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Beverages, Volume 7, Issue 2 (June 2021) – 27 articles

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Article
A Preliminary Investigation of the Effect of Ethical Labeling and Moral Self-Image on the Expected and Perceived Flavor and Aroma of Beer
Beverages 2021, 7(2), 42; https://doi.org/10.3390/beverages7020042 - 18 Jun 2021
Viewed by 158
Abstract
Ethical labelling has been shown to influence taste/flavour perception. Across two experiments, the present study examined how ethical labelling and moral self-image influenced both the expected (Experiment One) and perceived (Experiment Two) taste/flavour characteristics of beer. In Experiment One, 170 participants read either [...] Read more.
Ethical labelling has been shown to influence taste/flavour perception. Across two experiments, the present study examined how ethical labelling and moral self-image influenced both the expected (Experiment One) and perceived (Experiment Two) taste/flavour characteristics of beer. In Experiment One, 170 participants read either a ‘moral’ or ‘control’ label describing a brewery, after which they were presented with an image of a beer. Participants then completed a Beer Taste Perception Questionnaire and the Moral Self-Image Scale. In Experiment Two, 59 participants were exposed to either the moral or control label before tasting a beer and completing the same questionnaires from Experiment One. The results of Experiment One indicated that label type moderated the relationship between moral self-image and the intensity ratings of the beer. Specifically, in the presence of a control label, the expected intensity of the beer’s flavour increased as moral self-image increased. Experiment Two found no evidence that the moral label influenced the perceived taste of the beer. However, the results showed that as moral self-image became more positive the perceived refreshingness of the beer increased. This study provides novel evidence of the potential relationship between an individual’s moral self-image and the expected and perceived taste/flavour characteristics of beer. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Beer Quality and Flavour)
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Article
Optimization and Application of the Wine Neophobia Scale
Beverages 2021, 7(2), 41; https://doi.org/10.3390/beverages7020041 - 17 Jun 2021
Viewed by 247
Abstract
Wine consumers’ willingness (wine neophilia) or reluctance (wine neophobia) to try new wines represent, respectively, an opportunity or barrier for product innovation and market development in the wine industry. Here, we first sought to validate and optimize the Wine Neophobia Scale (WNS) in [...] Read more.
Wine consumers’ willingness (wine neophilia) or reluctance (wine neophobia) to try new wines represent, respectively, an opportunity or barrier for product innovation and market development in the wine industry. Here, we first sought to validate and optimize the Wine Neophobia Scale (WNS) in a large sample of 1269 Canadian wine consumers. Both exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses showed that a seven-item scale was optimal. This modified WNS (mWNS) was then used to investigate demographic and behavioral correlates of wine neophobia. Using lower and upper quartile values, 316 neophiles and 326 neophobes were identified. Wine neophiles and neophobes did not differ with respect to gender or age; however, neophobes had lower household income, education, and wine involvement, and reported consuming fewer wine styles than neophiles. Interestingly, while neophiles drank wine considerably more frequently than neophobes—a finding that is mediated by wine involvement—total annual wine intake did not differ between the groups. Importantly, the price typically paid per bottle of wine also varied with wine neophobia. We recommend adoption of the modified mWNS as a useful tool for more fully understanding the drivers of wine behavior and providing guidance to wine marketers. Full article
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Review
Systematic Review of Methods Used for Food Pairing with Coffee, Tea, Wine, and Beer
Beverages 2021, 7(2), 40; https://doi.org/10.3390/beverages7020040 - 17 Jun 2021
Viewed by 253
Abstract
The current article is aimed at systematically reviewing the research methods used for food pairing with coffee, tea, wine, and beer. The primary aim of this review was to elucidate the state-of-the-art methods used for analysing food and beverage pairings with coffee, tea, [...] Read more.
