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Vet. Sci., Volume 11, Issue 4 (April 2024) – 45 articles

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13 pages, 2582 KiB  
Article
Characterization and Function Analysis of miRNA Editing during Fat Deposition in Chinese Indigenous Ningxiang Pigs
by Jiayu Lv, Fang Yang, Yiyang Li, Ning Gao, Qinghua Zeng, Haiming Ma, Jun He and Yuebo Zhang
Vet. Sci. 2024, 11(4), 183; https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci11040183 - 22 Apr 2024
Viewed by 775
Abstract
This study aimed to identify active miRNA editing sites during adipose development in Ningxiang pigs and analyze their characteristics and functions. Based on small RNA-seq data from the subcutaneous adipose tissues of Ningxiang pigs at four stages—30 days (piglet), 90 days (nursery), 150 [...] Read more.
This study aimed to identify active miRNA editing sites during adipose development in Ningxiang pigs and analyze their characteristics and functions. Based on small RNA-seq data from the subcutaneous adipose tissues of Ningxiang pigs at four stages—30 days (piglet), 90 days (nursery), 150 days (early fattening), and 210 days (late fattening)—we constructed a developmental map of miRNA editing in the adipose tissues of Ningxiang pigs. A total of 505 miRNA editing sites were identified using the revised pipeline, with C-to-U editing types being the most prevalent, followed by U-to-C, A-to-G, and G-to-U. Importantly, these four types of miRNA editing exhibited base preferences. The number of editing sites showed obvious differences among age groups, with the highest occurrence of miRNA editing events observed at 90 days of age and the lowest at 150 days of age. A total of nine miRNA editing sites were identified in the miRNA seed region, with significant differences in editing levels (p < 0.05) located in ssc-miR-23a, ssc-miR-27a, ssc-miR-30b-5p, ssc-miR-15a, ssc-miR-497, ssc-miR-15b, and ssc-miR-425-5p, respectively. Target gene prediction and KEGG enrichment analyses indicated that the editing of miR-497 might potentially regulate fat deposition by inhibiting adipose synthesis via influencing target binding. These results provide new insights into the regulatory mechanism of pig fat deposition. Full article
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21 pages, 4875 KiB  
Article
Addressing Combative Behaviour in Spanish Bulls by Measuring Hormonal Indicators
by Juan Carlos Illera, Francisco Jimenez-Blanco, Luis Centenera, Fernando Gil-Cabrera, Belen Crespo, Paula Rocio Lopez, Gema Silvan and Sara Caceres
Vet. Sci. 2024, 11(4), 182; https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci11040182 - 22 Apr 2024
Viewed by 751
Abstract
The fighting bull is characterised by its natural aggressiveness, but the physiological mechanisms that underlie its aggressive behaviour are poorly studied. This study determines the hormonal component of aggressiveness in fighting bulls by analysing their behaviour during a fight and correlating it to [...] Read more.
The fighting bull is characterised by its natural aggressiveness, but the physiological mechanisms that underlie its aggressive behaviour are poorly studied. This study determines the hormonal component of aggressiveness in fighting bulls by analysing their behaviour during a fight and correlating it to their serotonin, dopamine and testosterone levels. We also determine whether aggressive behaviour can be estimated in calves. Using 195 animals, samples were obtained when the animals were calves and after 5 years. Aggressiveness scores were obtained by an observational method during bullfights, and serotonin, dopamine and testosterone levels were determined in all animals using validated enzyme immunoassay kits. The results revealed a strong correlation of serotonin and dopamine levels with aggressiveness scores in bulls during fights, but no correlation was found with respect to testosterone. These correlations led to established cut-off point and linear regression curves to obtain expected aggressiveness scores for calves at shoeing. There were no significant differences between the expected scores obtained in calves and the observed scores in bulls. Therefore, this study demonstrates that hormone determination in calves may be a great indicator of combativeness in bulls and can reliably be used in the selection of fighting bulls. Full article
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14 pages, 4674 KiB  
Article
Feasibility of Near-Infrared Spectroscopy in the Classification of Pig Lung Lesions
by Maria Olga Varrà, Mauro Conter, Matteo Recchia, Giovanni Loris Alborali, Antonio Marco Maisano, Sergio Ghidini and Emanuela Zanardi
Vet. Sci. 2024, 11(4), 181; https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci11040181 - 18 Apr 2024
Viewed by 1108
Abstract
Respiratory diseases significantly affect intensive pig farming, causing production losses and increased antimicrobial use. Accurate classification of lung lesions is crucial for effective diagnostics and disease management. The integration of non-destructive and rapid techniques would be beneficial to enhance overall efficiency in addressing [...] Read more.
Respiratory diseases significantly affect intensive pig farming, causing production losses and increased antimicrobial use. Accurate classification of lung lesions is crucial for effective diagnostics and disease management. The integration of non-destructive and rapid techniques would be beneficial to enhance overall efficiency in addressing these challenges. This study investigates the potential of near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopy in classifying pig lung tissues. The NIR spectra (908–1676 nm) of 101 lungs from weaned pigs were analyzed using a portable instrument and subjected to multivariate analysis. Two distinct discriminant models were developed to differentiate normal (N), congested (C), and pathological (P) lung tissues, as well as catarrhal bronchopneumonia (CBP), fibrinous pleuropneumonia (FPP), and interstitial pneumonia (IP) patterns. Overall, the model tailored for discriminating among pathological lesions demonstrated superior classification performances. Major challenges arose in categorizing C lungs, which exhibited a misclassification rate of 30% with N and P tissues, and FPP samples, with 30% incorrectly recognized as CBP samples. Conversely, IP and CBP lungs were all identified with accuracy, precision, and sensitivity higher than 90%. In conclusion, this study provides a promising proof of concept for using NIR spectroscopy to recognize and categorize pig lungs with different pathological lesions, offering prospects for efficient diagnostic strategies. Full article
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13 pages, 2666 KiB  
Article
Comparative Analysis of Antibiotic Resistance and Biofilm Characteristics of Two Major Enterococcus Species from Poultry Slaughterhouses in South Korea
by Yongwoo Son, Yeung Bae Jin, Eun-Jeong Cho, Ae Ra Park, Rochelle A. Flores, Binh T. Nguyen, Seung Yun Lee, Bujinlkham Altanzul, Kwang Il Park, Wongi Min and Woo H. Kim
Vet. Sci. 2024, 11(4), 180; https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci11040180 - 16 Apr 2024
Viewed by 877
Abstract
The spread of antibiotic-resistant Enterococcus in the poultry industry poses significant public health challenges due to multidrug resistance and biofilm formation. We investigated the antibiotic resistance profiles and biofilm characteristics of E. faecalis and E. faecium isolates from chicken meat in poultry slaughterhouses [...] Read more.
The spread of antibiotic-resistant Enterococcus in the poultry industry poses significant public health challenges due to multidrug resistance and biofilm formation. We investigated the antibiotic resistance profiles and biofilm characteristics of E. faecalis and E. faecium isolates from chicken meat in poultry slaughterhouses in South Korea. Ninety-six isolates (forty-eight each of E. faecalis and E. faecium) were collected between March and September 2022. Both species were analyzed using MALDI-TOF, PCR, antibiotic susceptibility testing, and biofilm assays. A high level of multidrug resistance was observed in E. faecalis (95.8%) and E. faecium (93.8%), with E. faecium exhibiting a broader range of resistance, particularly to linezolid (52.1%) and rifampicin (47.9%). All E. faecalis isolates formed biofilm in vitro, showing stronger biofilm formation than E. faecium with a significant difference (p < 0.001) in biofilm strength. Specific genes (cob, ccf, and sprE) were found to be correlated with biofilm strength. In E. faecium isolates, biofilm strength was correlated with resistance to linezolid and rifampicin, while a general correlation between antibiotic resistance and biofilm strength was not established. Through analysis, correlations were noted between antibiotics within the same class, while no general trends were evident in other analyzed factors. This study highlights the public health risks posed by multidrug-resistant enterococci collected from poultry slaughterhouses, emphasizing the complexity of the biofilm-resistance relationship and the need for enhanced control measures. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Veterinary Food Safety and Zoonosis)
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16 pages, 3206 KiB  
Article
Effects of Salts and Other Contaminants on Ciprofloxacin Removal Efficiency of Green Synthesized Copper Nanoparticles
by Tanongsak Sassa-deepaeng, Nattakanwadee Khumpirapang, Wachira Yodthong, Yin Yin Myat, Songyot Anuchapreeda and Siriporn Okonogi
Vet. Sci. 2024, 11(4), 179; https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci11040179 - 16 Apr 2024
Viewed by 1062
Abstract
Ciprofloxacin (CIP), a broad-spectrum fluoroquinolone antibiotic, is commonly used in aquaculture to prevent and treat bacterial infections in aquatic animals. For this reason, aquatic environments contain CIP and its derivatives, which lead to the development of drug-resistant bacteria. In the present study, copper [...] Read more.
