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Volume 8, January

Vet. Sci., Volume 8, Issue 2 (February 2021) – 23 articles

Cover Story (view full-size image): Snake envenomation of domestic dogs is common and often fatal, but clinical signs, as well as the diagnostic procedures and treatments, are poorly described. Of 230 cases, detailed case data were provided from 20 dogs; 65.0% were envenomated during daytime, with collapse and paresis being the most common signs. Clinical signs were the sole diagnostic modality utilised in 30.0% of cases. Activated clotting time was the most common diagnostic procedure, while snake venom detection kits were only used in 15.0% of cases. About 82.4% of the dogs treated with antivenom recovered, whereas only 33.3% of the dogs not treated with antivenom recovered. Overall, veterinarians relied frequently on medical history, clinical signs, and diagnostic tests other than the SVDK and thus, most likely, administered snake envenomation treatment based on their clinical experience. View this paper.
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Article
Influence of Supplementing Sesbania grandiflora Pod Meal at Two Dietary Crude Protein Levels on Feed Intake, Fermentation Characteristics, and Methane Mitigation in Thai Purebred Beef Cattle
Vet. Sci. 2021, 8(2), 35; https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci8020035 - 23 Feb 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1628
Abstract
The aim of the study was to evaluate the effect of crude protein (CP) levels in concentrate and Sesbania grandiflora pod meal (SG) supplementation on feed intake, rumen fermentation, and methane (CH4) mitigation in Thai purebred beef cattle. Four cattle with [...] Read more.
The aim of the study was to evaluate the effect of crude protein (CP) levels in concentrate and Sesbania grandiflora pod meal (SG) supplementation on feed intake, rumen fermentation, and methane (CH4) mitigation in Thai purebred beef cattle. Four cattle with 100 ± 5.0 kg body weight were used in this study. A 2 × 2 factorial experiment in a 4 × 4 Latin square design was conducted, in which factor A was the CP levels in concentrate of 14% and 16% of dry matter (DM) and factor B was the supplement levels of SG at 0.4% and 0.6% DM intake, respectively. The results showed that the CP content in concentrate and SG supplementation had no interaction effect on intake, digestibility, ruminal ecologies, ruminal fermentation products, and nitrogen utilization. Increasing CP content to 16% significantly (p < 0.05) increased the ruminal ammonia nitrogen (NH3-N), nitrogen (N) intake, N absorption, and N retention. SG supplementation significantly (p < 0.05) decreased CP digestibility, NH3-N, blood urea nitrogen, and protozoa. In addition, SG significantly decreased acetate (C2), acetate to propionate ratio, methane, and fecal N excretion, while it significantly increased total volatile fatty acids (VFAs) and propionate (C3) concentration. In conclusion, SG could mitigate methane emission and enhance nitrogen utilization. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Physiology and Nutrition)
Article
Swine Small Intestine Sealing Performed by Different Vessel Sealing Devices: Ex-Vivo Test
Vet. Sci. 2021, 8(2), 34; https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci8020034 - 22 Feb 2021
Viewed by 1576
Abstract
This study aimed to evaluate the sealing quality of swine small intestine using different laparoscopic radiofrequency vessel sealing devices (two 5 mm: RFVS-1 and -2; one 10 mm: RFVS-3) and a harmonic scalpel (HS) compared to golden standard closure technique. The study was [...] Read more.
This study aimed to evaluate the sealing quality of swine small intestine using different laparoscopic radiofrequency vessel sealing devices (two 5 mm: RFVS-1 and -2; one 10 mm: RFVS-3) and a harmonic scalpel (HS) compared to golden standard closure technique. The study was divided into two arms. In study arm 1: n = 50 swine intestinal loops (10 per group) were transected with each instrument and the loops in which the devices provided complete sealing, at the gross inspection, were tested for maximum burst pressure (BP) and histological evaluation and compared to an automatic linear stapler. After the BP tests, the devices that achieved significantly lower BP values were excluded from the second arm. The RFVS-1 and -3 provided statistically significant results and were used in study arm 2, to obtain full-thickness biopsies along the antimesenteric border of the loop and were compared with hand-sewn intestinal closure (n = 30; 10 per group). The biopsies were histologically evaluated for thermal injury and diagnostic features, and intestinal loops tested for BP. RFVS-3 achieved comparable results (69.78 ± 4.23 mmHg, interquartile range (IQR) 5.8) to stapler closing technique (71.09 ± 4.22 mmHg, IQR 4.38; p > 0.05), while the RFVS-1 resulted in significantly (p < 0.05) lower BP (45.28 ± 15.23 mmHg, IQR 24.95) but over the physiological range, conversely to RFVS-2 (20.16 ± 7.19 mmHg, IQR 12.02) and HS (not measurable). RFVS-3 resulted not significantly different (p > 0.05) (45.09 ± 8.75 mmHg, IQR 10.48) than Suture (35.71 ± 17.51 mmHg, IQR 23.77); RFVS-1 resulted significantly lower values (23.96 ± 10.63 mmHg, IQR 9.62; p < 0.05). All biopsies were judged diagnostic. Data confirmed that RFVS-1 and -3 devices provided suitable intestinal sealing, with BP pressures over the physiological range. Conversely, the HS and RFVS-2 should not be considered for intestinal sealing. RFVS devices could be employed to obtain small intestine stump closure or full-thickness biopsies. However, further studies should be performed in live animals to assess the role of the healing process. Full article
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Review
Insights into Leishmania Molecules and Their Potential Contribution to the Virulence of the Parasite
Vet. Sci. 2021, 8(2), 33; https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci8020033 - 20 Feb 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1711
Abstract
Neglected parasitic diseases affect millions of people worldwide, resulting in high morbidity and mortality. Among other parasitic diseases, leishmaniasis remains an important public health problem caused by the protozoa of the genus Leishmania, transmitted by the bite of the female sand fly. [...] Read more.