The current article is aimed at systematically reviewing the research methods used for food pairing with coffee, tea, wine, and beer. The primary aim of this review was to elucidate the state-of-the-art methods used for analysing food and beverage pairings with coffee, tea, wine, and beer; secondarily, to identify the basis of the selection criteria; and lastly, the method used to evaluate those pairings. The search was performed in three databases: Web of Science, ScienceDirect, and Scopus. Criteria for inclusion were studies with an experimental design, a descriptive analysis (DA), and/or hedonic consumer analysis of beverage and food pairing. The outcome had to be measured on a hedonic Likert scale, a line scale, a just about right (JAR), or a modified JAR scale or other relevant scale measurement method for the given attribute. A total of 24 studies were included in this review—the majority aimed at finding good food and beverage pairings. Most pairings were based on suggestions from experts on popular/common, similar origin, or quality of beverages and foods. The outcomes were measured in several different scales, precluding a direct comparison. The 24 articles used in this review did not provide a so-called “golden standard” of the pairing method. Only three articles provided a more scientifically based approach to investigate why a food and beverage pairing is perceived as a good match, using aromatic similarity, the primary taste, and the sensation of koku as their experimental factors. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers in Sensory Analysis of Beverages Section)
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Article
Physicochemical Changes Occurring during Long-Time Fermentation of the Indigenous Alcoholic Sorghum-Based Beverages Brewed in Northern Cameroon
Beverages 2021, 7(2), 39; https://doi.org/10.3390/beverages7020039 - 15 Jun 2021
Viewed by 248
Abstract
In Cameroon, alcoholic beverages represent one of the main consumed drinks. In northern regions, indigenous sorghum beers are very popular and widely consumed in an actively fermenting state by people. In this study, some physicochemical parameters of alcoholic sorghum beverages and correlations between [...] Read more.
In Cameroon, alcoholic beverages represent one of the main consumed drinks. In northern regions, indigenous sorghum beers are very popular and widely consumed in an actively fermenting state by people. In this study, some physicochemical parameters of alcoholic sorghum beverages and correlations between them were evaluated during fermentation for 10 days. The indigenous white and red beers were produced at the laboratory scale assisted by experimental producers and some parameters (pH, total acidity, alcohol, sugars, density, total solids, temperature, and conductivity) were measured on the wort and fermented beverages. The pH decreased from 3.2 to 2.4 and 3.11 to 2.41; total acidity increased from 1.07 to 5.1 g/L and 0.5 to 4.6 g/L; alcohol was enhanced from 0 to 9.5% and 0 to 6.8% (v/v); total solids dropped from 13.6 to 5°P and 12.2 to 3.3°P, respectively, in the white and red sorghum beers. The multivariate analysis showed a good correlation between consumption of sugar, the decrease in total solids and density with the decrease in pH. Additionally, it was shown that a perfect link exists between the production of alcohol and organic acids. The hierarchical analysis showed that indigenous red beer samples fermented for one and two days and those fermented for four to 10 days were related and could be separate in two distinct groups, whereas white turbid beer samples were separated in three different groups, those fermented for one to four days, five to six days, and seven to 10 days. The results obtained could serve as a guide to better understand the fermentation process of indigenous alcoholic sorghum-based beverages. Full article
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Review
Beer Polyphenols—Bitterness, Astringency, and Off-Flavors
Beverages 2021, 7(2), 38; https://doi.org/10.3390/beverages7020038 - 11 Jun 2021
Viewed by 251
Abstract
The acceptance of beer among consumers is most influenced by the taste and aroma. Polyphenols are widely responsible for both. Whereas polyphenols do not always result in a positive flavor and taste, they can surely impart certain off-flavors, which will be mentioned in [...] Read more.
The acceptance of beer among consumers is most influenced by the taste and aroma. Polyphenols are widely responsible for both. Whereas polyphenols do not always result in a positive flavor and taste, they can surely impart certain off-flavors, which will be mentioned in this paper. However, the aftertaste is an important component of the beer-tasting experience and acceptance. The aftertaste, including astringency, may largely influence consumers’ consumption preference and behavior. Bitterness is one of the main, desirable characteristics of beer, but to an untrained consumer, it can often be mistaken with astringency. This review aims to describe the differences between these two properties. Both attributes derive from the same beer components, polyphenols from barley and hop, but there is a distinctive difference between them. To understand the complexity of bitterness and astringency, polyphenols behavior, characteristics, and stability during the brewing process are also described in this review. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Beer Quality and Flavour)
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Article
Self-Rated Aversion to Taste Qualities and the PROP Taster Phenotype Associate with Alcoholic Beverage Intake and Preference
Beverages 2021, 7(2), 37; https://doi.org/10.3390/beverages7020037 - 09 Jun 2021
Viewed by 308
Abstract
Consumers often identify “taste” as an important factor when selecting alcoholic beverages. Although it is assumed that reduced alcohol consumption in PROP super-tasters is due to a greater dislike of the nominally aversive sensations that they experience more intensely (e.g., bitterness) when compared [...] Read more.