Ciprofloxacin (CIP), a broad-spectrum fluoroquinolone antibiotic, is commonly used in aquaculture to prevent and treat bacterial infections in aquatic animals. For this reason, aquatic environments contain CIP and its derivatives, which lead to the development of drug-resistant bacteria. In the present study, copper nanoparticles were prepared using Garcinia mangostana extract (GME-CuNPs) as a reducing agent and evaluated for their CIP removal efficiency (CRE). The results demonstrate that within 20 min, GME-CuNPs at 25 mM possess a CRE of 92.02 ± 0.09% from CIP-containing aqueous media with pH 6–7. The CRE is influenced by both monovalent and divalent salts. A high salt concentration significantly reduces the CRE. Contaminants in fish wastewater can reduce the CRE, but phenolics, flavonoids, tannins, and ammonia do not affect the CRE. Our results reveal that the CRE is controlled by electrostatic attraction between the negatively charged GME-CuNPs and the cationic species of CIP. The CRE is reduced by wastewater with a pH higher than 8.0, in which the CIP molecules have a negative charge, resulting in a repulsive force due to the negative charge of GME-CuNPs. In fish wastewater with a pH lower than 7.0, GME-CuNPs show the potential to achieve a CRE above 80%. Therefore, pH adjustment to a range of 6–7 in fish wastewater before treatment is deemed imperative. It is concluded that the newly developed GME-CuNPs possess excellent activity in CIP elimination from actual fish wastewater samples. Our findings suggest that GME-CuNPs can be a promising tool to effectively eliminate antibiotics from the environment. Full article
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13 pages, 838 KiB  
Article
Early Neurophysiological Abnormalities in Suspected Acute Canine Polyradiculoneuropathy
by Laura Porcarelli, Alberto Cauduro, Ezio Bianchi, Claudia Pauciulo, Chiara Maurelli and Daniele Corlazzoli
Vet. Sci. 2024, 11(4), 178; https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci11040178 - 16 Apr 2024
Viewed by 1402
Abstract
Acute canine polyradiculoneuritis (ACP) is a common peripheral neuropathy in dogs, and is generally self-limiting and benign. Electrodiagnostic (EDX) tests are typically performed after 7–10 days. Delaying the definitive diagnosis may hamper the treatment of other causes of acute weakness, which may require [...] Read more.
Acute canine polyradiculoneuritis (ACP) is a common peripheral neuropathy in dogs, and is generally self-limiting and benign. Electrodiagnostic (EDX) tests are typically performed after 7–10 days. Delaying the definitive diagnosis may hamper the treatment of other causes of acute weakness, which may require specific treatments and may carry different prognoses. This retrospective multicenter study aims to assess whether EDX performed within the first 6 days of clinical signs onset can detect alterations indicative of ACP, and aims to characterize the most prevalent alterations. A total of 71 dogs with suspected ACP were retrospectively analyzed and classified into two groups based on EDX timing: early group (EG, 1–6 days after symptom onset) and late group (LG, 7–15 days after symptom onset). In our study, no significant differences were found between the two groups in motor nerve conduction studies (MNCSs) and F-wave analysis, indicating that EDX is able to demonstrate abnormalities even in the first 6 days from onset. Although the LG showed significantly greater degrees of electromyographic (EMG) alterations compared to the EG, frequent muscle alterations were still observed in the EG group. These findings support the use of EDX in patients with suspected ACP within the first 6 days from the clinical onset. Prompt neurophysiological examinations for suspected ACP patients can be performed effectively and can help allow for early diagnosis and facilitate appropriate treatment. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Neurology and Neurosurgery in Small Animals)
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9 pages, 4213 KiB  
Case Report
Spinal Cord Medulloepithelioma in a Cat
by Çağla Aytaş, Raffaele Gilardini, Annalisa Beghelli, Paolo Andrea Barili, Melissa Ori and Carlo Cantile
Vet. Sci. 2024, 11(4), 177; https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci11040177 - 15 Apr 2024
Viewed by 977
Abstract
A 13-month-old, neutered, male, domestic shorthair cat was referred with a history of progressive paraparesis, proprioceptive ataxia, and lumbar spinal pain. Neurological examination revealed non-ambulatory paraparesis consistent with L4-S1 myelopathy. Magnetic resonance of the thoracolumbar spinal cord identified a dorsal intradural extramedullary space-occupying [...] Read more.
A 13-month-old, neutered, male, domestic shorthair cat was referred with a history of progressive paraparesis, proprioceptive ataxia, and lumbar spinal pain. Neurological examination revealed non-ambulatory paraparesis consistent with L4-S1 myelopathy. Magnetic resonance of the thoracolumbar spinal cord identified a dorsal intradural extramedullary space-occupying lesion extending from L5 to L6. It was homogeneously hyperintense in T2-weighted imaging and isointense in T1-weighted imaging and exhibited marked and homogeneous contrast enhancement in the T1-weighted post-contrast imaging. The removed tissue was composed of neoplastic cells arranged as pseudostratified or multilayered trabecular and tubular structures, supported by internal and external limiting PAS-positive membranes. The neoplastic cells were immunoreactive for vimentin and NSE and negative for GFAP, Olig2, synaptophysin, PCK, S-100, NeuN, and nestin. The Ki-67 nuclear labeling index was up to 90%. The tumor was consistent with the diagnosis of medulloepithelioma, which is most frequently reported as an intraocular tumor. The morphological and immunohistochemical features of the tumor showed remarkable concordance with most human medulloepitheliomas. This is the first spinal cord medullopethelioma report in a cat, with the clinical, neuroradiological, histological, and immunohistochemical findings being described. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Veterinary Neuropathology in the One Health Approach)
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14 pages, 4057 KiB  
Article
Effects of Vaccination against Recombinant FSH or LH Receptor Subunits on Gonadal Development and Functioning Male Rats
by Fuqiang Pan, Wanzhen Fu, Bochao Zhang, Mengdi Han, Huihui Xie, Qing Yi, Wei Qian, Jiankun Cui, Meng Cao, Yanqiuhong Li, Yuke Jia, Fugui Fang, Yinghui Ling, Yunsheng Li and Ya Liu
Vet. Sci. 2024, 11(4), 176; https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci11040176 - 15 Apr 2024
Viewed by 980
Abstract
Luteinizing hormone (LH) and follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) play key roles in regulating testosterone secretion and spermatogenesis in male mammals, respectively, and they maintain the fertility of male animals by binding to their corresponding receptors. We designed and prepared a recombinant LH receptor (LHR) [...] Read more.
