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Fluids, Volume 3, Issue 1 (March 2018)

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Open AccessArticle The Effect of CO2 Phase on Oil Displacement in a Sandstone Core Sample
Received: 31 December 2017 / Revised: 1 March 2018 / Accepted: 15 March 2018 / Published: 20 March 2018
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Abstract
CO2 sequestration in saline aquifers and hydrocarbon reservoirs is a promising strategy to reduce CO2 concentration in the atmosphere and/or enhance hydrocarbon production. Change in subsurface conditions of pressure and temperature and CO2 state is likely to have a significant
[...] Read more.
CO2 sequestration in saline aquifers and hydrocarbon reservoirs is a promising strategy to reduce CO2 concentration in the atmosphere and/or enhance hydrocarbon production. Change in subsurface conditions of pressure and temperature and CO2 state is likely to have a significant impact on capillary and viscous forces, which, in turn, will have a considerable influence on the injection, migration, displacement, and storage capacity and integrity of CO2 processes. In this study, an experimental investigation has been performed to explore the impact of fluid pressure, temperature, and injection rate, as a function of CO2 phase, on the dynamic pressure evolution and the oil recovery performance of CO2 during oil displacement in a Berea sandstone core sample. The results reveal a considerable impact of the fluid pressure, temperature, and injection rate on the differential pressure profile, cumulative produced volumes, endpoint CO2 relative permeability, and oil recovery; the trend and the size of the changes depend on the CO2 phase as well as the pressure range for gaseous CO2–oil displacement. The residual oil saturation was in the range of around 0.44–0.7; liquid CO2 gave the lowest, and low-fluid-pressure gaseous CO2 gave the highest. The endpoint CO2 relative permeability was in the range of about 0.015–0.657; supercritical CO2 gave the highest, and low-pressure gaseous CO2 gave the lowest. As for increasing fluid pressure, the results indicate that viscous forces were dominant in subcritical CO2 displacements, while capillary forces were dominant in supercritical CO2 displacements. As temperature and CO2 injection rates increase, the viscous forces become more dominant than capillary forces. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Experimental and Numerical Study of Windage Losses in the Narrow Gap Region of a High-Speed Electric Motor
Received: 16 January 2018 / Revised: 11 March 2018 / Accepted: 12 March 2018 / Published: 14 March 2018
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Abstract
Windage (drag) losses have been found to be a key design factor for high power density and high-speed electric motor development. Inducing axial flow between rotor and stator is a common method in cooling the rotor. Hence, it is necessary to understand the
[...] Read more.
Windage (drag) losses have been found to be a key design factor for high power density and high-speed electric motor development. Inducing axial flow between rotor and stator is a common method in cooling the rotor. Hence, it is necessary to understand the effect on windage while forced axial airflow is in present in the air gap. The current paper presents results from experimental testing and modeling of a high-speed motor designed to operate at 30,000 revolutions per minute (RPM) and utilize axial air cooling of 200 Liters per minute (LPM) to cool the motor. Details of the experimental apparatus and computational fluid dynamics (CFD) modeling of the small gap narrow region of the stator/rotor are outlined in the paper. The experimental results are used to calibrate the CFD model. Results for windage losses, flow rate of cooling air, power and torque of the motor versus mass flow rate are given in the paper. Trade studies of CFD on the effect of inlet cooling flow rate, and parasitic heat transfer losses on the Taylor–Couette flow coherent flow structure breakdown are presented. Windage losses on the order of 20 W are found to be present in the configuration tested and simulated. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Multiscale Stuart-Landau Emulators: Application to Wind-Driven Ocean Gyres
Received: 13 February 2018 / Revised: 27 February 2018 / Accepted: 28 February 2018 / Published: 6 March 2018
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Abstract
The multiscale variability of the ocean circulation due to its nonlinear dynamics remains a big challenge for theoretical understanding and practical ocean modeling. This paper demonstrates how the data-adaptive harmonic (DAH) decomposition and inverse stochastic modeling techniques introduced in (Chekroun and Kondrashov, (2017),
