Special Issue "Advances in Hydrodynamics"

A special issue of Fluids (ISSN 2311-5521).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (1 July 2018)

Special Issue Editor

Guest Editor
Prof. Dr. Helena Margarida Ramos

Civil Engineering, Architecture and Georesources Department, CERIS, Instituto Superior Técnico, Universidade de Lisboa, Lisboa, 1049-001, Portugal
Website | E-Mail
Phone: +351-218-418-151
Interests: hydropower; hydraulic transients; pumped-storage; water and energy nexus; hydrodynamic and hemodynamic

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

This Special Issue presents the latest achievements in developing theoretical and experimental studies, physical models and computational methods, modelling developments, etc., in hydrodynamic research and its applications. It discloses the research activities in various areas of the hydrodynamic, hydraulic machines, hydropower and pumping.

Prof. Dr. Helena Margarida Ramos
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

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Keywords

  • hydrodynamic
  • Hydropower and pump solutions
  • Hydraulic
  • computational methods and modelling

Published Papers (9 papers)

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Research

Open AccessArticle Extension of the Dupuit–Forchheimer Model for Non-Hydrostatic Flows in Unconfined Aquifers
Received: 28 April 2018 / Revised: 29 May 2018 / Accepted: 30 May 2018 / Published: 11 June 2018
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Abstract
The classical Dupuit–Forchheimer approach, commonly used in analysing unconfined groundwater-flow systems, relies on the assumption of a negligible vertical component of the flow. This approximation is valid only when the convergence of streamlines is very limited and the drawdown of the phreatic surface
[...] Read more.
The classical Dupuit–Forchheimer approach, commonly used in analysing unconfined groundwater-flow systems, relies on the assumption of a negligible vertical component of the flow. This approximation is valid only when the convergence of streamlines is very limited and the drawdown of the phreatic surface is small, or the thickness of the horizontal layer of the heterogeneous aquifers is sufficiently small. In this study, a higher-order one-dimensional model is proposed for groundwater-flow problems with significant inclination and curvature of the phreatic surface. The model incorporates non-hydrostatic terms that take into account the effects of the vertical velocity of the flow, and was solved with an implicit finite-difference scheme. The accuracy of the proposed model was demonstrated by simulating various unconfined seepage- and groundwater-flow problems with moderate curvilinear effects. The computational results for steady-state flows were compared with the results of the full two-dimensional potential-flow methods and experimental data, resulting in a reasonably good agreement. In general, the comparison results exhibited the efficiency and validity of the model in simulating complex unconfined flows over curved bedrock and curvilinear flows over planar bedrock with a steep slope. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Hydrodynamics)
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Open AccessArticle A Comparison of Energy Recovery by PATs against Direct Variable Speed Pumping in Water Distribution Networks
Received: 8 March 2018 / Revised: 24 May 2018 / Accepted: 30 May 2018 / Published: 7 June 2018
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Abstract
Water systems are usually considered low efficiency systems, due to the large amount of energy that is lost by water leakage and dissipated by pressure reducing valves to control the leakage itself. In water distribution networks, water is often pumped from the source
[...] Read more.
Water systems are usually considered low efficiency systems, due to the large amount of energy that is lost by water leakage and dissipated by pressure reducing valves to control the leakage itself. In water distribution networks, water is often pumped from the source to an elevated tank or reservoir and then supplied to the users. A large energy recovery can be realized by the installation of energy production devices (EPDs) to exploit the excess of pressure that would be dissipated by regulation valves. The feasibility of such a sustainable strategy depends on the potential of energy savings and the amount of energy embedded in water streams, assessed by means of efficiency measures. Alternatively, energy savings can be pursued if the water is directly pumped to the network, bypassing the elevated reservoir. This study focuses on the comparison of two solutions to supply a real network, assessed as a case study. The first solution consists of water pumping to a reservoir, located upstream of the network; the excess of energy is saved by the employment of a pump as turbine (PAT). The second scenario is characterized by a smaller pressure head since a direct variable speed pumping is performed, bypassing the reservoir. The comparison has been carried out in terms of required energy, assessed by means of a new energy index and two literature efficiency indices. Furthermore, differing design conditions have been analyzed by varying the pumping head of both the scenarios, corresponding to different distances and elevation of the water source. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Hydrodynamics)