Neglected parasitic diseases affect millions of people worldwide, resulting in high morbidity and mortality. Among other parasitic diseases, leishmaniasis remains an important public health problem caused by the protozoa of the genus Leishmania, transmitted by the bite of the female sand fly. The disease has also been linked to tropical and subtropical regions, in addition to being an endemic disease in many areas around the world, including the Mediterranean basin and South America. Although recent years have witnessed marked advances in Leishmania-related research in various directions, many issues have yet to be elucidated. The intention of the present review is to give an overview of the major virulence factors contributing to the pathogenicity of the parasite. We aimed to provide a concise picture of the factors influencing the reaction of the parasite in its host that might help to develop novel chemotherapeutic and vaccine strategies. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue One Health Approach to Veterinary Medicine)
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Brief Report
Impact of Obesity on Quality of Life and Owner’s Perception of Weight Loss Programs in Cats
Vet. Sci. 2021, 8(2), 32; https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci8020032 - 20 Feb 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1996
Abstract
Obese dogs have been shown to have a diminished quality of life; however, there is less evidence characterizing the impact of obesity on the quality of life of cats. A cross-sectional survey study was conducted among cat owners with either healthy weight cats [...] Read more.
Obese dogs have been shown to have a diminished quality of life; however, there is less evidence characterizing the impact of obesity on the quality of life of cats. A cross-sectional survey study was conducted among cat owners with either healthy weight cats (body condition scores of 4–5/9) or obese cats (body condition scores of 8–9/9) as determined by a veterinarian. Exclusion criteria included medical conditions (determined by physical exam and screening bloodwork). Cat owners completed surveys on quality of life and perceptions of feline obesity. Quality of life scores for obese cats had a wider range and were numerically lower compared to scores of healthy weight cats with a moderate effect size of 0.68, though this was not a statistically significant difference (71.2 ± 8.8 vs. 75.9 ± 4.1, p = 0.0881; n = 33). Owners of obese cats less frequently reported that obesity was a high risk to their cat’s health (77% [10/13]) vs. 100% [20/20]) and less frequently cited the primary caretaker as a cause of cat obesity (30% [3/10] vs. 55% [11/20]) compared to the owners of healthy weight cats. Interestingly, 97% (32/33) of all owners believed veterinarians should play a role in feline weight loss. These results suggest that some obese cats can have a potentially diminished quality of life but highlights the need for more data surrounding the impact of feline obesity and enhanced client communication strategies to best address obesity in the feline population. Full article
Article
The Embryotoxic Effects of in Ovo Administered Sunset Yellow FCF in Chick Embryos
Vet. Sci. 2021, 8(2), 31; https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci8020031 - 18 Feb 2021
Viewed by 1414
Abstract
Sunset yellow (SY) at prescribed concentrations has been approved by regulatory authorities in several countries as an additive dye in the food, beverage, cosmetic, and pharmaceutical industries. However, there are some reports that it may cause several health problems. The aim of this [...] Read more.
Sunset yellow (SY) at prescribed concentrations has been approved by regulatory authorities in several countries as an additive dye in the food, beverage, cosmetic, and pharmaceutical industries. However, there are some reports that it may cause several health problems. The aim of this study is to evaluate embryotoxic effects of SY on liver and kidney in chick embryos. Babcock white Leghorn eggs were randomly divided into four groups. Non-treated eggs served as control group. The eggs in groups SY200, SY1000, and SY2000 were treated with a single injection of 200, 1000, and 2000 ng SY into the air sac just before incubation. The developmental stages of embryos were determined on the 10th, 13th, 16th, and 21st days of incubation. Samples of the liver and kidney were taken and routine histological procedures were performed. The highest relative embryo weight was seen in all SY treated groups on the 16th day of incubation. Necrosis of some hepatocytes and cytoplasmic degenerations were observed in all SY groups in the liver. There were degenerated or destructed renal cortex structures and necrosis in the kidney. The cell’s nuclear areas and diameters of renal cortex structures were different in all SY groups compared to the control group (p < 0.05). It was concluded that in ovo administered SY has many unfavorable effects on liver and kidney in chick embryos. The results obtained in this study suggest that it may be advisable to re-assess safety levels of SY in many industries. Full article
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Communication
Safety Study on Ketoprofen in Pigs: Evaluating the Effects of Different Dosing and Treatment Scheme on Hematological, Hepatic, and Renal Parameters
Vet. Sci. 2021, 8(2), 30; https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci8020030 - 18 Feb 2021
Viewed by 1761
Abstract
A safety study on ketoprofen 10% was carried out on pigs using a different dosing and treatment scheme. Forty healthy crossbreed pigs with similar age, weight, and body condition score were distributed into five treatment groups. The pigs were intramuscularly injected once with [...] Read more.