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The multiscale variability of the ocean circulation due to its nonlinear dynamics remains a big challenge for theoretical understanding and practical ocean modeling. This paper demonstrates how the data-adaptive harmonic (DAH) decomposition and inverse stochastic modeling techniques introduced in (Chekroun and Kondrashov, (2017), Chaos, 27), allow for reproducing with high fidelity the main statistical properties of multiscale variability in a coarse-grained eddy-resolving ocean flow. This fully-data-driven approach relies on extraction of frequency-ranked time-dependent coefficients describing the evolution of spatio-temporal DAH modes (DAHMs) in the oceanic flow data. In turn, the time series of these coefficients are efficiently modeled by a family of low-order stochastic differential equations (SDEs) stacked per frequency, involving a fixed set of predictor functions and a small number of model coefficients. These SDEs take the form of stochastic oscillators, identified as multilayer Stuart–Landau models (MSLMs), and their use is justified by relying on the theory of Ruelle–Pollicott resonances. The good modeling skills shown by the resulting DAH-MSLM emulators demonstrates the feasibility of using a network of stochastic oscillators for the modeling of geophysical turbulence. In a certain sense, the original quasiperiodic Landau view of turbulence, with the amendment of the inclusion of stochasticity, may be well suited to describe turbulence. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Reduced Order Modeling of Fluid Flows)
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Open AccessArticle A Review of Methodology for Evaluating the Performance of Atmospheric Transport and Dispersion Models and Suggested Protocol for Providing More Informative Results
Received: 21 January 2018 / Revised: 12 February 2018 / Accepted: 26 February 2018 / Published: 6 March 2018
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Abstract
Many models exist for predicting the atmospheric transport and dispersion of material following its release into the atmosphere. The purpose of these models may be to support air quality assessments and/or to predict the hazard resulting from releases of harmful materials to inform
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Many models exist for predicting the atmospheric transport and dispersion of material following its release into the atmosphere. The purpose of these models may be to support air quality assessments and/or to predict the hazard resulting from releases of harmful materials to inform emergency response actions. In either case it is essential that the user understands the level of predictive accuracy that might be expected. However, contrary to expectation, this is not easily determined from published comparisons of model predictions against data from dispersion experiments. The paper presents and reviews the methods adopted and issues involved in comparing the predictive performance of atmospheric transport and dispersion models to experimental data, by reference to a number of experimental data sets and comparison results. It then presents an approach which is designed to make the performance of atmospheric dispersion models more transparent, through clearly defining the basis on which the comparison is made, and comparing the performance of the chosen model to that of a reference model. Such an approach establishes a clear baseline against which the accuracy of models can be evaluated and the performance benefits of more sophisticated approaches quantified. The use of a simple analytic reference model applicable to continuous ground level releases in open terrain and urban areas is shown as a proof-of-principle. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Entropy Generation and Exergy Destruction in Flow of Multiphase Dispersions of Droplets and Particles in a Polymeric Liquid
Received: 31 December 2017 / Revised: 12 February 2018 / Accepted: 26 February 2018 / Published: 2 March 2018
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Abstract
The theoretical background for entropy generation and exergy destruction in the flow of fluids is reviewed briefly. New experimental results are presented on the quantification of exergy destruction rates in flows of emulsions (oil droplets dispersed in a polymeric liquid), suspensions (solid particles
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The theoretical background for entropy generation and exergy destruction in the flow of fluids is reviewed briefly. New experimental results are presented on the quantification of exergy destruction rates in flows of emulsions (oil droplets dispersed in a polymeric liquid), suspensions (solid particles dispersed in a polymeric liquid), and blends of emulsions and suspensions (dispersions of oil droplets and solid particles in a polymeric liquid). A new model is proposed to estimate the exergy destruction rate, and hence power loss, in the flow of multi-phase dispersions of oil droplets, solid particles, and polymeric matrix. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Non-Equilibrium Thermodynamics in Multiphase Flows)
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Open AccessArticle On the Bias in the Danckwerts’ Plot Method for the Determination of the Gas–Liquid Mass-Transfer Coefficient and Interfacial Area
Received: 14 December 2017 / Revised: 23 January 2018 / Accepted: 11 February 2018 / Published: 20 February 2018
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Abstract
The Danckwerts’ plot method is a commonly used graphical technique to independently determine the interfacial area and mass-transfer coefficient in gas–liquid contactors. The method was derived in 1963 when computational capabilities were limited and intensified process equipment did not exist. A numerical analysis
[...] Read more.