Luteinizing hormone (LH) and follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) play key roles in regulating testosterone secretion and spermatogenesis in male mammals, respectively, and they maintain the fertility of male animals by binding to their corresponding receptors. We designed and prepared a recombinant LH receptor (LHR) subunit vaccine and a recombinant FSH receptor (FSHR) subunit vaccine and used male Sprague Dawley (SD) rats as a model to examine their effects on testicular development, spermatogenesis, and testosterone secretion in prepubertal and pubertal mammals. Both vaccines (LHR-DTT and FSHR-DTT) significantly decreased the serum testosterone level in prepubertal rats (p < 0.05) but had no effect on the testosterone secretion in pubertal rats; both vaccines decreased the number of cell layers in the seminiferous tubules and reduced spermatogenesis in prepubertal and pubertal rats. Subunit vaccine FSHR-DTT decreased the sperm density in the epididymis in both prepubertal and pubertal rats (p < 0.01) and lowered testicular index and sperm motility in pubertal rats (p < 0.05), whereas LHR-DTT only reduced the sperm density in the epididymis in pubertal rats (p < 0.05). These results indicate that the FSHR subunit vaccine may be a promising approach for immunocastration, but it still needs improvements in effectiveness. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Mechanisms of Reproductive Control in the Animals)
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20 pages, 2653 KiB  
Article
Survey of Animal Neoplastic Cases Diagnosed in Nigerian Veterinary Teaching Hospitals, 2000–2017
by Iniobong Chukwuebuka Ugochukwu, Iasmina Luca, Amienwanlen Eugene Odigie, Emmanuel Okechukwu Njoga, Nuhu Abdulazeez Sani, James Samson Enam, Wafa Rhimi, Sa’idu Tanko Muhammad, Abdussamad Abubakar, Aliyu Mohammed Wakawa, Patricia Otuh, Taiwo Adebiyi, Onyeka Chidiebere Nwufoh, Ikechukwu Udeani, Tosin Oyeleye, Theophilus Aghogho Jarikre, Sheriff Yusuf Idris, Abdulaziz Bada, Zaid Shehu, Ajadi Tola, Chidi Okonkwo, Chioma Frances Egwuogu, Uchechukwu Nnanna Njoku, Ohiemi Benjamin Ocheja, Joel Dzongor, Barka Grema, Najume Dogowar G. Ibrahim, Celestine O. I. Njoku, Anthony Kojo B. Sackey, Benjamin O. Emikpe, Adamu Yunusa, John Ikechukwu Ihedioha, Balarabe Magaji Jahun, Sunday O. Udegbunam and Shodeinde Vincent O. Shoyinkaadd Show full author list remove Hide full author list
Vet. Sci. 2024, 11(4), 175; https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci11040175 - 13 Apr 2024
Viewed by 1712
Abstract
Incidence data from 17-year veterinary neoplasm surveillance and registration were reviewed. Most of the neoplastic cases diagnosed in Nigerian veterinary teaching hospitals (VTHs) were in the avian (49%) and canine species (44%). Fewer cases were recorded in the equine (3.2%), bovine (2.4%), ovine [...] Read more.
Incidence data from 17-year veterinary neoplasm surveillance and registration were reviewed. Most of the neoplastic cases diagnosed in Nigerian veterinary teaching hospitals (VTHs) were in the avian (49%) and canine species (44%). Fewer cases were recorded in the equine (3.2%), bovine (2.4%), ovine (1.5%), caprine (0.3%) and porcine (0.15%) species. Marek’s disease was the most prevalently diagnosed neoplastic disease of domestic animals in Nigerian VTHs from 2000–2017. Also, the Nigerian local breed had a higher mean distribution than any other dog breed and this was statistically significant (p < 0.05). Nearly all of the neoplastic cases diagnosed, were found in females (60.4%) and so the mean distribution of sex was statistically significant (p < 0.05). The digestive system, with 296 (46.25%) cases, was the anatomic location where the majority of the neoplastic cases were found. However, the mean distribution of different neoplastic anatomic sites was not statistically significant (p > 0.05). In conclusion, little emphasis is given to the appropriate diagnosis and recording of neoplastic cases that are diagnosed. The study provides information regarding the prevalence and distribution of tumours in different animal species consulted in Nigeria veterinary teaching hospitals. To illustrate all of this, ArcGIS software was used. Veterinary clinicians, pathologists and epidemiologists from Nigeria may benefit from the results of this study by freely accessing some specific data regarding the breed, the age group or the gender of some animal species diagnosed with different tumours. Full article
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11 pages, 1191 KiB  
Article
Evaluation of Lab-on-a-Disc Technique Performance for Soil-Transmitted Helminth Diagnosis in Animals in Tanzania
by Sarah L. Rubagumya, Jahashi Nzalawahe, Gerald Misinzo, Humphrey D. Mazigo, Matthieu Briet, Vyacheslav R. Misko, Wim De Malsche, Filip Legein, Nyanda C. Justine, Namanya Basinda and Eliakunda Mafie
Vet. Sci. 2024, 11(4), 174; https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci11040174 - 13 Apr 2024
Viewed by 1385
Abstract
Soil-transmitted helminth (STH) infections are caused by roundworms, hookworms, whipworms, and thread worms. Accurate diagnosis is essential for effective treatment, prevention, and control of these infections. This study evaluates a new diagnostic method called Single-image Parasite Quantification (SIMPAQ), which uses a lab-on-a-disc (LoD) [...] Read more.
Soil-transmitted helminth (STH) infections are caused by roundworms, hookworms, whipworms, and thread worms. Accurate diagnosis is essential for effective treatment, prevention, and control of these infections. This study evaluates a new diagnostic method called Single-image Parasite Quantification (SIMPAQ), which uses a lab-on-a-disc (LoD) technique to isolate STH eggs into a single imaging zone for digital analysis. The study evaluates the purification performance of the SIMPAQ technique for detecting STH eggs in animal samples. This was a cross-sectional study conducted among 237 pigs and 281 dogs in the Morogoro region in Tanzania. Faecal samples were collected and processed with the LoD technique, as well as flotation and McMaster (McM) methods for comparison purposes. The overall prevalence of STH infections was high as per the LoD technique (74%), followed by McM (65.44%) and flotation (65.04%). Moreover, the overall performance of the LoD technique, using McM as the gold standard, was 93.51% (sensitivity), 60.89% (specificity), 81.91% (PPV), and 83.21% (NPV). The LoD technique exhibited high prevalence, sensitivity, and NPV, which demonstrates its value for STH egg detection and its crucial role in the era of accurate STH diagnosis, promoting proper management of the infection. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Veterinary Microbiology, Parasitology and Immunology)
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11 pages, 425 KiB  
Article
The Influence of Noise Level on the Stress Response of Hospitalized Cats
by Marisa Girão, George Stilwell, Pedro Azevedo and L. Miguel Carreira
Vet. Sci. 2024, 11(4), 173; https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci11040173 - 12 Apr 2024
Viewed by 912
Abstract
The study aimed to investigate the impact of noise levels in the hospital environment on the stress experienced by hospitalized cats undergoing elective ovariohysterectomy surgery. A total of 33 domestic female cats were included in the study, divided into four groups: a control [...] Read more.
