Special Issue "Experimental and Numerical Studies in Biomedical Engineering"

A special issue of Fluids (ISSN 2311-5521).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 October 2018)

Special Issue Editors

Guest Editor
Prof. Spiros V. Paras

Department of Chemical Engineering, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, 541 24 Thessaloniki, Greece
Website | E-Mail
Interests: multiphase flows; biomedical engineering; CFD; non-intrusive measuring techniques; process equipment design
Guest Editor
Dr. Athanasios G. Kanaris

Scientific Computing Department, STFC, Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, Didcot OX11 0QX, UK
Website | E-Mail
Interests: advanced computational techniques; CFD; microdevices; heat transfer; inkjet systems

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

The term ‘biomedical engineering’ refers to the application of the principles and problem-solving techniques of engineering to biology and medicine. Biomedical engineering is an interdisciplinary branch, as many of the problems health professionals are confronted with have traditionally been of interest to engineers because they involve processes that are fundamental to engineering practice. Biomedical engineers employ common engineering methods to comprehend, modify, or control biological systems, and to design and manufacture devices that can assist in the diagnosis and therapy of human diseases.

This Special Issue of Fluids aims to be a forum for scientists and engineers from academia and industry to present and discuss recent developments in the field of biomedical engineering. We invite papers that tackle, either numerically (Computational Fluid Dynamics studies) or experimentally, biomedical engineering problems, ranging from the fundamental understanding of fluid flows in biological systems to the design and practical application of medical devices and systems. Contributions may focus on problems associated with subjects that include (but are not limited to): hemodynamical flows, arterial wall shear stress, respiratory mechanics and gas exchange, targeted drug delivery, bio-materials, design of medical devices.

Prof. Spiros V. Paras
Dr. Athanasios G. Kanaris
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Fluids is an international peer-reviewed open access quarterly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) is waived for well-prepared manuscripts submitted to this issue. Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • Blood flow
  • Cardiovascular diseases
  • Bypass grafting hemodynamics
  • Pulmonary aerosol transport
  • CFD simulations
  • FSI
  • PIV
  • Arterial wall shear stress
  • Drug delivery
  • Biomaterials

Published Papers (4 papers)

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Research

Open AccessArticle A Computational Model for the Analysis of Spreading of Viscoelastic Droplets over Flat Surfaces
Received: 7 September 2018 / Revised: 17 October 2018 / Accepted: 19 October 2018 / Published: 22 October 2018
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Abstract
The spreading of viscous and viscoelastic fluids on flat and curved surfaces is an important problem in many industrial and biomedical processes. In this work the spreading of a linear viscoelastic fluid with changing rheological properties over flat surfaces is investigated via a
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The spreading of viscous and viscoelastic fluids on flat and curved surfaces is an important problem in many industrial and biomedical processes. In this work the spreading of a linear viscoelastic fluid with changing rheological properties over flat surfaces is investigated via a macroscopic model. The computational model is based on a macroscopic mathematical description of the gravitational, capillary, viscous, and elastic forces. The dynamics of droplet spreading are determined in sessile and pendant configurations for different droplet extrusion or formation times for a hyaluronic acid solution undergoing gelation. The computational model is employed to describe the spreading of hydrogel droplets for different extrusion times, droplet volumes, and surface/droplet configurations. The effect of extrusion time is shown to be significant in the rate and extent of spreading. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Experimental and Numerical Studies in Biomedical Engineering)
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Open AccessArticle A Simplified Model for Predicting Friction Factors of Laminar Blood Flow in Small-Caliber Vessels
Received: 2 September 2018 / Revised: 15 October 2018 / Accepted: 16 October 2018 / Published: 19 October 2018
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Abstract
The aim of this study was to provide scientists with a straightforward correlation that can be applied to the prediction of the Fanning friction factor and consequently the pressure drop that arises during blood flow in small-caliber vessels. Due to the small diameter
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The aim of this study was to provide scientists with a straightforward correlation that can be applied to the prediction of the Fanning friction factor and consequently the pressure drop that arises during blood flow in small-caliber vessels. Due to the small diameter of the conduit, the Reynolds numbers are low and thus the flow is laminar. This study has been conducted using Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) simulations validated with relevant experimental data, acquired using an appropriate experimental setup. The experiments relate to the pressure drop measurement during the flow of a blood analogue that follows the Casson model, i.e., an aqueous Glycerol solution that contains a small amount of Xanthan gum and exhibits similar behavior to blood, in a smooth, stainless steel microtube (L = 50 mm and D = 400 μm). The interpretation of the resulting numerical data led to the proposal of a simplified model that incorporates the effect of the blood flow rate, the hematocrit value (35–55%) and the vessel diameter (300–1800 μm) and predicts, with better than ±10% accuracy, the Fanning friction factor and consequently the pressure drop during laminar blood flow in healthy small-caliber vessels. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Experimental and Numerical Studies in Biomedical Engineering)
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Graphical abstract