The Danckwerts’ plot method is a commonly used graphical technique to independently determine the interfacial area and mass-transfer coefficient in gas–liquid contactors. The method was derived in 1963 when computational capabilities were limited and intensified process equipment did not exist. A numerical analysis of the underlying assumptions of the method in this paper has shown a bias in the technique, especially for situations where mass-transfer rates are intensified, or where there is limited liquid holdup in the bulk compared to the film layers. In fact, systematic errors of up to 50% in the interfacial area, and as high as 90% in the mass-transfer coefficients, can be expected for modern, intensified gas–liquid contactors, even within the commonly accepted validity limits of a pseudo-first-order reaction and Hatta numbers in the range of 0.3 < Ha < 3. Given the current computational capabilities and the intensified mass-transfer rates in modern gas–liquid contactors, it is therefore imperative that the equations for reaction and diffusion in the liquid films are numerically solved and subsequently used to fit the interfacial area and mass-transfer coefficient to experimental data, which would traditionally be used in the graphical Danckwerts’ method. Full article
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Open AccessEditorial Turbulence: Numerical Analysis, Modeling, and Simulation
Received: 13 February 2018 / Revised: 14 February 2018 / Accepted: 14 February 2018 / Published: 18 February 2018
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Abstract
The problem of accurate and reliable prediction of turbulent flows is a central and intractable challenge that crosses disciplinary boundaries. [...] Full article
Open AccessArticle Kinematics of a Fluid Ellipse in a Linear Flow
Received: 31 December 2017 / Revised: 5 February 2018 / Accepted: 7 February 2018 / Published: 12 February 2018
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Abstract
A four-parameter kinematic model for the position of a fluid parcel in a time-varying ellipse is introduced. For any ellipse advected by an arbitrary linear two-dimensional flow, the rates of change of the ellipse parameters are uniquely determined by the four parameters of
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A four-parameter kinematic model for the position of a fluid parcel in a time-varying ellipse is introduced. For any ellipse advected by an arbitrary linear two-dimensional flow, the rates of change of the ellipse parameters are uniquely determined by the four parameters of the velocity gradient matrix, and vice versa. This result, termed ellipse/flow equivalence, provides a stronger version of the well-known result that a linear velocity field maps an ellipse into another ellipse. Moreover, ellipse/flow equivalence is shown to be a manifestation of Stokes’ theorem. This is done by deriving a matrix-valued extension of the classical Stokes’ theorem that involves a spatial integral over the velocity gradient tensor, thus accounting for the two strain terms in addition to the divergence and vorticity. General expressions for various physical properties of an elliptical ring of fluid are also derived. The ellipse kinetic energy is found to be composed of three portions, associated respectively with the circulation, the rate of change of the moment of inertia, and the variance of parcel angular velocity around the ellipse. A particular innovation is the use of four matrices, termed the I J K L basis, that greatly facilitate the required calculations. Full article
(This article belongs to the collection Geophysical Fluid Dynamics)
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Open AccessArticle Elementary Flow Field Profiles of Micro-Swimmers in Weakly Anisotropic Nematic Fluids: Stokeslet, Stresslet, Rotlet and Source Flows
Received: 13 December 2017 / Revised: 22 January 2018 / Accepted: 27 January 2018 / Published: 8 February 2018
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Abstract
Analytic formulations of elementary flow field profiles in weakly anisotropic nematic fluid are determined, which can be attributed to biological or artificial micro-swimmers, including Stokeslet, stresslet, rotlet and source flows. Stokes equation for a nematic stress tensor is written with the Green function
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Analytic formulations of elementary flow field profiles in weakly anisotropic nematic fluid are determined, which can be attributed to biological or artificial micro-swimmers, including Stokeslet, stresslet, rotlet and source flows. Stokes equation for a nematic stress tensor is written with the Green function and solved in the k-space for anisotropic Leslie viscosity coefficients under the limit of leading isotropic viscosity coefficient. Analytical expressions for the Green function are obtained that are used to compute the flow of monopole or dipole swimmers at various alignments of the swimmers with respect to the homogeneous director field. Flow profile is also solved for the flow sources/sinks and source dipoles showing clear emergence of anisotropy in the magnitude of flow profile as the result of fluid anisotropic viscosity. The range of validity of the presented analytical solutions is explored, as compared to exact numerical solutions of the Stokes equation. This work is a contribution towards understanding elementary flow motifs and profiles in fluid environments that are distinctly affected by anisotropic viscosity, offering analytic insight, which could be of relevance to a range of systems from microswimmers, active matter to microfluidics. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Liquid Crystal Rheology)