The study aimed to investigate the impact of noise levels in the hospital environment on the stress experienced by hospitalized cats undergoing elective ovariohysterectomy surgery. A total of 33 domestic female cats were included in the study, divided into four groups: a control group (CG) and three experimental groups based on ward noise levels: G1 (Quiet, <60 dB), G2 (Medium, between 60 and 85 dB), and G3 (Noisy, >85 dB). Behavioral assessments, respiratory rate (RR), and plasma cortisol levels ([Cort]p) were measured as indicators of stress. A composite measure of stress, termed the final stress value (FSV), was calculated by summing scores across various behavioral categories. Data collection occurred at three time points: immediately following surgery (T1), and at 2 h (T2) and 3 h (T3) post-surgery. FSV and RR were assessed at all three time points (T1, T2, and T3), while [Cort]p levels were measured at T1 and T3. The study observed that the median values of FSV, RR, and [Cort]p tended to increase with both higher noise levels and longer exposure durations to noise. Significant differences in RR were found between group pairs G1G2 at T1 (|D| = 0.63 < cut-off = 0.98), and G2G3 at T2 (|D| = 0.69 < cut-off = 0.97). Regarding [Cort]p, significant differences were noted between the CGG1 group pair at T0 (p < 0.01), and T3 (p = 0.03). Furthermore, an excellent Spearman correlation coefficient (rho = 0.91) was found between FSV and RR, indicating that RR can serve as an effective tool for assessing stress levels in cats. The findings of this study provide valuable insights into the welfare of cats in a hospital environment and support the scientific validity of existing recommendations aimed at improving their well-being. Specifically, the study underscores the importance of minimizing noise levels in hospitals as a means to reduce stress in cats. This conclusion aligns with existing guidelines and recommendations for enhancing the welfare of hospitalized cats. Full article
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14 pages, 1272 KiB  
Review
Health-Related Outcomes and Molecular Methods for the Characterization of A1 and A2 Cow’s Milk: Review and Update
by Alina Borş, Silviu-Ionuț Borş and Viorel-Cezar Floriștean
Vet. Sci. 2024, 11(4), 172; https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci11040172 - 12 Apr 2024
Viewed by 1734
Abstract
A new trend in cow’s milk has emerged in the market called type A1 and A2 milk. These products have piqued the interest of both consumers and researchers. Recent studies suggest that A2 milk may have potential health benefits beyond that of A1 [...] Read more.
A new trend in cow’s milk has emerged in the market called type A1 and A2 milk. These products have piqued the interest of both consumers and researchers. Recent studies suggest that A2 milk may have potential health benefits beyond that of A1 milk, which is why researchers are investigating this product further. It is interesting to note that the A1 and A2 milk types have area-specific characteristics compared to breed-specific characteristics. Extensive research has focused on milk derivatives obtained from cow’s milk, primarily through in vitro and animal studies. However, few clinical studies have been conducted in humans, and the results have been unsatisfactory. New molecular techniques for identifying A1 and A2 milk may help researchers develop new studies that can clarify certain controversies surrounding A1 milk. It is essential to exercise extreme caution when interpreting the updated literature. It has the potential to spread panic worldwide and have negative economic implications. Therefore, this study aims to investigate the differences between A1 and A2 milk in various research areas and clarify some aspects regarding these two types of milk. Full article
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12 pages, 912 KiB  
Article
Feeding Dairy Goats Dehydrated Orange Pulp Improves Cheese Antioxidant Content
by José Luis Guzmán, Luis Ángel Zarazaga, Antonio Ignacio Martín-García and Manuel Delgado-Pertíñez
Vet. Sci. 2024, 11(4), 171; https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci11040171 - 11 Apr 2024
Viewed by 912
Abstract
Agroindustrial by-products constitute an alternative source of feed livestock, and their use contributes to the sustainability of livestock systems and the circular bioeconomy. The effects of replacing cereal (0%, 40%, and 80%) with dehydrated orange pulp (DOP) in the diet of goats on [...] Read more.
Agroindustrial by-products constitute an alternative source of feed livestock, and their use contributes to the sustainability of livestock systems and the circular bioeconomy. The effects of replacing cereal (0%, 40%, and 80%) with dehydrated orange pulp (DOP) in the diet of goats on the antioxidant and fatty acid (FA) contents of cheeses were evaluated. For a more suitable understanding of the role of coagulant enzymes in establishing the properties of the cheese, the effect of milk-clotting with animal and vegetable rennet was also analysed. The rennet did not substantially affect the FA or the antioxidant compounds, and the use of DOP did not affect the FA contents. However, the α-tocopherol levels, total phenolic compounds (TPC), and total antioxidant capacity (TAC) in cheeses increased as the percentage of DOP replacing cereals increased. Moreover, the high correlation obtained between the TAC and the TPC (r = 0.73) and α-tocopherol (r = 0.62) contents indicated the important role played by these compounds in improving the antioxidant capacity of the cheese. In conclusion, DOP is a suitable alternative to cereals in the diet of goats and improves the antioxidant status of the cheese produced. Full article
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10 pages, 264 KiB  
Article
Biofilm Formation and Antimicrobial Resistance of Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus uberis Isolates from Bovine Mastitis
by Carlos E. Fidelis, Alessandra M. Orsi, Gustavo Freu, Juliano L. Gonçalves and Marcos V. dos Santos
Vet. Sci. 2024, 11(4), 170; https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci11040170 - 10 Apr 2024
Viewed by 1028
Abstract
This study aimed to assess (a) the biofilm producer ability and antimicrobial resistance profiles of Staphylococcus (Staph.) aureus and Streptococcus (Strep.) uberis isolated from cows with clinical mastitis (CM) and subclinical mastitis (SCM), and (b) the association between biofilm [...] Read more.
This study aimed to assess (a) the biofilm producer ability and antimicrobial resistance profiles of Staphylococcus (Staph.) aureus and Streptococcus (Strep.) uberis isolated from cows with clinical mastitis (CM) and subclinical mastitis (SCM), and (b) the association between biofilm producer ability and antimicrobial resistance. We isolated a total of 197 Staph. aureus strains (SCM = 111, CM = 86) and 119 Strep. uberis strains (SCM = 15, CM = 104) from milk samples obtained from 316 cows distributed in 24 dairy herds. Biofilm-forming ability was assessed using the microplate method, while antimicrobial susceptibility was determined using the disk diffusion method against 13 antimicrobials. Among the isolates examined, 57.3% of Staph. aureus and 53.8% of Strep. uberis exhibited the ability to produce biofilm, which was categorized as strong, moderate, or weak. In terms of antimicrobial susceptibility, Staph. aureus isolates displayed resistance to penicillin (92.9%), ampicillin (50.8%), and tetracycline (52.7%). Conversely, Strep. uberis isolates exhibited resistance to penicillin (80.6%), oxacillin (80.6%), and tetracycline (37.8%). However, no significant correlation was found between antimicrobial resistance patterns and biofilm formation ability among the isolates. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Spotlight on Mastitis of Dairy Cows)
13 pages, 959 KiB  
Review
Canine Prostate Cancer: Current Treatments and the Role of Interventional Oncology
by Erin A. Gibson and William T. N. Culp
Vet. Sci. 2024, 11(4), 169; https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci11040169 - 9 Apr 2024
Viewed by 1781
Abstract
Prostate carcinoma is one of the most common cancers worldwide in men, with over 3 million men currently living with prostate carcinoma. In men, routine screening and successful treatment schemes, including radiation, prostatectomy, or hormone therapy, have allowed for high survivability. Dogs are [...] Read more.
Prostate carcinoma is one of the most common cancers worldwide in men, with over 3 million men currently living with prostate carcinoma. In men, routine screening and successful treatment schemes, including radiation, prostatectomy, or hormone therapy, have allowed for high survivability. Dogs are recognized as one of the only mammals to spontaneously develop prostate neoplasia and are an important translational model. Within veterinary medicine, treatment options have historically been limited in efficacy or paired with high morbidity. Recently, less invasive treatment modalities have been investigated in dogs and people and demonstrated promise. Below, current treatment options available in dogs and people are reviewed, as well as a discussion of current and future trends within interventional treatment for canine PC. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Spotlight on Interventional Radiology in Small Animals)
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14 pages, 2469 KiB  
Article
Correlation between 146S Antigen Content in Foot-and-Mouth Disease Inactivated Vaccines and Immunogenicity Level and Vaccine Potency Alternative Test Methods
by Yongxia Li, Ruai Yang, Fu Yin, Haisheng Zhang, Guoyuan Zhai, Shiqi Sun, Bo Tian and Qiaoying Zeng
Vet. Sci. 2024, 11(4), 168; https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci11040168 - 8 Apr 2024
Viewed by 1080
Abstract
To investigate the association between 146S antigen contents in FMD inactivated vaccines and levels of antiviral immunity, this study vaccinated 30 kg pigs with three batches of FMD types O and A bivalent inactivated vaccines. Antibody titers and interferon-gamma (IFN-γ) secretion levels were [...] Read more.