Open AccessArticle Pipette Petri Dish Single-Cell Trapping (PP-SCT) in Microfluidic Platforms: A Passive Hydrodynamic Technique
Received: 20 June 2018 / Revised: 7 July 2018 / Accepted: 22 July 2018 / Published: 24 July 2018
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Abstract
Microfluidics-based biochips play a vital role in single-cell research applications. Handling and positioning of single cells at the microscale level are an essential need for various applications, including genomics, proteomics, secretomics, and lysis-analysis. In this article, the pipette Petri dish single-cell trapping (PP-SCT)
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Microfluidics-based biochips play a vital role in single-cell research applications. Handling and positioning of single cells at the microscale level are an essential need for various applications, including genomics, proteomics, secretomics, and lysis-analysis. In this article, the pipette Petri dish single-cell trapping (PP-SCT) technique is demonstrated. PP-SCT is a simple and cost-effective technique with ease of implementation for single cell analysis applications. In this paper a wide operation at different fluid flow rates of the novel PP-SCT technique is demonstrated. The effects of the microfluidic channel shape (straight, branched, and serpent) on the efficiency of single-cell trapping are studied. This article exhibited passive microfluidic-based biochips capable of vertical cell trapping with the hexagonally-positioned array of microwells. Microwells were 35 μm in diameter, a size sufficient to allow the attachment of captured cells for short-term study. Single-cell capture (SCC) capabilities of the microfluidic-biochips were found to be improving from the straight channel, branched channel, and serpent channel, accordingly. Multiple cell capture (MCC) was on the order of decreasing from the straight channel, branch channel, and serpent channel. Among the three designs investigated, the serpent channel biochip offers high SCC percentage with reduced MCC and NC (no capture) percentage. SCC was around 52%, 42%, and 35% for the serpent, branched, and straight channel biochips, respectively, for the tilt angle, θ values were between 10–15°. Human lung cancer cells (A549) were used for characterization. Using the PP-SCT technique, flow rate variations can be precisely achieved with a flow velocity range of 0.25–4 m/s (fluid channel of 2 mm width and 100 µm height). The upper dish (UD) can be used for low flow rate applications and the lower dish (LD) for high flow rate applications. Passive single-cell analysis applications will be facilitated using this method. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Experimental and Numerical Studies in Biomedical Engineering)
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Graphical abstract

Open AccessArticle Comparative Study of PEGylated and Conventional Liposomes as Carriers for Shikonin
Received: 25 April 2018 / Revised: 21 May 2018 / Accepted: 25 May 2018 / Published: 26 May 2018
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Abstract
Liposomes are considered to be one of the most successful drug delivery systems. They apply nanotechnology to potentiate the therapeutic efficacy and reduce the toxicity of conventional medicines. Shikonin and alkannin, a pair of chiral natural naphthoquinone compounds, derived from Alkanna and Lithospermum
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Liposomes are considered to be one of the most successful drug delivery systems. They apply nanotechnology to potentiate the therapeutic efficacy and reduce the toxicity of conventional medicines. Shikonin and alkannin, a pair of chiral natural naphthoquinone compounds, derived from Alkanna and Lithospermum species, are widely used due to their various pharmacological activities, mainly wound healing, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and their recently established antitumor activity. The purpose of this study was to prepare conventional and PEGylated shikonin-loaded liposomal formulations and measure the effects of different lipids and polyethylene glycol (PEG) on parameters related to particle size distribution, the polydispersity index, the zeta potential, drug-loading efficiency and the stability of the prepared formulations. Three types of lipids were assessed (1,2-Dioleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (DOPC), 1,2-Distearoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (DSPC) and 1,2-distearoyl-sn-glycero-3-phospho-rac-(1-glycerol) (DSPG)), separately and in mixtures, forming anionic liposomes with good physicochemical characteristics, high entrapment efficiencies (varying from 56.5 to 89.4%), satisfactory in vitro release profiles and good physical stability. The addition of the negatively charged DSPG lipids to DOPC, led to an increment in the drug’s incorporation efficiency and reduced the particle size distribution. Furthermore, the shikonin–loaded PEGylated sample with DOPC/DSPG, demonstrated the most satisfactory characteristics. These findings are considered promising and could be used for further design and improvement of such formulations. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Experimental and Numerical Studies in Biomedical Engineering)
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