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Open AccessArticle Coherent Vortical Structures and Their Relation to Hot/Cold Spots in a Thermal Turbulent Channel Flow
Received: 22 December 2017 / Revised: 31 January 2018 / Accepted: 4 February 2018 / Published: 8 February 2018
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Abstract
Direct numerical simulations of a turbulent channel flow with a passive scalar at Reτ=394 with blowing perturbations is carried out. The blowing is imposed through five spanwise jets located near the upstream end of the channel. Behind the blowing
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Direct numerical simulations of a turbulent channel flow with a passive scalar at R e τ = 394 with blowing perturbations is carried out. The blowing is imposed through five spanwise jets located near the upstream end of the channel. Behind the blowing jets (about 1 D , where D is the jet diameter), we observe regions of reversed flow responsible for the high temperature region at the wall: hot spots that contribute to further heating of the wall. In between the jets, low pressure regions accelerate the flow, creating long, thin, streaky structures. These structures contribute to the high temperature region near the wall. At the far downstream of the jet (about 3 D ), flow instabilities (high shear) created by the blowing generate coherent vortical structures. These structures move hot fluid near the wall to the outer region of the channel; thereby, these are responsible for cooling of the wall. Thus, for engineering applications where cooling of the wall is necessary, it is critical to promote the generation of coherent structures near the wall. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Characterization of Bubble Size Distributions within a Bubble Column
Received: 15 December 2017 / Revised: 25 January 2018 / Accepted: 4 February 2018 / Published: 7 February 2018
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Abstract
The current study experimentally examines bubble size distribution (BSD) within a bubble column and the associated characteristic length scales. Air was injected into a column of water via a single injection tube. The column diameter (63–102 mm), injection tube diameter (0.8–1.6 mm) and
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The current study experimentally examines bubble size distribution (BSD) within a bubble column and the associated characteristic length scales. Air was injected into a column of water via a single injection tube. The column diameter (63–102 mm), injection tube diameter (0.8–1.6 mm) and superficial gas velocity (1.4–55 mm/s) were varied. Large samples (up to 54,000 bubbles) of bubble sizes measured via 2D imaging were used to produce probability density functions (PDFs). The PDFs were used to identify an alternative length scale termed the most frequent bubble size (dmf) and defined as the peak in the PDF. This length scale as well as the traditional Sauter mean diameter were used to assess the sensitivity of the BSD to gas injection rate, injector tube diameter, injection tube angle and column diameter. The dmf was relatively insensitive to most variation, which indicates these bubbles are produced by the turbulent wakes. In addition, the current work examines higher order statistics (standard deviation, skewness and kurtosis) and notes that there is evidence in support of using these statistics to quantify the influence of specific parameters on the flow-field as well as a potential indicator of regime transitions. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Fluid Dynamics and Mass Transfer in Spacer-Filled Membrane Channels: Effect of Uniform Channel-Gap Reduction Due to Fouling
Received: 13 December 2017 / Revised: 16 January 2018 / Accepted: 26 January 2018 / Published: 2 February 2018
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Abstract
The time-varying flow field in spacer-filled channels of spiral-wound membrane (SWM) modules is mainly due to the development of fouling layers on the membranes that modify the channel geometry. The present study is part of an approach to tackling this extremely difficult dynamic