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Open AccessArticle Effect of the Non-Stationarity of Rainfall Events on the Design of Hydraulic Structures for Runoff Management and Its Applications to a Case Study at Gordo Creek Watershed in Cartagena de Indias, Colombia
Received: 7 January 2018 / Revised: 16 April 2018 / Accepted: 17 April 2018 / Published: 20 April 2018
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Abstract
The 24-h maximum rainfall (P24h-max) observations recorded at the synoptic weather station of Rafael Núñez airport (Cartagena de Indias, Colombia) were analyzed, and a linear increasing trend over time was identified. It was also noticed that the occurrence of the rainfall
[...] Read more.
The 24-h maximum rainfall (P24h-max) observations recorded at the synoptic weather station of Rafael Núñez airport (Cartagena de Indias, Colombia) were analyzed, and a linear increasing trend over time was identified. It was also noticed that the occurrence of the rainfall value (over the years of record) for a return period of 10 years under stationary conditions (148.1 mm) increased, which evidences a change in rainfall patterns. In these cases, the typical stationary frequency analysis is unable to capture such a change. So, in order to further evaluate rainfall observations, frequency analyses of P24h-max for stationary and non-stationary conditions were carried out (by using the generalized extreme value distribution). The goodness-of-fit test of Akaike Information Criterion (AIC), with values of 753.3721 and 747.5103 for stationary and non-stationary conditions respectively, showed that the latter best depicts the increasing rainfall pattern. Values of rainfall were later estimated for different return periods (2, 5, 10, 25, 50, and 100 years) to quantify the increase (non-stationary versus stationary condition), which ranged 6% to 12% for return periods from 5 years to 100 years, and 44% for a 2-year return period. The effect of these findings were tested in the Gordo creek watershed by first calculating the resulting direct surface runoff (DSR) for various return periods, and then modeling the hydraulic behavior of the downstream area (composed of a 178.5-m creek’s reach and an existing box-culvert located at the watershed outlet) that undergoes flooding events every year. The resulting DSR increase oscillated between 8% and 19% for return periods from 5 to 100 years, and 77% for a 2-year return period when the non-stationary and stationary scenarios were compared. The results of this study shed light upon to the precautions that designers should take when selecting a design, based upon rainfall observed, as it may result in an underestimation of both the direct surface runoff and the size of the hydraulic structures for runoff and flood management throughout the city. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Hydrodynamics)
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Open AccessArticle Velocities in a Centrifugal PAT Operation: Experiments and CFD Analyses
Received: 27 October 2017 / Revised: 10 December 2017 / Accepted: 20 December 2017 / Published: 27 December 2017
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Abstract
Velocity profiles originated by a pump as turbine (PAT) were measured using an ultrasonic doppler velocimetry (UDV). PAT behavior is influenced by the velocity data. The effect of the rotational speed and the associated flow velocity variations were investigated. This research focuses, particularly,
[...] Read more.
Velocity profiles originated by a pump as turbine (PAT) were measured using an ultrasonic doppler velocimetry (UDV). PAT behavior is influenced by the velocity data. The effect of the rotational speed and the associated flow velocity variations were investigated. This research focuses, particularly, on the velocity profiles achieved for different rotational speeds and discharge values along the impeller since that is where the available hydraulic power is transformed into the mechanical power. Comparisons were made between experimental test results and computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations. The used CFD model was calibrated and validated using the same conditions as the experimental facility. The numerical simulations showed good approximation with the velocity measurements for different cross-sections along the PAT system. The application of this CFD numerical model and experimental tests contributed to better understanding the system behavior and to reach the best efficiency operating conditions. Improvements in the knowledge about the hydrodynamic flow behavior associated with the velocity triangles contribute to improvements in the PAT concept and operation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Hydrodynamics)