To investigate the association between 146S antigen contents in FMD inactivated vaccines and levels of antiviral immunity, this study vaccinated 30 kg pigs with three batches of FMD types O and A bivalent inactivated vaccines. Antibody titers and interferon-gamma (IFN-γ) secretion levels were measured on days 7, 14, 21, and 28 after primary immunization and on days 14 and 28 following booster immunization to assess associations between 146S contents and both antibody titers and IFN-γ secretion levels. Furthermore, 30 kg pigs were vaccinated with 46 batches of FMD type O inactivated vaccines and challenged on day 28, after which PD50 values were determined to evaluate the association between 146S content and PD50. The findings suggested that antibody titers and IFN-γ secretion levels at specific time points after immunization were positively associated with 146S contents. Additionally, 146S content showed a positive correlation with PD50, with greater PD50 values recorded for 146S contents ranging from 4.72 to 16.55 µg/dose. This investigation established a significant association between the 146S content in FMD inactivated vaccines and induced immune response against FMDV, thereby emphasizing its critical role in vaccine quality control. The determination of 146S content could serve as a new method for potency testing, offering an alternative to animal challenge tests. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Veterinary Microbiology, Parasitology and Immunology)
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14 pages, 5460 KiB  
Article
Impact of Equine Ocular Surface Squamous Neoplasia on Interactions between Ocular Transcriptome and Microbiome
by Lyndah Chow, Edward Flaherty, Lynn Pezzanite, Maggie Williams, Steven Dow and Kathryn Wotman
Vet. Sci. 2024, 11(4), 167; https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci11040167 - 7 Apr 2024
Viewed by 1083
Abstract
Ocular surface squamous neoplasia (OSSN) represents the most common conjunctival tumor in horses and frequently results in vision loss and surgical removal of the affected globe. Multiple etiologic factors have been identified as contributing to OSSN progression, including solar radiation exposure, genetic mutations, [...] Read more.
Ocular surface squamous neoplasia (OSSN) represents the most common conjunctival tumor in horses and frequently results in vision loss and surgical removal of the affected globe. Multiple etiologic factors have been identified as contributing to OSSN progression, including solar radiation exposure, genetic mutations, and a lack of periocular pigmentation. Response to conventional treatments has been highly variable, though our recent work indicates that these tumors are highly responsive to local immunotherapy. In the present study, we extended our investigation of OSSN in horses to better understand how the ocular transcriptome responds to the presence of the tumor and how the ocular surface microbiome may also be altered by the presence of cancer. Therefore, we collected swabs from the ventral conjunctival fornix from 22 eyes in this study (11 with cytologically or histologically confirmed OSSN and 11 healthy eyes from the same horses) and performed RNA sequencing and 16S microbial sequencing using the same samples. Microbial 16s DNA sequencing and bulk RNA sequencing were both conducted using an Illumina-based platform. In eyes with OSSN, we observed significantly upregulated expression of genes and pathways associated with inflammation, particularly interferon. Microbial diversity was significantly reduced in conjunctival swabs from horses with OSSN. We also performed interactome analysis and found that three bacterial taxa (Actinobacillus, Helcococcus and Parvimona) had significant correlations with more than 100 upregulated genes in samples from animals with OSSN. These findings highlight the inflammatory nature of OSSN in horses and provide important new insights into how the host ocular surface interacts with certain microbial populations. These findings suggest new strategies for the management of OSSN in horses, which may entail immunotherapy in combination with ocular surface probiotics or prebiotics to help normalize ocular cell and microbe interactions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Spotlight on Ophthalmologic Pathology in Animals)
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16 pages, 3860 KiB  
Article
Different Immune Control of Gram-Positive and Gram-Negative Mammary Infections in Dairy Cows
by Giulio Curone, Joel Filipe, Alessia Inglesi, Valerio Bronzo, Claudia Pollera, Stefano Comazzi, Susanna Draghi, Renata Piccinini, Gianluca Ferlazzo, Alda Quattrone, Daniele Vigo, Massimo Amadori and Federica Riva
Vet. Sci. 2024, 11(4), 166; https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci11040166 - 6 Apr 2024
Viewed by 1207
Abstract
In the dairy industry, bovine mastitis represents a major concern due to substantial production losses and costs related to therapies and early culling. The mechanisms of susceptibility and effective response to intra-mammary infections are still poorly understood. Therefore, we investigated innate immunity in [...] Read more.
In the dairy industry, bovine mastitis represents a major concern due to substantial production losses and costs related to therapies and early culling. The mechanisms of susceptibility and effective response to intra-mammary infections are still poorly understood. Therefore, we investigated innate immunity in acellular bovine skim milk through cytofluorimetric analyses of bacterial killing activity against both Gram-positive and Gram-negative pathogens. Freshly cultured E. coli and S. aureus strains were incubated with colostrum and milk samples at different lactation time points from two groups of cows, purportedly representing mastitis-resistant and mastitis-susceptible breeds; bacterial cells were analyzed for vitality by flow cytometry following incorporation of vital dyes. N-acetyl-β-D-glucosaminidase (NAGase) activity was also investigated in milk and colostrum samples. Our findings revealed that colostrum and milk bacterial killing activity was greater against S. aureus compared to E. coli., with this activity correlated with milk NAGase levels. Furthermore, both killing of S. aureus and NAGase activity were negatively correlated to the elapsed time of lactation. Interestingly, samples from the allegedly mastitis-resistant breed displayed higher bacterial killing and NAGase activities. Our study suggests that diverse control mechanisms are exerted against Gram-positive and Gram-negative pathogens in the mammary glands of cows, probably beyond those already described in the literature. Full article
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10 pages, 244 KiB  
Article
Synergistic Effect between Eugenol and 1,8-Cineole on Anesthesia in Guppy Fish (Poecilia reticulata)
by Saransiri Nuanmanee, Preeyanan Sriwanayos, Khemmapat Boonyo, Wasana Chaisri, Banthita Saengsitthisak, Preechaya Tajai and Surachai Pikulkaew
Vet. Sci. 2024, 11(4), 165; https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci11040165 - 6 Apr 2024
Viewed by 1330
Abstract
This study aimed to evaluate the synergistic effect between eugenol and 1,8-cineole on anesthesia in female guppy fish (Poecilia reticulata). Experiment I evaluated the concentrations of 0, 12.5, 25, 50, and 75 mg/L of eugenol and 0, 100, 200, 300, and [...] Read more.