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The time-varying flow field in spacer-filled channels of spiral-wound membrane (SWM) modules is mainly due to the development of fouling layers on the membranes that modify the channel geometry. The present study is part of an approach to tackling this extremely difficult dynamic problem at a small spatial scale, by uncoupling the fluid dynamics and mass transfer from the fouling-layer growth process. Therefore, fluid dynamics and mass transfer are studied for a spacer-filled channel whose geometry is altered by a uniform deposit thickness h. For this purpose, 3D direct numerical simulations are performed employing the “unit cell” approach with periodic boundary conditions. Specific thickness values are considered in the range 2.5–10% of the spacer-filament diameter D as well as other conditions of practical significance. The qualitative characteristics of the altered flow field are found to be very similar to those of the reference geometry with no gap reduction. For a given flow rate, the pressure drop, time-average wall-shear stresses and mass-transfer coefficients significantly increase with increasing thickness h due to reduced channel-gap, as expected. Correlations are obtained, applicable at the “unit cell” scale, of the friction factor f and Sherwood number Sh, which exhibit similar functional dependence of f and Sh on the Reynolds and Schmidt numbers as in the reference no-fouling case. In these correlations the effect of channel-gap reduction is incorporated, permitting predictions in the studied range of fouling-layer thickness (h/D) = 0–0.10. The usefulness of the new results and correlations is discussed in the context of ongoing research toward improved modeling and dynamic simulation of SWM-module operation. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Numerical Study on Mixed Convection in Ventilated Cavities with Different Aspect Ratios
Received: 27 December 2017 / Revised: 18 January 2018 / Accepted: 20 January 2018 / Published: 31 January 2018
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Abstract
An unsteady numerical investigation on mixed convection in a two dimensional open ended cavity with different aspect ratios is carried out. In this investigation, uniform temperature is set to the left and the right sides of the cavity while the other surfaces are
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An unsteady numerical investigation on mixed convection in a two dimensional open ended cavity with different aspect ratios is carried out. In this investigation, uniform temperature is set to the left and the right sides of the cavity while the other surfaces are adiabatic. The simulation is performed for a wide range of Reynolds numbers (Re = 100–1000) and Richardson numbers (Ri = 0.132–6.5 × 102), and various cavity aspect ratios (L/D = 0.5–4.0) and H/D = 0.1. Governing equations are solved using a cell centered finite volume code, a SIMPLE numerical projection scheme and a 2nd order accuracy. Results are presented in the form of streamlines, isothermal lines, and velocity profiles in the channel. The conclusion is that the enhancement of heat transfer rate is generated principally by the increasing Re and the assisting configuration is thermally more efficient when compared to the opposing one. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Design of a Novel μ-Mixer
Received: 15 December 2017 / Revised: 10 January 2018 / Accepted: 24 January 2018 / Published: 28 January 2018
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In this work, the efficiency of a new μ-mixer design is investigated. As in this type of devices the Reynolds number is low, mixing is diffusion dominated and it can be enhanced by creating secondary flows. In this study, we propose the
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In this work, the efficiency of a new μ-mixer design is investigated. As in this type of devices the Reynolds number is low, mixing is diffusion dominated and it can be enhanced by creating secondary flows. In this study, we propose the introduction of helical inserts into a straight tube to create swirling flow. The influence of the insert’s geometrical parameters (pitch and length of the propeller blades) and of the Reynolds number on the mixing efficiency and on the pressure drop are numerically investigated. The mixing efficiency of the device is assessed by calculating a number—i.e., the index of mixing efficiency—that quantifies the uniformity of concentration at the outlet of the device. The influence of the design parameters on the mixing efficiency is assessed by performing a series of ‘computational’ experiments, in which the values of the parameter are selected using design of experiments (DOE) methodology. Finally using the numerical data, appropriate design equations are formulated, which, for given values of the design parameters, can estimate with reasonable accuracy both the mixing efficiency and the pressure drop of the proposed mixing device. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Expanding the Repertoire of Dielectric Fractional Models: A Comprehensive Development and Functional Applications to Predict Metabolic Alterations in Experimentally-Inaccessible Cells or Tissues
Received: 1 December 2017 / Revised: 10 January 2018 / Accepted: 15 January 2018 / Published: 25 January 2018