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Open AccessArticle Urban Floods Adaptation and Sustainable Drainage Measures
Received: 8 October 2017 / Revised: 25 October 2017 / Accepted: 1 November 2017 / Published: 7 November 2017
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Abstract
Sustainability is crucial to the urban zones, especially related to the water management, which is vulnerable to flood occurrence. This research applies the procedure contemplated by the Soil Conservation Service (SCS) to determine the generated volumes when the impervious areas can exceed the
[...] Read more.
Sustainability is crucial to the urban zones, especially related to the water management, which is vulnerable to flood occurrence. This research applies the procedure contemplated by the Soil Conservation Service (SCS) to determine the generated volumes when the impervious areas can exceed the drainage capacity of existing pluvial water networks. Several computational simulations were developed for the current scenario of an existing basin in Lisbon. Using CivilStorm software from Bentley Systems (Bentley EMEA, Bentley Systems International Limited, Dublin, Ireland), it enabled the evaluation of the volumes of flood peaks and the hydraulic behavior of a small hydrographic basin in the continuation of an urbanization process, considering the modification of its superficial impervious parts and the growth of the urbanized area. Several measures are suggested to solve the limited capacity of the existing drainage system. This study analyzes the efficiency of the application of constructive measures, pondering the viability of their effectiveness, individually and combined. The option that best minimizes the effects of the urbanization is the combination of different structural measures, in particular retention ponds, storage blocks, ditches and specific drainage interventions in some parts of the network. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Hydrodynamics)
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Open AccessArticle CFD Analyses and Experiments in a PAT Modeling: Pressure Variation and System Efficiency
Received: 14 August 2017 / Revised: 23 September 2017 / Accepted: 2 October 2017 / Published: 3 October 2017
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (2114 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Analysis of a PAT modeling is presented for application in water pipe systems as an interesting and promising energy converter to improve the system energy efficiency. The study is focused on the use of a Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) model in conjunction with
[...] Read more.
Analysis of a PAT modeling is presented for application in water pipe systems as an interesting and promising energy converter to improve the system energy efficiency. The study is focused on the use of a Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) model in conjunction with laboratory data for representing PAT performance. The first stage of the procedure concerns a systematic analysis of the role played by the characteristic PAT parameters in the computational mesh definitions of the CFD model, with the aim of defining the most efficient set of capturing the main features of the PAT behaviour under different operating conditions. In the second stage, comparisons of CFD results and experiments were carried out to examine some system components for better understanding the PAT response. Specifically, the behavior of the pressure distribution along the PAT installation when implemented in a water pipe system are analyzed, and the links between pressure variation and the head drop in different system components responsible for the head losses and net head definition are also examined. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Hydrodynamics)
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Open AccessArticle A Non-Hydrostatic Depth-Averaged Model for Hydraulically Steep Free-Surface Flows
Received: 5 August 2017 / Revised: 16 September 2017 / Accepted: 18 September 2017 / Published: 23 September 2017
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Abstract
This study describes the results of a numerical investigation aimed at developing and validating a non-hydrostatic depth-averaged model for flow problems where the horizontal length scales close to flow depth. For such types of problems, the steep-slope shallow-water equations are inadequate to describe
[...] Read more.
