coordinate-free geometric notation not only fully viable, but conceptually simplifying. A particle number four-vector, three-momentum ( 1 , 1 ) tensor, and kinetic energy four-vector characterize a simple fluid and satisfy balance equations involving spacetime divergences on both Minkowski and Galilei/Newton spacetimes. Reduced to a fully 3 + 1 form, these equations yield the familiar conservative formulations of special relativistic and non-relativistic fluid dynamics as partial differential equations in inertial coordinates, and in geometric form will provide a useful conceptual bridge to arbitrary-Lagrange–Euler and general relativistic formulations. Full article
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