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In this paper, we present the theoretical approach developed by us in the network of dielectric fractional theories. In particular, we mention the general aspects of the non-equilibrium thermodynamics, and after an introduction to the interaction between biological tissues and electrical fields, we
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In this paper, we present the theoretical approach developed by us in the network of dielectric fractional theories. In particular, we mention the general aspects of the non-equilibrium thermodynamics, and after an introduction to the interaction between biological tissues and electrical fields, we highlight the role of phenomenological and state equations; therefore, we recall a general formulation on linear response theory. In Section 6, we introduce the classical fractional model. All of this is essential to show the role and the importance of fractional models in the context of thermodynamic dielectric investigations (of living or inert matter), giving a complete vision of the fractional approach. In Section 7 and Section 8, we introduce our new fractional model derived from non-equilibrium thermodynamic considerations. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Non-Equilibrium Thermodynamics in Multiphase Flows)
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Open AccessArticle Experimental Analysis of a Bubble Wake Influenced by a Vortex Street
Received: 29 November 2017 / Revised: 16 January 2018 / Accepted: 18 January 2018 / Published: 20 January 2018
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Abstract
Bubble column reactors are ubiquitous in engineering processes. They are used in waste water treatment, as well as in the chemical, pharmaceutical, biological and food industry. Mass transfer and mixing, as well as biochemical or chemical reactions in such reactors are determined by
[...] Read more.
Bubble column reactors are ubiquitous in engineering processes. They are used in waste water treatment, as well as in the chemical, pharmaceutical, biological and food industry. Mass transfer and mixing, as well as biochemical or chemical reactions in such reactors are determined by the hydrodynamics of the bubbly flow. The hydrodynamics of bubbly flows is dominated by bubble wake interactions. Despite the fact that bubble wakes have been investigated intensively in the past, there is still a lack of knowledge about how mass transfer from bubbles is influenced by bubble wake interactions in detail. The scientific scope of this work is to answer the question how bubble wakes are influenced by external flow structures like a vortex street behind a cylinder. For this purpose, the flow field in the vicinity of a single bubble is investigated systematically with high spatial and temporal resolution. High-speed Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) measurements are conducted monitoring the flow structure in the equatorial plane of the single bubble. It is shown that the root mean square (RMS) velocity profiles downstream the bubble are influenced significantly by the interaction of vortices. In the presence of a vortex street, the deceleration of the fluid behind the bubble is compensated earlier than in the absence of a vortex street. This happens due to momentum transfer by cross-mixing. Both effects indicate that the interaction of vortices enhances the cross-mixing close to the bubble. Time series of instantaneous velocity fields show the formation of an inner shear layer and coupled vortices. In conclusion, this study shows in detail how the bubble wake is influenced by a vortex street and gives deep insights into possible effects on mixing and mass transfer in bubbly flows. Full article
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Open AccessEditorial Acknowledgement to Reviewers of Fluids in 2017
Received: 19 January 2018 / Revised: 19 January 2018 / Accepted: 19 January 2018 / Published: 19 January 2018
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Peer review is an essential part in the publication process, ensuring that Fluids maintains high quality standards for its published papers.[...] Full article
Open AccessArticle Dual Solutions in a Boundary Layer Flow of a Power Law Fluid over a Moving Permeable Flat Plate with Thermal Radiation, Viscous Dissipation and Heat Generation/Absorption
Received: 26 November 2017 / Revised: 24 December 2017 / Accepted: 5 January 2018 / Published: 9 January 2018
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Abstract
The aim of the present study is to investigate the combined effects of the thermal radiation, viscous dissipation, suction/injection and internal heat generation/absorption on the boundary layer flow of a non-Newtonian power law fluid over a semi infinite permeable flat plate moving in