This study describes the results of a numerical investigation aimed at developing and validating a non-hydrostatic depth-averaged model for flow problems where the horizontal length scales close to flow depth. For such types of problems, the steep-slope shallow-water equations are inadequate to describe the two-dimensional structure of the curvilinear flow field. In the derivation of these equations, the restrictive assumptions of negligible bed-normal acceleration and bed curvature were employed, thus limiting their applicability to shallow flow situations. Herein, a Boussinesq-type model is deduced from the depth-averaged energy equation by relaxing the weakly-curved flow approximation to deal with the non-hydrostatic steep flow problems. The proposed model is solved with an implicit finite difference scheme and then applied to simulate steady free-surface flow problems with strong curvilinear effects. The numerical results are compared to experimental data, resulting in a reasonable overall agreement. Further, it is shown that the discharge characteristics of free flow over a round-crested weir are accurately described by using a Boussinesq-type approximation, and the drawbacks arising from a standard hydrostatic approach are overcome. The suggested numerical method to determine the discharge coefficient can be extended and adopted for other types of short-crested weirs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Hydrodynamics)
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Open AccessArticle Anisotropic Wave Turbulence for Reduced Hydrodynamics with Rotationally Constrained Slow Inertial Waves
Received: 8 March 2017 / Revised: 13 May 2017 / Accepted: 24 May 2017 / Published: 27 May 2017
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Abstract
Kinetic equations for rapidly rotating flows are developed in this paper using multiple scales perturbation theory. The governing equations are an asymptotically reduced set of equations that are derived from the incompressible Navier-Stokes equations. These equations are applicable for rapidly rotating flow regimes
[...] Read more.
Kinetic equations for rapidly rotating flows are developed in this paper using multiple scales perturbation theory. The governing equations are an asymptotically reduced set of equations that are derived from the incompressible Navier-Stokes equations. These equations are applicable for rapidly rotating flow regimes and are best suited to describe anisotropic dynamics of rotating flows. The independent variables of these equations inherently reside in a helical wave basis that is the most suitable basis for inertial waves. A coupled system of equations for the two global invariants: energy and helicity, is derived by extending a simpler symmetrical system to the more general non-symmetrical helical case. This approach of deriving the kinetic equations for helicity follows naturally by exploiting the symmetries in the system and is different from the derivations presented in an earlier weak wave turbulence approach that uses multiple correlation functions to account for the asymmetry due to helicity. Stationary solutions, including Kolmogorov solutions, for the flow invariants are obtained as a scaling law of the anisotropic wave numbers. The scaling law solutions compare affirmatively with results from recent experimental and simulation data. Thus, anisotropic wave turbulence of the reduced hydrodynamic system is a weak turbulence model for strong anisotropy with a dominant k cascade where the waves aid the turbulent cascade along the perpendicular modes. The waves also enable an appropriate closure of the kinetic equation through averaging of their phases. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Hydrodynamics)
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Open AccessArticle Hydrodynamics and Oxygen Bubble Characterization of Catalytic Cells Used in Artificial Photosynthesis by Means of CFD
Received: 21 February 2017 / Revised: 11 May 2017 / Accepted: 12 May 2017 / Published: 16 May 2017
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (6645 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Miniaturized cells can be used in photo-electrochemistry to perform water splitting. The geometry, process variables and removal of oxygen bubbles in these cells need to be optimized. Bubbles tend to remain attached to the catalytic surface, thus blocking the reaction, and they therefore
[...] Read more.
Miniaturized cells can be used in photo-electrochemistry to perform water splitting. The geometry, process variables and removal of oxygen bubbles in these cells need to be optimized. Bubbles tend to remain attached to the catalytic surface, thus blocking the reaction, and they therefore need to be dragged out of the cell. Computational Fluid Dynamics simulations have been carried out to assess the design of miniaturized cells and their results have been compared with experimental results. It has been found that low liquid inlet velocities (~0.1 m/s) favor the homogeneous distribution of the flow. Moderate velocities (0.5–1 m/s) favor preferred paths. High velocities (~2 m/s) lead to turbulent behavior of the flow, but avoid bubble coalescence and help to drag the bubbles. Gravity has a limited effect at this velocity. Finally, channeled cells have also been analyzed and they allow a good flow distribution, but part of the catalytic area could be lost. The here presented results can be used as guidelines for the optimum design of photocatalytic cells for the water splitting reaction for the production of solar fuels, such as H2 or other CO2 reduction products (i.e., CO, CH4, among others). Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Hydrodynamics)
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