A safety study on ketoprofen 10% was carried out on pigs using a different dosing and treatment scheme. Forty healthy crossbreed pigs with similar age, weight, and body condition score were distributed into five treatment groups. The pigs were intramuscularly injected once with different doses of ketoprofen: 3 mg/kg (group 1X), 6 mg/kg (group 2X), 9 mg/kg (group 3X). In addition, the 3 mg/kg dosis was administered on three consecutive days (group 1X ext.). Intramuscular injections of saline solution were used in control group (CTL). The pigs were clinically examined throughout the trial and blood samples were taken for hematological and biochemical evaluation on days −4 (before treatment), +3, +7, and +14 (the end of the trial). Any unusual behaviour or clinical signs were reported as potential toxic effects of ketoprofen. Serum measurements showed that none of the ketoprofen doses produced changes in renal or hepatic biochemical parameters, liver enzymes, or total bilirubin. Likewise, hematological assessment indicated no altered parameters or hematocrit percentage in the study groups. These results demonstrate that ketoprofen has no adverse effects in pigs when the doses and scheme evaluated in this study are applied. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Clinical Veterinary Medicine)
Case Report
Identification by MALDI-TOF MS and Antibiotic Resistance of Riemerella anatipestifer, Isolated from a Clinical Case in Commercial Broiler Chickens
Vet. Sci. 2021, 8(2), 29; https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci8020029 - 17 Feb 2021
Viewed by 2029
Abstract
The Gram-negative bacterium Riemerella anatipestifer (RA) is known to cause clinical disease with severe economic impacts primarily in ducks and less frequently in geese and turkeys. RA was isolated and identified in broiler chickens, from a clinical case in a commercial broiler farm [...] Read more.
The Gram-negative bacterium Riemerella anatipestifer (RA) is known to cause clinical disease with severe economic impacts primarily in ducks and less frequently in geese and turkeys. RA was isolated and identified in broiler chickens, from a clinical case in a commercial broiler farm located in the southwest mainland of Greece. The morbidity and the mortality in the broiler house were estimated at 10% and 5% respectively. The observed clinical signs appeared at the age of 30 to 42 days with respiratory distress (dyspnea), white fluid feces and stunting. Post-mortem examinations displayed serositis, pericarditis, perihepatitis and airsacculitis. Edematous swelling around the tibio-tarsal joints was observed in some birds. Tissue samples from lesions were streaked on selective media. Three bacterial isolates were identified by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS). Moreover, an antibiogram analysis was performed for the three RA strains, using a pattern of 16 common antibiotics to advocate the most effective drugs for a proper treatment. All the RA isolates were sensitive to ceftiofur, sulphamethoxazole–trimethoprim and amoxicillin, whereas all were resistant to gentamicin, tylosin, tetracyclin, colistin sulphate, spectinomycin, lincomycin and oxytetracycline. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Microbiology and Immunology)
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Article
Dexmedetomidine and Tear Production: Evaluation in Dogs as Spontaneous Model for Ocular Surface Disorders
Vet. Sci. 2021, 8(2), 28; https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci8020028 - 16 Feb 2021
Viewed by 1803
Abstract
Tear film provides lubrication and protection to the ocular surface. The sedation reduces tear production, often leading to perioperative exposure keratopathy. The aim of the present study was to report the effects of intramuscular dexmedetomidine on canine tear production, measured by STT-1, for [...] Read more.
Tear film provides lubrication and protection to the ocular surface. The sedation reduces tear production, often leading to perioperative exposure keratopathy. The aim of the present study was to report the effects of intramuscular dexmedetomidine on canine tear production, measured by STT-1, for an experimental period of 8 h after sedation. Ten dogs who underwent sedation for routine radiologic assessment were recruited for the study. In all animals, tear production in right and left eyes was measured 15 min before sedation (T0: basal values) and 20 min (T20), 1 h (T1), 2 h (T2), 4 h (T4) and 8 h (T8) after drug administration. Analysis of variance and post hoc Bonferroni test (p < 0.05) were performed. A significant effect of time on canine tear production was found. The tear production returned to basal values at T8. So, it is recommended to treat the canine eyes with tear substitutes during and up to 12 h after sedation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Veterinary and Comparative Ophthalmology)
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Article
Tri-Model Therapy: Combining Macrocyclic Lactone, Piperazine Derivative and Herbal Preparation in Treating Humpsore in Cattle
Vet. Sci. 2021, 8(2), 27; https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci8020027 - 13 Feb 2021
Viewed by 1365
Abstract
Stephanofilariasis or humpsore is a chronic parasitic dermatitis of cattle. Various treatment regimens were attempted in the past but were found to be partially effective. Here, we claim a successful treatment regime using an FDA-approved macrocyclic lactone, a piperazine derivative, and an herbal [...] Read more.