This study aimed to evaluate the synergistic effect between eugenol and 1,8-cineole on anesthesia in female guppy fish (Poecilia reticulata). Experiment I evaluated the concentrations of 0, 12.5, 25, 50, and 75 mg/L of eugenol and 0, 100, 200, 300, and 400 mg/L of 1,8-cineole for times of induction and recovery from anesthesia. Experiment II divided fish into 16 study groups, combining eugenol and 1,8-cineole in pairs at varying concentrations, based on the dosage of the chemicals in experiment I. The results of the anesthesia showed that eugenol induced fish anesthesia at concentrations of 50 and 70 mg/L, with durations of 256.5 and 171.5 s, respectively. In contrast, 1,8-cineole did not induce fish anesthesia. In combination, using eugenol at 12.5 mg/L along with 1,8-cineole at 400 mg/L resulted in fish anesthesia at a time of 224.5 s. Increasing the eugenol concentration to 25 mg/L, combined with 1,8-cineole at 300 and 400 mg/L, induced fish anesthesia at times of 259.0 and 230.5 s, respectively. For treatments with eugenol at 50 mg/L combined with 1,8-cineole at 100 to 400 mg/L, fish exhibited anesthesia at times of 189.5, 181.5, 166.0, and 157.5 s. In the case of eugenol at 75 mg/L, fish showed anesthesia at times of 175.5, 156.5, 140.5, and 121.5 s, respectively. The testing results revealed that 1,8-cineole as a single treatment could not induce fish anesthesia. However, when supplementing 1,8-cineole in formulations containing eugenol, fish exhibited a significantly faster induction of anesthesia (p < 0.05). Furthermore, all fish that underwent anesthesia were able to fully recover without any mortality. However, the shorter anesthesia duration resulted in a significantly prolonged recovery time. In conclusion, eugenol and 1,8-cineole work better together as anesthetics than when used separately, and demonstrated the safety of using these anesthetic agents on guppy fish. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Anesthesia and Analgesia of Aquatic Animals)
9 pages, 231 KiB  
Brief Report
Duration of Immunity in Cattle to Lumpy Skin Disease Utilizing a Sheep Pox Vaccine
by Varduhi Hakobyan, Khachik Sargsyan, Hasmik Elbakyan, Vazgen Sargsyan, Tigran Markosyan, Gayane Chobanyan, Manvel Badalyan and Satenik Kharatyan
Vet. Sci. 2024, 11(4), 164; https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci11040164 - 5 Apr 2024
Viewed by 1240
Abstract
The transmission of lumpy skin disease (LSD) occurs through ticks, mosquitoes, and flies. The most effective way to combat LSD is to conduct large-scale vaccination, covering the entire cattle population with safe and effective vaccines, while introducing restrictions on the movement of livestock. [...] Read more.
The transmission of lumpy skin disease (LSD) occurs through ticks, mosquitoes, and flies. The most effective way to combat LSD is to conduct large-scale vaccination, covering the entire cattle population with safe and effective vaccines, while introducing restrictions on the movement of livestock. The first and only LSD cases that occurred in Armenia happened in 2015,and they were controlled with the use of a once yearly heterologous sheep pox vaccine for cattle in high-risk areas. We have previously reported on the safety and immunogenicity of this vaccine in cattle, but information on the duration of immunity is lacking. Our aim was to determine the duration of immunity to the LSD virus (LSDV) in cattle when utilizing a heterologous sheep pox vaccine. We have evaluated antibodies in cattle blood prior to and post-vaccination (1, 6, and 11 months). We have utilized an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay to follow the development and waning of LSDV antibodies in vaccinated cattle in two age groups: 1) young unvaccinated cattle ≤12 months of age and 2) adult cattle that had previously been vaccinated. Our results were consistent with our previous study in Armenia, showing a high level of population immunity, 80.0–83.3%, in both age groups at 1 month, with a significant (p = 0.001) drop for young cattle at 6 months. Previously vaccinated adult cattle showed a longer duration of immunity at 11 months for this heterologous sheep pox vaccine. Based on these data, we advise that young cattle receive an additional booster vaccination 4–6 months after their first vaccination, and then yearly vaccinations in high-risk areas. Full article
10 pages, 1069 KiB  
Brief Report
Use of Ozone in Veterinary Dentistry as an Alternative to Conventional Antibiotics and Antiseptics
by Pierre Melanie, Carlotta Niola, Ilaria Plataroti, Simone Mancini and Filippo Fratini
Vet. Sci. 2024, 11(4), 163; https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci11040163 - 3 Apr 2024
Viewed by 1144
Abstract
This paper aims to assess the disinfecting capacity of a double-distilled ozonated water solution as an alternative to common antibiotic and antiseptic devices. Seventy-five dogs were subjected to the surgical procedures of scaling and dental extraction and included in three study groups: Group [...] Read more.
This paper aims to assess the disinfecting capacity of a double-distilled ozonated water solution as an alternative to common antibiotic and antiseptic devices. Seventy-five dogs were subjected to the surgical procedures of scaling and dental extraction and included in three study groups: Group 1 subjected to antibiotic pre-treatment (association amoxicillin + clavulanic acid and ampicillin + metronidazole) and disinfection with chlorhexidine, and Group 2 and 3 devoid of preventive anti-microbial treatment in which disinfection was performed, respectively, with ozonated water and chlorhexidine. Sampling by bacteriological buffer was carried out to evaluate the bacterial count in the oral cavity. The analysis of the samples determined the total mesophilic bacterial count by seeding on the culture medium via the inclusion of PCA (Plate Count Agar). The results highlighted the anti-bacterial efficacy of intra-operative ozone as an alternative to pre-surgical antibiotic treatment. Full article
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17 pages, 3370 KiB  
Article
Ectoparasites Infestation to Small Ruminants and Practical Attitudes among Farmers toward Acaricides Treatment in Central Region of Java, Indonesia
by Titis Insyari’ati, Penny Humaidah Hamid, Endang Tri Rahayu, Diah Lutfiah Sugar, Nadya Nurvita Rahma, Shelly Kusumarini, Heri Kurnianto and April Hari Wardhana
Vet. Sci. 2024, 11(4), 162; https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci11040162 - 3 Apr 2024
Viewed by 1235
Abstract
Ectoparasite infestations are one of the major problems affecting goat and sheep farming. Disease resulting from these infestations can cause changes in physical appearance, such as severe lesions on the skin, and economic consequences in the form of significantly reduced selling prices. This [...] Read more.
Ectoparasite infestations are one of the major problems affecting goat and sheep farming. Disease resulting from these infestations can cause changes in physical appearance, such as severe lesions on the skin, and economic consequences in the form of significantly reduced selling prices. This study aimed to determine the prevalence of ectoparasites in the Boyolali district, Central Java, Indonesia. A total of 651 sheep and goats were surveyed in this study. The parasites were collected via skin scraping, twister, or manually from clinically infected goats and sheep in traditional farms. All of the ectoparasites collected were successfully identified. The prevalence of ectoparasites in ruminants in Boyolali was 97.8% (637/651). The species make-up was as follows: Bovicola caprae 97.8% (637/651), Linognathus africanus 39% (254/651), Haemaphysalis bispinosa 3.5% (23/651), Ctenocephalides spp. 0.2% (1/651), and Sarcoptes scabiei 5.2% (34/651). The predilection sites were in the face, ear, and leg areas, and in the axillary, dorsal, abdomen, and scrotum regions of the surveyed animals. An evaluation of farmers’ attitudes to ectoparasites was performed using a questionnaire. The findings of this study imply that animals in the investigated area are highly exposed to ectoparasite infestations. Given the importance of ectoparasites in both livestock and human communities, specifically in the health domain, more research into appropriate control strategies is necessary. Full article
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15 pages, 1678 KiB  
Article
A Comparative Study of the Chemical Properties and Antibacterial Activity of Four Different Ozonated Oils for Veterinary Purposes
by Gabrielė Slavinskienė, Aidas Grigonis, Marija Ivaškienė, Ingrida Sinkevičienė, Vaida Andrulevičiūtė, Liudas Ivanauskas, Dalia Juodžentė, Kristina Ramanauskienė and Gintaras Daunoras
Vet. Sci. 2024, 11(4), 161; https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci11040161 - 1 Apr 2024
Viewed by 1157
Abstract
Infectious skin diseases are quite common in veterinary medicine. These diseases can be caused by both bacteria and pathogenic fungi. Antimicrobial drugs are usually used for treatment. An alternative to these drugs could be ozonated oils with antibacterial and antifungal properties. Four different [...] Read more.