Consumers often identify “taste” as an important factor when selecting alcoholic beverages. Although it is assumed that reduced alcohol consumption in PROP super-tasters is due to a greater dislike of the nominally aversive sensations that they experience more intensely (e.g., bitterness) when compared to PROP non-tasters, this question has not been specifically asked to them. Therefore, we examined consumers’ self-reported aversion towards specific sensory attributes (bitter, hot/burn, dry, sour, sweet, carbonation) for four alcoholic beverage types (white wine, red wine, beer, spirits) using a convenience sample of U.S. wine consumers (n = 925). Participants rated 18 statements describing different combinations of sensory attributes and alcoholic beverages on a 5-point Likert scale (e.g., Beer tastes too bitter for me). Individuals who tended to agree more strongly with the statements (i.e., they were more averse; p(F) < 0.05) tended to (i) consume less of all beverage types, (ii) consume a higher proportion of white wine (p(r) < 0.05), and (iii) were more likely to be female or PROP super-tasters. The results suggest that self-reported aversion to specific sensory attributes is associated with not only lower overall intake of alcoholic beverages, but also a shift in the relative proportions of beverage type consumed; a key finding for studies investigating how taste perception impacts alcohol consumption. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers in Sensory Analysis of Beverages Section)
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Review
The Impact Packaging Type Has on the Flavor of Wine
Beverages 2021, 7(2), 36; https://doi.org/10.3390/beverages7020036 - 07 Jun 2021
Viewed by 433
Abstract
This is a literature review of the most commonly available wine packaging categories. This includes glass bottles, polyethylene terephthalate bottles (PET), bag-in-box (BIB), aluminum cans, and Tetra Pak. This review includes a description and history of each category. In addition, the market share [...] Read more.
This is a literature review of the most commonly available wine packaging categories. This includes glass bottles, polyethylene terephthalate bottles (PET), bag-in-box (BIB), aluminum cans, and Tetra Pak. This review includes a description and history of each category. In addition, the market share and environmental impacts of each category are discussed. Special attention is paid to the reported impact on packaged wine flavor and aroma for each packaging type. Finally, the potential impacts on consumer preference are discussed. While glass is still the dominant packaging material within the wine industry and by consumer demand, economic and environmental concerns are driving the industry and consumers to investigate and adopt alternative packaging materials. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Featured Papers in Wine, Spirits and Oenological Products Section)
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Article
Effect of Aging Vessel (Clay-Tinaja versus Oak Barrel) on the Volatile Composition, Descriptive Sensory Profile, and Consumer Acceptance of Red Wine
Beverages 2021, 7(2), 35; https://doi.org/10.3390/beverages7020035 - 04 Jun 2021
Viewed by 401
Abstract
Consumers look for unique wines, offering pleasant experiences. Wine producers need to open new markets and are targeting countries with fewer traditions in drinking red and complex wines, such as Poland, Russia and Germany. The use of less popular aging vessels (e.g., clay- [...] Read more.