Stephanofilariasis or humpsore is a chronic parasitic dermatitis of cattle. Various treatment regimens were attempted in the past but were found to be partially effective. Here, we claim a successful treatment regime using an FDA-approved macrocyclic lactone, a piperazine derivative, and an herbal preparation. Twenty-four cattle (18 affected and 6 unaffected) were selected and divided into Gr 1: positive control (infected without treatment; n = 6), Gr 2: treatment group (infected with treatment with ivermectin; n = 6), Gr 3: treatment group (infected with treatment with tri-model therapy including ivermectin, diethylcarbamazine citrate, and an herbal ointment, n = 6), and Gr 4: negative control (non-infected animals; n = 6). In Gr 2 and Gr 3, treatment to the ailing animals were given for 30 days. Lesion was significantly reduced in day 15 of post-treatment and completely healed on day 30 of post-treatment in Gr 3. Tri-model therapy recorded significant improvement in the surface area of the sore as compared to ivermectin administration alone. Antioxidants were increased and malondialdehyde (MDA) and cortisol concentrations were decreased significantly (p < 0.05) in Gr 3 than in untreated control group at day 14, 21 and 28. Histopathological changes in infected animals were characterized by parakeratotic hyperkeratosis along with presence of nucleated keratinocytes. There were infiltrations of polymorphonuclear cells specially eosinophils along with a few monomorphonuclear cells. Microfilarial organism was observed beneath the epidermis, which was surrounded by fibrocytes and infiltrated cells. In the tri-model-treated animal after recovery, the skin revived a normal architecture. Therefore, tri-model therapy has the potential to cure humpsore. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Clinical Veterinary Medicine)
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Article
Intraoperative Assessment of Fluid Responsiveness in Normotensive Dogs under Isoflurane Anaesthesia
Vet. Sci. 2021, 8(2), 26; https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci8020026 - 11 Feb 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1528
Abstract
The aim of this study was to evaluate the incidence of fluid responsiveness (FR) to a fluid challenge (FC) in normotensive dogs under anaesthesia. The accuracy of pulse pressure variation (PPV), systolic pressure variation (SPV), stroke volume variation (SVV), and plethysmographic variability index [...] Read more.
The aim of this study was to evaluate the incidence of fluid responsiveness (FR) to a fluid challenge (FC) in normotensive dogs under anaesthesia. The accuracy of pulse pressure variation (PPV), systolic pressure variation (SPV), stroke volume variation (SVV), and plethysmographic variability index (PVI) for predicting FR was also evaluated. Dogs were anaesthetised with methadone, propofol, and inhaled isoflurane in oxygen, under volume-controlled mechanical ventilation. FC was performed by the administration of 5 mL/kg of Ringer’s lactate within 5 min. Cardiac index (CI; L/min/m2), PPV, (%), SVV (%), SPV (%), and PVI (%) were registered before and after FC. Data were analysed with ANOVA and ROC tests (p < 0.05). Fluid responsiveness was defined as 15% increase in CI. Eighty dogs completed the study. Fifty (62.5%) were responders and 30 (37.5%) were nonresponders. The PPV, PVI, SPV, and SVV cut-off values (AUC, p) for discriminating responders from nonresponders were PPV >13.8% (0.979, <0.001), PVI >14% (0.956, <0.001), SPV >4.1% (0.793, <0.001), and SVV >14.7% (0.729, <0.001), respectively. Up to 62.5% of normotensive dogs under inhalant anaesthesia may be fluid responders. PPV and PVI have better diagnostic accuracy to predict FR, compared to SPV and SVV. Full article
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Article
Predictors of Fatal Pulmonary Haemorrhage in Dogs Affected by Leptospirosis Approaching Haemodialysis
Vet. Sci. 2021, 8(2), 25; https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci8020025 - 08 Feb 2021
Viewed by 1677
Abstract
A retrospective case control study, which aimed to evaluate potential clinical, laboratory and imaging predictors of fatal pulmonary haemorrhage in dogs with Leptospirosis submitted to haemodialysis. The study population was divided in two groups according to the presence (PH) or absence (nPH) of [...] Read more.