Infectious skin diseases are quite common in veterinary medicine. These diseases can be caused by both bacteria and pathogenic fungi. Antimicrobial drugs are usually used for treatment. An alternative to these drugs could be ozonated oils with antibacterial and antifungal properties. Four different ozonated oils (linseed, hemp seed, sunflower, and olive) were tested in order to develop an optimal pharmaceutical form for the treatment of skin infections in animals. Chemical parameters such as acid and acidity value, iodine and peroxide value, viscosity, and infrared spectres were analysed. The ozonation of oils resulted in changes in their chemical composition. The antimicrobial activity of the tested oils was evaluated by determining the minimum inhibitory concentrations and zones of inhibition in agar. After ozonation, the acid content increased in all the tested oils. The highest acidity was found in linseed oil (13.00 ± 0.11 mg KOH/g; 6.1%). Hemp oil, whose acidity was also significant (second only to linseed oil), was the least acidified by ozonation (11.45 ± 0.09 mg KOH/g; 5.75%). After ozonation, the iodine value in oils was significantly reduced (45–93%), and the highest amounts of iodine value remained in linseed (47.50 ± 11.94 g Iodine/100 g oil) and hemp (44.77 ± 1.41 Iodine/100 g oil) oils. The highest number of peroxides after the ozonation of oils was found in sunflower oil (382 ± 9.8 meqO2/kg). It was found that ozonated hemp and linseed oils do not solidify and remain in liquid form when the temperature drops. The results showed a tendency for the reference strains of S. aureus, E. faecalis, and E. coli to have broader zones of inhibition (p < 0.001) than clinical strains. Overall, ozonated linseed oil had the highest antibacterial activity, and ozonated olive oil had the lowest, as determined by both methods. It was found that ozonated linseed oil was the most effective on bacteria, while the most sensitive were S. aureus ATCC 25923, MRSA, and S. pseudointermedius (MIC 13.5 mg/mL, 4.6 mg/mL, and 13.5 mg/mL, respectively, and sterile zones 20.67 ± 0.98 mm, 20.25 ± 0.45 mm, and 18.25 ± 0.45 mm, respectively). The aim and new aspect of this work is the characterisation of selected ozonated vegetable oils, especially hemp oil, according to chemical and antibacterial parameters, in order to select suitable candidates for preclinical and clinical animal studies in the treatment of bacterial or fungal skin infections in terms of safety and efficacy. Full article
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13 pages, 964 KiB  
Article
Effects of Clostridium butyricum on Production Performance and Bone Development of Laying Hens
by Jiaqi Huang, Lulu Cui, Hai Lin, Mengze Song and Shuhong Sun
Vet. Sci. 2024, 11(4), 160; https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci11040160 - 1 Apr 2024
Viewed by 943
Abstract
Probiotics are safe, inexpensive, and effective feed additives, and Clostridium butyricum (CB) has been reported to regulate bone health in addition to having conventional probiotic effects. The bone health of laying hens is closely related to their production performance. Here, we investigated the [...] Read more.
Probiotics are safe, inexpensive, and effective feed additives, and Clostridium butyricum (CB) has been reported to regulate bone health in addition to having conventional probiotic effects. The bone health of laying hens is closely related to their production performance. Here, we investigated the effects of CB supplementation on the bone health and performance of laying hens. We added CB to the feed of green-shell laying hens, Luhua laying hens, and Hy-line Brown laying hens and examined changes in body weight, feed intake, egg production performance, and egg quality to determine the impact of CB on production performance. The impact of CB on the bones of laying hens was determined by analyzing the bone index, bone bending strength, bone calcium and phosphorus content, and bone mineral density. The study found that CB had little effect on the body weight and feed intake of laying hens. Feed additions of 108 and 109 CFU/kg CB can significantly increase the tibia index and bone mineral density of four-week-old green-shell laying hens. Feed additions of 107 and 108 CFU/kg CB can significantly increase the average egg weight, eggshell weight, and tibia index of 26-week-old Luhua laying hens, but 107 CFU/kg CB will reduce the egg production rate. Adding 108 CFU/kg CB to feed can significantly increase the average egg weight, eggshell weight, and tibia bending strength of 40-week-old Hy-line Brown laying hens. In summary, adding 108 CFU/kg CB is beneficial to the bone and production health of laying hens. Full article
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11 pages, 3787 KiB  
Case Report
True Diaphragmatic Hernia (Morgagni Hernia) Incidentally Diagnosed with Positive Contrast Peritoneography in a Cat: A Rare Case Report and a Review
by Jack-Yves Deschamps, Théo Corbarieu, Nour Abboud and Françoise A. Roux
Vet. Sci. 2024, 11(4), 159; https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci11040159 - 1 Apr 2024
Viewed by 1421
Abstract
An 18-month-old neutered male domestic shorthair cat was presented for an emergency consultation after falling from the second floor. The cat sustained minor traumatic injuries but did not exhibit dyspnea. Routine radiographic examination raised suspicion of a diaphragmatic hernia, but the circumscribed nature [...] Read more.
An 18-month-old neutered male domestic shorthair cat was presented for an emergency consultation after falling from the second floor. The cat sustained minor traumatic injuries but did not exhibit dyspnea. Routine radiographic examination raised suspicion of a diaphragmatic hernia, but the circumscribed nature of the soft tissues visible in the thorax was atypical for a classic traumatic diaphragmatic hernia. A positive contrast peritoneography highlighted the likely presence of a hernial sac, which strongly suggested a “true diaphragmatic hernia”, also known as “pleuroperitoneal hernia”. This diagnosis was confirmed during laparotomy, which allowed for the visualization of a 3 cm radial diaphragmatic defect in the right ventral quadrant of the pars sternalis. The diaphragm’s edges were rounded. A portion of the falciform ligament and a part of the omentum were protruding through the defect and were contained within a hernial sac. Herniorrhaphy was performed. The cat recovered without complications. Given its presentation and location, ventrally and to the right, this anomaly is analogous to what is described in humans as “Morgagni hernia”. Six other cases of Morgagni hernias have probably been reported in cats but were not identified as such. This case underscores the utility of peritoneography, a straightforward technique useful for diagnosing diaphragmatic hernias, which enables differentiation between acquired traumatic forms and congenital forms, particularly peritoneopericardial hernias and pleuroperitoneal hernias. True diaphragmatic hernias are almost always serendipitous discoveries. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Veterinary Surgery)
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19 pages, 1470 KiB  
Article
Effects of Neuromuscular Electrical Stimulation and Therapeutic Ultrasound on Quadriceps Contracture of Immobilized Rats
by Kanokwan Suwankanit and Miki Shimizu
Vet. Sci. 2024, 11(4), 158; https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci11040158 - 1 Apr 2024
Viewed by 1223
Abstract
Quadriceps contracture is a condition where the muscle–tendon unit is abnormally shortened. The treatment prognosis is guarded to poor depending on the progress of the disease. To improve the prognosis, we investigated the effectiveness of therapeutic ultrasound and NMES in treating quadriceps contracture [...] Read more.
Quadriceps contracture is a condition where the muscle–tendon unit is abnormally shortened. The treatment prognosis is guarded to poor depending on the progress of the disease. To improve the prognosis, we investigated the effectiveness of therapeutic ultrasound and NMES in treating quadriceps contracture in an immobilized rat model. Thirty-six Wistar rats were randomized into control, immobilization alone, immobilization and spontaneous recovery, immobilization and therapeutic ultrasound, immobilization and NMES, and immobilization and therapeutic ultrasound and NMES combination groups. The continuous therapeutic ultrasound (frequency, 3 MHz, intensity 1 W/cm2) and NMES (TENS mode, frequency 50 Hz; intensity 5.0 ± 0.8 mA) were performed on the quadriceps muscle. On Day 15, immobilization-induced quadriceps contracture resulted in a decreased ROM of the stifle joint, reduction in the sarcomere length, muscle atrophy, and muscle fibrosis. On Day 43, therapeutic ultrasound, NMES, and combining both methods improved muscle atrophy and shortening and decreased collagen type I and III and α-SMA protein. The combination of therapeutic ultrasound and NMES significantly reduced the mRNA expression of IL-1β, TGF-β1, and HIF-1α and increased TGF-β3. Therefore, the combination of therapeutic ultrasound and NMES is the most potent rehabilitation program for treating quadriceps contracture. Full article
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14 pages, 1763 KiB  
Article
Immunomodulatory Role of Rosmarinus officinalis L., Mentha x piperita L., and Lavandula angustifolia L. Essential Oils in Sheep Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells
by Maria Giovanna Ciliberti, Marzia Albenzio, Agostino Sevi, Laura Frabboni, Rosaria Marino and Mariangela Caroprese
Vet. Sci. 2024, 11(4), 157; https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci11040157 - 1 Apr 2024
Viewed by 1074
Abstract
Recently, the uses of essential oils (EOs) as rumen modifiers, anti-inflammatory agents, and antioxidants were demonstrated in livestock. In the present study, the role of Mentha x piperita L. (MEO), Rosmarinus officinalis L. (REO), and Lavandula angustifolia L. (LEO) EOs in an in [...] Read more.