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The aim of the present study is to investigate the combined effects of the thermal radiation, viscous dissipation, suction/injection and internal heat generation/absorption on the boundary layer flow of a non-Newtonian power law fluid over a semi infinite permeable flat plate moving in parallel or reversely to a free stream. The resulting system of partial differential equations (PDEs) is first transformed into a system of coupled nonlinear ordinary differential equations (ODEs) which are then solved numerically by using the shooting technique. It is found that the dual solutions exist when the flat plate and the free stream move in the opposite directions. Dimensionless boundary layer velocity and temperature distributions are plotted and discussed for various values of the emerging physical parameters. Finally, the tables of the relevant boundary derivatives are presented for some values of the governing physical parameters. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Database of Near-Wall Turbulent Flow Properties of a Jet Impinging on a Solid Surface under Different Inclination Angles
Received: 27 November 2017 / Revised: 18 December 2017 / Accepted: 25 December 2017 / Published: 2 January 2018
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Abstract
In the present paper, direct numerical simulation (DNS) and particle image velocimetry (PIV) have been applied complementarily in order to generate a database of near-wall turbulence properties of a highly turbulent jet impinging on a solid surface under different inclination angles. Thereby, the
[...] Read more.
In the present paper, direct numerical simulation (DNS) and particle image velocimetry (PIV) have been applied complementarily in order to generate a database of near-wall turbulence properties of a highly turbulent jet impinging on a solid surface under different inclination angles. Thereby, the main focus is placed on an impingement angle of 45 , since it represents a good generic benchmark test case for a wide range of technical fluid flow applications. This specific configuration features very complex flow properties including the presence of a stagnation point, development of the shear boundary layer and strong streamline curvature. In particular, this database includes near-wall turbulence statistics along with mean and rms velocities, budget terms in the turbulent kinetic energy equation, anisotropy invariant maps, turbulent length/time scales and near-wall shear stresses. These properties are useful for the validation of near-wall modeling approaches in the context of Reynolds-averaged Navier–Stokes (RANS) and large-eddy simulations (LES). From this study, in which further impingement angles ( 0 , 90 ) have been considered in the experiments only, it turns out that (1) the production of turbulent kinetic energy appears negative at the stagnation point for an impingement angle other than 0 and is balanced predominantly by pressure-related diffusion, (2) quasi-coherent thin streaks with large characteristic time scales appear at the stagnation region, while the organization of the flow is predominantly toroidal further downstream, and (3) near-wall shear stresses are low at the stagnation region and intense in regions where the direction of the flow changes suddenly. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Computational Modelling for Efficient Transdentinal Drug Delivery
Received: 14 November 2017 / Revised: 21 December 2017 / Accepted: 25 December 2017 / Published: 27 December 2017
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Abstract
This work deals with the numerical investigation of the delivery of potential therapeutic agents through dentinal discs (i.e., a cylindrical segment of the dentinal tissue) towards the dentin–pulp junction. The aim is to assess the main key features (i.e., molecular size, initial concentration,
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This work deals with the numerical investigation of the delivery of potential therapeutic agents through dentinal discs (i.e., a cylindrical segment of the dentinal tissue) towards the dentin–pulp junction. The aim is to assess the main key features (i.e., molecular size, initial concentration, consumption rate, disc porosity and thickness) that affect the delivery of therapeutic substances to the dental pulp and consequently to define the necessary quantitative and qualitative issues related to a specific agent before its potential application in clinical practice. The computational fluid dynamics (CFD) code used for the numerical study is validated with relevant experimental data obtained using micro Laser Induced Fluorescence (μ-LIF) a non-intrusive optical measuring technique. As the phenomenon is diffusion dominated and strongly dependent on the molecular size, the time needed for the concentration of released molecules to attain a required value can be controlled by their initial concentration. Finally, a model is proposed which, given the maximum acceptable time for the drug concentration to attain a required value at the pulpal side of the tissue along with the aforementioned key design parameters, is able to estimate the initial concentration to be imposed and vice versa. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Velocities in a Centrifugal PAT Operation: Experiments and CFD Analyses
Received: 27 October 2017 / Revised: 10 December 2017 / Accepted: 20 December 2017 / Published: 27 December 2017