A retrospective case control study, which aimed to evaluate potential clinical, laboratory and imaging predictors of fatal pulmonary haemorrhage in dogs with Leptospirosis submitted to haemodialysis. The study population was divided in two groups according to the presence (PH) or absence (nPH) of pulmonary haemorrhage. A statistical comparison was performed at hospital admission for clinical (spontaneous bleeding, icterus, and respiratory distress), laboratory (serum creatinine, urea, phosphate, calcium, bicarbonate, bilirubin, AST, ALT, ALKP, GGT, total protein, albumin, glycaemia, sodium, potassium, CRP, RBC, HCT, HGB, WBC, PLT, PT, aPTT, fibrinogen), and pulmonary radiographic findings between the two groups of dogs. At hospital admission, dogs developing pulmonary haemorrhage were more likely to have respiratory distress (p = 0.002), severely elevated serum bilirubin (p = 0.002), AST (p = 0.04), ALT (p = 0.012), ALKP (p = 0.002), reduced serum glycaemia (p = 0.014), and thrombocytopenia (p = 0.04). Respiratory distress and elevated serum bilirubin (≥11.5 mg/dL) were independently associated with increased risk of pulmonary haemorrhage. In conclusion, the presence of respiratory distress at hospital admission is strongly associated (OR 40.9) with increased risk of pulmonary haemorrhage, even though no abnormalities are found at chest radiography. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Clinical Veterinary Medicine)
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Article
Isolation and Characterization of Feline Wharton’s Jelly-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells
Vet. Sci. 2021, 8(2), 24; https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci8020024 - 07 Feb 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1571
Abstract
Wharton’s jelly is a well-known mesenchymal stem cell source in many species, including humans. However, there have been no reports confirming the presence of mesenchymal stem cells in Wharton’s jelly in cats. The purpose of this study was to isolate mesenchymal stem cells [...] Read more.
Wharton’s jelly is a well-known mesenchymal stem cell source in many species, including humans. However, there have been no reports confirming the presence of mesenchymal stem cells in Wharton’s jelly in cats. The purpose of this study was to isolate mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) from the Wharton’s jelly of cats and to characterize stem cells. In this study, feline Wharton’s jelly-derived mesenchymal stem cells (fWJ-MSCs) were isolated and successfully cultured. fWJ-MSCs were maintained and the proliferative potential was measured by cumulative population doubling level (CPDL) test, scratch test, and colony forming unit (CFU) test. Stem cell marker, karyotyping and immunophenotyping analysis by flow cytometry showed that fWJ-MSCs possessed characteristic mesenchymal stem cell markers. To confirm the differentiation potential, we performed osteogenic, adipogenic and chondrogenic induction under each differentiation condition. fWJ-MSCs has the ability to differentiate into multiple lineages, including osteogenic, adipogenic and chondrogenic differentiation. This study shows that Wharton’s jelly of cat can be a good source of mesenchymal stem cells. In addition, fWJ-MSCs may be useful for stem cell-based therapeutic applications in feline medicine. Full article
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Article
Diastolic and Systolic Longitudinal Myocardial Velocities of Healthy Racing Pigeons (Columba livia f. domestica) Measured by Tissue Doppler Imaging
Vet. Sci. 2021, 8(2), 23; https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci8020023 - 31 Jan 2021
Viewed by 1766
Abstract
Tissue Doppler imaging (TDI) is a noninvasive sonographic method of acquiring and quantifying myocardial velocities. This technique is used in human and small animal medicine to diagnose cardiac diseases. Using this technique, we evaluated the longitudinal myocardial peak velocities of the interventricular septum, [...] Read more.
Tissue Doppler imaging (TDI) is a noninvasive sonographic method of acquiring and quantifying myocardial velocities. This technique is used in human and small animal medicine to diagnose cardiac diseases. Using this technique, we evaluated the longitudinal myocardial peak velocities of the interventricular septum, and the left and right ventricular free walls in the systole and diastole in 40 racing pigeons. The TDI examinations confirmed the movement of the heart base toward the apex in the systole and away from the apex in the diastole. Inhomogeneous distribution of the myocardial velocities with a statistically significant velocity gradient from the basal to the apical myocardial segments was found. The left and right free walls have significantly higher myocardial velocities than the myocardium of the septum. The myocardial velocities during active ventricular filling were significantly higher in the right ventricular free wall than in the left one. The validation of the method resulted in coefficients of variation between 3% and 33% for the systolic and 3% and 75% for the diastolic individual myocardial velocities. Weekly repeated measurements resulted in variation coefficients between 3% and 45% for systolic and diastolic myocardial velocities, respectively. Full article
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Article
Outcome in Cats with Acute Onset of Severe Thoracolumbar Spinal Cord Injury Following Physical Rehabilitation
Vet. Sci. 2021, 8(2), 22; https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci8020022 - 29 Jan 2021
Viewed by 1741
Abstract
The literature is lacking data concerning the prognosis in cats suffering from naturally occurring acute onset of thoracolumbar (TL) spinal cord injury that are undergoing rehabilitation therapy. Therefore, we investigated the effect of physical rehabilitation in cats suffering from naturally occurring TL spinal [...] Read more.