Recently, the uses of essential oils (EOs) as rumen modifiers, anti-inflammatory agents, and antioxidants were demonstrated in livestock. In the present study, the role of Mentha x piperita L. (MEO), Rosmarinus officinalis L. (REO), and Lavandula angustifolia L. (LEO) EOs in an in vitro sheep model of inflammation was investigated. With this aim, peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) were treated with incremental concentrations (3, 5, 7, and 10%) of each EO to test their effects on cell viability and proliferation and on interleukin (IL)-6, IL-10, and IL-8 secretion. The PBMCs were stimulated by Concanavalin A (ConA) alone or in combination with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) mitogen. The positive and negative controls were represented by PBMCs in the presence or absence, respectively, of mitogens only. The cell viability and proliferation were determined by XTT and BrdU assays, while the cytokines were analyzed by ELISA. The EO treatments did not affect the viability; on the contrary, the PBMC proliferation increased in presence of all the EOs tested, according to the different percentages and mitogens used. The IL-10 secretion was higher in both the REO and the LEO tested at 3% than in the positive control; furthermore, the IL-8 level was influenced differently by the various EOs. The present data demonstrate that EOs may modulate the immune response activated by inflammation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Veterinary Microbiology, Parasitology and Immunology)
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13 pages, 3167 KiB  
Article
The Alleviating Effect of Taxifolin on Deoxynivalenol-Induced Damage in Porcine Intestinal Epithelial Cells
by Min Zhu, Yongxia Fang, Yujie Cheng, E Xu, Yiyu Zhang and Zhenya Zhai
Vet. Sci. 2024, 11(4), 156; https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci11040156 - 30 Mar 2024
Viewed by 1043
Abstract
Deoxynivalenol (DON) contamination in feed is a global concern that severely threatens the health of animals and humans. Taxifolin (TA) is a natural flavonoid, a member of the polyphenols, that possesses robust antioxidant properties. This study aimed to investigate the effect of TA [...] Read more.
Deoxynivalenol (DON) contamination in feed is a global concern that severely threatens the health of animals and humans. Taxifolin (TA) is a natural flavonoid, a member of the polyphenols, that possesses robust antioxidant properties. This study aimed to investigate the effect of TA on DON-induced damage in porcine intestinal epithelial cells (IPEC-J2). The cells were pre-incubated with a series of concentrations of TA for 24 h and exposed to DON (0.5 μg/mL) for another 24 h. The results showed that pretreatment with TA (150 μM) significantly inhibited the DON-induced decline in cell viability (p < 0.05) and cell proliferation (p < 0.01). Additionally, 150 μM TA also alleviated DON-induced apoptosis (p < 0.01). Moreover, TA decreased the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) induced by DON (p < 0.01). In addition, TA attenuated DON-induced cell junction damage (p < 0.05). Further experiments showed that TA reversed the DON-induced reduction in antioxidant capacity in the IPEC-J2 cells, probably via activating the Nrf2 signaling pathway (p < 0.05). Collectively, these findings suggest that 150 μM TA can protect against 0.5 μg/mL DON-induced damage to IPEC-J2 cells, potentially via the activation of the Nrf2 signaling pathway. This study provides insight into TA’s potential to act as a green feed additive in the pig farming industry and its efficacy in counteracting DON-induced intestinal damage. Full article
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11 pages, 1302 KiB  
Article
Effects of Beraprost with or without NOS Inhibition on Plasma Aldosterone and Hemodynamics in Healthy Cats
by Takumi Matsuura, Aritada Yoshimura and Ryuji Fukushima
Vet. Sci. 2024, 11(4), 155; https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci11040155 - 30 Mar 2024
Viewed by 1432
Abstract
Objectives: The aim of the study was to evaluate the hemodynamic and RA system effects of the oral administration of the clinical dose of beraprost for feline CKD in healthy cats, and also to examine whether NOS inhibition reversed them. Methods: A placebo-controlled [...] Read more.
Objectives: The aim of the study was to evaluate the hemodynamic and RA system effects of the oral administration of the clinical dose of beraprost for feline CKD in healthy cats, and also to examine whether NOS inhibition reversed them. Methods: A placebo-controlled pharmacological sequential design study was carried out to assess the plasma aldosterone and renin concentrations (PAC and PRC), blood pressure, heart rate, and exploratorily to estimate renal plasma flow (RPF) and renal vascular resistance (RVR) with simplified methods. Results: Beraprost reduced PAC when compared to the placebo (p < 0.05); this was reversed when NOS inhibitor NG-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME) was added to the beraprost treatment (p < 0.01). No differences in the PRC or hemodynamic parameters were detected between beraprost and the placebo. The correlation ratios (η2) showed opposite relationships between beraprost and the added L-NAME effects on PAC, mean blood pressure (MBP), heart rate, estimated RPF (p < 0.001), estimated RVR (p < 0.01), and PRC (p < 0.05). Conclusions: In healthy cats, the clinical dose of beraprost suppresses PAC, which can be reversed by the inhibition of NOS. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Pharmacokinetics and Pharmacodynamics in Animal Clinical Treatment)
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12 pages, 3477 KiB  
Article
Genistein Alleviates Intestinal Oxidative Stress by Activating the Nrf2 Signaling Pathway in IPEC-J2 Cells
by Yanpin Li, Long Cai, Qingyue Bi, Wenjuan Sun, Yu Pi, Xianren Jiang and Xilong Li
Vet. Sci. 2024, 11(4), 154; https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci11040154 - 29 Mar 2024
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1280
Abstract
In the weaning period, piglets often face oxidative stress, which will cause increased diarrhea and mortality. Genistein, a flavonoid, which is extracted from leguminous plants, possesses anti-inflammatory and antioxidative bioactivities. However, little is known about whether genistein could attenuate the oxidative stress that [...] Read more.
In the weaning period, piglets often face oxidative stress, which will cause increased diarrhea and mortality. Genistein, a flavonoid, which is extracted from leguminous plants, possesses anti-inflammatory and antioxidative bioactivities. However, little is known about whether genistein could attenuate the oxidative stress that occurs in porcine intestinal epithelial cells (IPEC-J2). Herein, this experiment was carried out to investigate the protective effects of genistein in the IPEC-J2 cells oxidative stress model. Our results disclosed that H2O2 stimulation brought about a significant diminution in catalase (CAT) activity and cell viability, as well as an increase in the levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in IPEC-J2 cells (p < 0.05), whereas pretreating cells with genistein before H2O2 exposure helped to alleviate the reduction in CAT activity and cell viability (p < 0.05) and the raise in the levels of ROS (p = 0.061) caused by H2O2. Furthermore, H2O2 stimulation of IPEC-J2 cells remarkably suppressed gene level Nrf2 and CAT expression, in addition to protein level Nrf2 expression, but pretreating cells with genistein reversed this change (p < 0.05). Moreover, genistein pretreatment prevented the downregulation of occludin expression at the gene and protein level, and ZO-1 expression at gene level (p < 0.05). In summary, our findings indicate that genistein possesses an antioxidant capacity in IPEC-J2 cells which is effective against oxidative stress; the potential mechanism may involve the Nrf2 signaling pathway. Our findings could offer a novel nutritional intervention strategy to enhance the intestinal health of piglets during the weaning process. Full article
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