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Abstract
Velocity profiles originated by a pump as turbine (PAT) were measured using an ultrasonic doppler velocimetry (UDV). PAT behavior is influenced by the velocity data. The effect of the rotational speed and the associated flow velocity variations were investigated. This research focuses, particularly,
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Velocity profiles originated by a pump as turbine (PAT) were measured using an ultrasonic doppler velocimetry (UDV). PAT behavior is influenced by the velocity data. The effect of the rotational speed and the associated flow velocity variations were investigated. This research focuses, particularly, on the velocity profiles achieved for different rotational speeds and discharge values along the impeller since that is where the available hydraulic power is transformed into the mechanical power. Comparisons were made between experimental test results and computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations. The used CFD model was calibrated and validated using the same conditions as the experimental facility. The numerical simulations showed good approximation with the velocity measurements for different cross-sections along the PAT system. The application of this CFD numerical model and experimental tests contributed to better understanding the system behavior and to reach the best efficiency operating conditions. Improvements in the knowledge about the hydrodynamic flow behavior associated with the velocity triangles contribute to improvements in the PAT concept and operation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Hydrodynamics)
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Open AccessArticle A Simple Model for the Viscosity of Pickering Emulsions
Received: 23 November 2017 / Revised: 18 December 2017 / Accepted: 22 December 2017 / Published: 23 December 2017
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Abstract
A new model is proposed for the viscosity of Pickering emulsions at low shear rates. The model takes into consideration the increase in the effective volume fraction of droplets, due to the presence of an interfacial layer of solid nanoparticles at the oil-water
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A new model is proposed for the viscosity of Pickering emulsions at low shear rates. The model takes into consideration the increase in the effective volume fraction of droplets, due to the presence of an interfacial layer of solid nanoparticles at the oil-water interface. The model also considers aggregation of droplets and eventual jamming of Pickering emulsion at high volume fraction of dispersed phase. According to the proposed model, the relative viscosity of a Pickering emulsion at low shear rates is dependent on three factors: contact angle, ratio of bare droplet radius to solid nanoparticle radius, and the volume fraction of bare droplets. For a given radius of nanoparticles, the relative viscosity of a Pickering emulsion increases with the decrease in bare droplet radius. For O/W Pickering emulsions, the relative viscosity decreases with the increase in contact angle. The W/O Pickering emulsion exhibits an opposite behavior in that the relative viscosity increases with the increase in contact angle. The proposed model describes the experimental viscosity data for Pickering emulsions reasonably well. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Onset of Convection in the Presence of a Precipitation Reaction in a Porous Medium: A Comparison of Linear Stability and Numerical Approaches
Received: 2 November 2017 / Revised: 8 December 2017 / Accepted: 17 December 2017 / Published: 22 December 2017
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Abstract
Reactive convection in a porous medium has received recent interest in the context of the geological storage of carbon dioxide in saline formations. We study theoretically and numerically the gravitational instability of a diffusive boundary layer in the presence of a first-order precipitation
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Reactive convection in a porous medium has received recent interest in the context of the geological storage of carbon dioxide in saline formations. We study theoretically and numerically the gravitational instability of a diffusive boundary layer in the presence of a first-order precipitation reaction. We compare the predictions from normal mode, linear stability analysis, and nonlinear numerical simulations, and discuss the relative deviations. The application of our findings to the storage of carbon dioxide in a siliciclastic aquifer shows that while the reactive-diffusive layer can become unstable within a timescale of 1 to 1.5 months after the injection of carbon dioxide, it can take almost 10 months for sufficiently vigorous convection to produce a considerable increase in the dissolution flux of carbon dioxide. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Convective Instability in Porous Media)
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