The literature is lacking data concerning the prognosis in cats suffering from naturally occurring acute onset of thoracolumbar (TL) spinal cord injury that are undergoing rehabilitation therapy. Therefore, we investigated the effect of physical rehabilitation in cats suffering from naturally occurring TL spinal cord injury. The medical records of 36 cats with acute onset of TL spinal cord injury that were selected for rehabilitation treatment were reviewed. Twenty-nine cats underwent an intensive physical rehabilitation protocol in the clinic (group 1), whereas the owners of seven cats declined physical rehabilitation (group 2). In group 1, seven cats had pelvic limb deep pain perception (DPP), which was significantly associated with the functional recovery of voluntary ambulatory status (p = 0.010) and voluntary micturition (p < 0.001). Spinal walking was achieved in 10/22 (45%) of the cats without DPP, and none regained voluntary micturition. In group 2, no cats regained ambulatory status or voluntary micturition, although pelvic limb DPP was present in three patients. Treatment with a clinic-based rehabilitation program and the presence of a crossed extensor reflex were significantly associated with a higher possibility of regaining functional ambulatory status (p < 0.010), but there was no difference in the recovery of voluntary micturition between the groups. Thus, cats with severe, naturally occurring, acute onset of TL spinal cord injury may benefit from physical rehabilitation. In the case of the loss of DPP, the acquisition of spinal walking is possible, despite the high possibility of a persistent neurologically dysfunctional bladder. Full article
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Article
Serum Total Thyroxine Evaluation in Critically Ill Feline Patients
Vet. Sci. 2021, 8(2), 21; https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci8020021 - 27 Jan 2021
Viewed by 1576
Abstract
This retrospective case control study compared serum total thyroxine (tT4) concentrations in hospitalized critical cats (CCs) and non-hospitalized cats with non-thyroidal chronic diseases (chronic group, CG) and evaluated the relationship between the serum tT4 concentration of CCs and systemic inflammation (systemic inflammatory response [...] Read more.
This retrospective case control study compared serum total thyroxine (tT4) concentrations in hospitalized critical cats (CCs) and non-hospitalized cats with non-thyroidal chronic diseases (chronic group, CG) and evaluated the relationship between the serum tT4 concentration of CCs and systemic inflammation (systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS)), disease severity (Acute Patient Physiologic and Laboratory Evaluation (APPLEfast)), and prognosis. Cats with previously suspected or diagnosed thyroid disease were excluded. Serum tT4 was evaluated in surplus serum samples at the time of admission for CCs and CGs. The APPLEfast score of the CC group was calculated at admission. The systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) in CCs was determined using proposed criteria. Cats were divided into survivors and non-survivors according to the discharge outcome. Forty-nine cats were retrospectively included. Twenty-seven cats died during hospitalization. The CG group was composed of 37 cats. The CC group showed a significantly lower tT4 compared to the CG group (1.3 ± 0.7 vs. 2 ± 0.9; p < 0.0001). Among SIRS, APPLEfast, and tT4, only tT4 was associated with mortality (p = 0.04). The tT4 cut-off point for mortality was 1.65 μg/dL (sensitivity 81%, specificity 57%, odds ratio (OR) 5.6). Twenty-five cats (51%) had SIRS that was not associated with tT4. Non-thyroidal illness syndrome can occur in critically ill cats and the evaluation of tT4 in hospitalized cats could add prognostic information. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Clinical Veterinary Medicine)
Review
Current Applications and Future Perspectives of Fluorescence Light Energy Biomodulation in Veterinary Medicine
Vet. Sci. 2021, 8(2), 20; https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci8020020 - 25 Jan 2021
Viewed by 1746
Abstract
The purpose of this review is to determine the state of the art of the mode of action and potential applications of fluorescence photobiomodulation in veterinary medicine. After a summary of the assets that have led the translation of such light-based therapies from [...] Read more.
The purpose of this review is to determine the state of the art of the mode of action and potential applications of fluorescence photobiomodulation in veterinary medicine. After a summary of the assets that have led the translation of such light-based therapies from bench side into clinical use, recent advances in canine dermatology using this brand-new approach are presented, and future scenarios where this type of care may provide benefits over the current standard care are highlighted. Full article
Article
Comparison of Fat Harvested from Flank and Falciform Regions for Stem Cell Therapy in Dogs
Vet. Sci. 2021, 8(2), 19; https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci8020019 - 25 Jan 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1681
Abstract
Background: Adipose tissue has recently gained attention as a source of mesenchymal stem cells (AdMSCs) for applications in treating degenerative joint disease in veterinary patients. This study aimed to quantify the stromal vascular fractions (SVFs) and colony forming units (CFU) of AdMSCs from [...] Read more.
Background: Adipose tissue has recently gained attention as a source of mesenchymal stem cells (AdMSCs) for applications in treating degenerative joint disease in veterinary patients. This study aimed to quantify the stromal vascular fractions (SVFs) and colony forming units (CFU) of AdMSCs from the falciform and flank regions and compare dogs of different ages and weights. Methods: Fat tissue was harvested from the flank (21 dogs) and falciform regions (17 dogs). The fat tissue was enzymatically digested and the number of nucleated cells in the SVF was counted. The SVF was cultured in vitro and the cell growth was assessed by counting the CFU per gram of fat and the aspect ratio of the cells. Conclusions: There was no significant difference in the number of nucleated cells in the SVF from the two sites. The CFU/g of fat from falciform was 378.9 ± 293 g and from flank was 486.8 ± 517 g, and this was also insignificant. Neither age nor weight of the patient had an impact on the SVF or CFU/g. No surgical complications were reported from either of the sites. Harvesting fat for stem cell therapy for intra-articular therapy of degenerative joint disease can be an easy and fast process when obtaining the fat either from the flank or the falciform region, and it is not age or weight dependent. The harvest site for clinical canine patients can be left to the surgeon’s discretion and comfort. Full article
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Editorial
Acknowledgment to Reviewers of Veterinary Sciences in 2020
Vet. Sci. 2021, 8(2), 18; https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci8020018 - 25 Jan 2021
Viewed by 1415
Abstract
Peer review is the driving force of journal development, and reviewers are gatekeepers who ensure that Veterinary Sciences maintains its standards for the high quality of its published papers [...] Full article
Review
A Scoping Review of Viral Diseases in African Ungulates
Vet. Sci. 2021, 8(2), 17; https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci8020017 - 22 Jan 2021
Viewed by 1758
Abstract
(1) Background: Viral diseases are important as they can cause significant clinical disease in both wild and domestic animals, as well as in humans. They also make up a large proportion of emerging infectious diseases. (2) Methods: A scoping review of peer-reviewed publications [...] Read more.
(1) Background: Viral diseases are important as they can cause significant clinical disease in both wild and domestic animals, as well as in humans. They also make up a large proportion of emerging infectious diseases. (2) Methods: A scoping review of peer-reviewed publications was performed and based on the guidelines set out in the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) extension for scoping reviews. (3) Results: The final set of publications consisted of 145 publications. Thirty-two viruses were identified in the publications and 50 African ungulates were reported/diagnosed with viral infections. Eighteen countries had viruses diagnosed in wild ungulates reported in the literature. (4) Conclusions: A comprehensive review identified several areas where little information was available and recommendations were made. It is recommended that governments and research institutions offer more funding to investigate and report viral diseases of greater clinical and zoonotic significance. A further recommendation is for appropriate One Health approaches to be adopted for investigating, controlling, managing and preventing diseases. Diseases which may threaten the conservation of certain wildlife species also require focused attention. In order to keep track of these diseases, it may be necessary to consider adding a “Wildlife disease and infection” category to the World Organisation for Animal Health-listed diseases. Full article
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Communication
Prevalence of Feline Immunodeficiency Virus and Toxoplasma gondii in Feral Cats on St. Kitts, West Indies
Vet. Sci. 2021, 8(2), 16; https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci8020016 - 21 Jan 2021
Viewed by 1560
Abstract
Toxoplasma gondii (T. gondii) is a cosmopolitan protozoan parasite that infects all warm-blooded species including humans. The definitive hosts of T. gondii are felid vertebrates including the domestic cat. Domestic cats shed oocysts for approximately two weeks in their feces after [...] Read more.
Toxoplasma gondii (T. gondii) is a cosmopolitan protozoan parasite that infects all warm-blooded species including humans. The definitive hosts of T. gondii are felid vertebrates including the domestic cat. Domestic cats shed oocysts for approximately two weeks in their feces after the primary infection. It has been shown that feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) positive cats have a higher prevalence of and a higher titer of antibodies to T. gondii than those of FIV-negative cats. The main purposes of this study were to determine FIV prevalence and to investigate the oocysts shedding in FIV-positive and FIV-negative feral cats on St. Kitts. Fecal samples were collected from feral cats while their FIV statues were determined using a commercial SNAP kit. Total fecal DNA of each cat was tested for the presence of T. gondii DNA using a polymerase chain reaction (PCR) consistently detecting one genome equivalent. A FIV-positive status was detected in 18 of 105 (17.1%, 95% confidence interval (CI): 9.9%−24.3%) feral cats sampled. Furthermore, males were three times more likely to be FIV positive than females (p = 0.017) with an odds ratio of 3.93 (95% CI: 1.20–12.89). Adults were found to have at least twice the prevalence of FIV compared to cats younger than one year of age (p = 0.056) with an odds ratio of 3.07 (95% CI: 0.94–10.00). Toxoplasma gondii DNA was not detected in the feces of any of the 18 FIV-positive (95% CI: 0%−0.18%) and 87 FIV-negative cats (95% CI: 0%−0.04%). A follow-up study with a much bigger sample size is needed to prove or disprove the hypothesis that FIV-positive cats have a higher prevalence of shedding T. gondii oocysts than FIV-negative cats. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Microbiology and Immunology)
Review
Trichuris spp. in Animals, with Specific Reference to Neo-Tropical Rodents
Vet. Sci. 2021, 8(2), 15; https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci8020015 - 21 Jan 2021
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Abstract
Trichuriasis is the clinical disease of animals infected with the parasite of the genus Trichuris. This review attempts to present information on Trichuris spp. infestation in neo-tropical rodents that are utilized for meat consumption by humans. Neo-tropical rodents utilized for meat production [...] Read more.
Trichuriasis is the clinical disease of animals infected with the parasite of the genus Trichuris. This review attempts to present information on Trichuris spp. infestation in neo-tropical rodents that are utilized for meat consumption by humans. Neo-tropical rodents utilized for meat production can be divided into two categories: those that have been domesticated, which include the guinea pig (Cavia porcellus), and those that are on the verge of domestication, such as the capybara (Hydrochoerus hydrochaeris), lappe (Cuniculus paca/Agouti paca), and agouti (Dasyprocta leporina). This document reviews the literature on the species of Trichuris that affects the rodents mentioned above, as well as the clinical signs observed. The literature obtained spans over sixty years, from 1951 to 2020. Trichuris spp. was found in these neo-tropical rodents mentioned. However, there is a dearth of information on the species of Trichuris that parasitize these animals. The capybara was the only rodent where some molecular techniques were used to identify a new species named T. cutillasae. In most cases, Trichuris spp. was found in combination with other endoparasites, and was found at a low prevalence in the lappe and guinea pig. The presence of Trichuris spp. ranged from 4.62–53.85% in the agouti, 4.21–10.00% in the lappe, 50% in the capybaras, and 1–31% in guinea pigs. Further work must be done towards molecular identification of various Trichuris spp. present in these rodents, as well as the clinical effect of infection on the performance of agouti, lappe, capybara, and guinea pigs. Full article
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Diagnosis and Treatment of Snake Envenomation in Dogs in Queensland, Australia
Vet. Sci. 2021, 8(2), 14; https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci8020014 - 20 Jan 2021
Viewed by 1608
Abstract
Australia has some of the most venous snakes in the world, and envenomations of domestic dogs are common, but clinical signs as well as the diagnostic procedures and treatments of snake envenomations are poorly described. Therefore, we invited veterinary clinics in the state [...] Read more.
Australia has some of the most venous snakes in the world, and envenomations of domestic dogs are common, but clinical signs as well as the diagnostic procedures and treatments of snake envenomations are poorly described. Therefore, we invited veterinary clinics in the state of Queensland, Australia, to provide detailed data on snake envenomation cases in dogs. A total of 230 cases were reported from 19 veterinary hospitals, with an average of 12.1 dogs per clinic, per year. Detailed case data were provided from 20 dogs—of these, 65.0% (13/20) were envenomated during the daytime, with collapse and paresis being the most common signs reported by owners. The median time between the onset of clinical signs and admission to the veterinary hospital was 60 min. Clinical signs were the sole diagnostic modality utilised by veterinarians in 30.0% (6/20) of cases. Activated clotting time was the most common diagnostic procedure conducted, while snake venom detection kits (SVDK) were only used in 15.0% (3/20) of cases. Of the dogs that received antivenom (85.0%, 17/20), the tiger/multibrown combination (3000 units tiger/4000 units brown) was predominately (13/17) provided. Three of the 17 dogs that received antivenom (17.6%) died or were euthanised. About 82.4% (14/17) of the dogs treated with antivenom, but only 33.3% (1/3) of the dogs not treated with antivenom, recovered (p = 0.140). Overall, veterinarians relied frequently on medical history, clinical signs, and diagnostic tests other than the SVDK and, thus, most likely, administered snake envenomation treatment based on their clinical experience. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Clinical Veterinary Medicine)
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Article
Effect of Delivery Format on Student Outcomes and Perceptions of a Veterinary Medicine Course: Synchronous Versus Asynchronous Learning
Vet. Sci. 2021, 8(2), 13; https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci8020013 - 20 Jan 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1850
Abstract
The COVID-19 pandemic prompted instruction at many veterinary schools to switch to an emergency remote teaching format to prevent viral transmission associated with in-person synchronous lectures. This study surveyed student perspectives and academic performance in a pre-planned online second-year veterinary toxicology course given [...] Read more.
The COVID-19 pandemic prompted instruction at many veterinary schools to switch to an emergency remote teaching format to prevent viral transmission associated with in-person synchronous lectures. This study surveyed student perspectives and academic performance in a pre-planned online second-year veterinary toxicology course given at North Carolina State University in Spring 2020. This course relied on asynchronous narrated presentations for content delivery. This method of delivery predated the pandemic and was used throughout the course. Academic performance and patterns of access to materials in the online course was compared with the access patterns and performance of students given classroom-based synchronous teaching in Spring 2019. Assessments evaluated in this study were identical across courses. Students’ academic performance was unaffected by delivery method. Lack of instructor interaction was an important perceived barrier in the asynchronous course. Asynchronous course materials were uniformly accessed across all days of the week, while supplemental materials for the face-to-face course showed a weekly pattern. Moving from letter grades to pass/fail did not change access frequency to supplemental course materials but led to decreased video usage in the asynchronous course. Results suggest that although some veterinary students perceived the switch in delivery format negatively, the method of delivery did not adversely affect performance in this preclinical course. Full article
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