Consumers look for unique wines, offering pleasant experiences. Wine producers need to open new markets and are targeting countries with fewer traditions in drinking red and complex wines, such as Poland, Russia and Germany. The use of less popular aging vessels (e.g., clay-tinajas) will help in creating unique wines. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of the aging vessel on the volatile and sensory profiles and consumer acceptance of red wine in Spain and Poland (model of potential new markets). Three wines were studied: (i) wine A, aged in a clay-tinaja with non-permeable coating); (ii) wine B, aged in clay-tinaja without coating; and (iii) wine C, aged in oak barrels (control). The key families in the volatile profiles were esters (wines B and C) and organic acids and terpenes (wine A). Wine A was described as sour and bitter, wine B had a distinctive mineral note, and wine C had a complex profile with typical wood notes. Finally, wines C and A were the preferred ones for Spanish and Polish consumers, respectively. Clay-tinaja wine A can be a good option to introduce clay-tinaja wines in Polish and similar markets because it is a unique product and fulfills the sensory demands/habits of Polish consumers. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Alcoholic Beverages and Wood)
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Article
Physico-Chemical and Sensory Characterization of a Fruit Beer Obtained with the Addition of Cv. Lambrusco Grapes Must
Beverages 2021, 7(2), 34; https://doi.org/10.3390/beverages7020034 - 03 Jun 2021
Viewed by 352
Abstract
In 2015, Italian Grape Ale (IGA) beers have been included as a new provisional sub-category of special-type fruit beers by the Beer Judge Certification Program, including those products whose brewing process is carried out in presence of determined quantities of grape must. However, [...] Read more.
In 2015, Italian Grape Ale (IGA) beers have been included as a new provisional sub-category of special-type fruit beers by the Beer Judge Certification Program, including those products whose brewing process is carried out in presence of determined quantities of grape must. However, information on the effects of these additions on the composition of final beers are still scarce. This work is hence focused on the chromatic, volatile, phenolic and sensory characterization of IGA beers obtained with the addition of grape musts during brewing process. To this aim, different amounts of must (5, 10 and 20%) from cv. Lambrusco red grapes were added to a lager wort before primary fermentation. Beers were then characterized by HPLC-MS, GC-MS and sensory analysis in order to determine phenolic and aroma compounds along with their sensory attributes. Results confirmed the addition of must from cv. Lambrusco grapes capable to enrich beers in color, acids, phenolic (up to 7-folded increased) and volatile compounds, while giving complexity to beers. These results, which were confirmed by a trained sensory panel, are among the very first insights on the impact of red grape must in brewing, both from a compositional and sensory point of view. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Quality, Nutrition, and Chemistry of Beverages)
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Review
Nutraceuticals as Potential Targets for the Development of a Functional Beverage for Improving Sleep Quality
Beverages 2021, 7(2), 33; https://doi.org/10.3390/beverages7020033 - 03 Jun 2021
Viewed by 602
Abstract
Functional beverages can be a valuable component of the human diet with the ability to not only provide essential hydration but to deliver important bioactive compounds that can contribute to chronic disease treatment and prevention. One area of the functional beverage market that [...] Read more.
Functional beverages can be a valuable component of the human diet with the ability to not only provide essential hydration but to deliver important bioactive compounds that can contribute to chronic disease treatment and prevention. One area of the functional beverage market that has seen an increase in demand in recent years are beverages that promote relaxation and sleep. Sleep is an essential biological process, with optimal sleep being defined as one of adequate duration, quality and timing. It is regulated by a number of neurotransmitters which are, in turn, regulated by dietary intake of essential bioactive compounds. This narrative review aimed to evaluate the latest evidence of the sleep promoting properties of a selection of bioactive compounds (such as L-theanine and L-tryptophan) for the development of a functional beverage to improve sleep quality; and the effectiveness of traditional sleep promoting beverages (such as milk and chamomile). Overall, the bioactive compounds identified in this review, play essential roles in the synthesis and regulation of important neurotransmitters involved in the sleep-wake cycle. There is also significant potential for their inclusion in a number of functional beverages as the main ingredient on their own or in combination. Future studies should consider dosage; interactions with the beverage matrix, medications and other nutraceuticals; bioavailability during storage and following ingestion; as well as the sensory profile of the developed beverages, among others, when determining their effectiveness in a functional beverage to improve sleep quality. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Current Reviews in Beverages - 2021)
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Article
Dysphagia-Related Health Information Improved Consumer Acceptability of Thickened Beverages
Beverages 2021, 7(2), 32; https://doi.org/10.3390/beverages7020032 - 02 Jun 2021
Viewed by 375
Abstract
Most people tend to think that healthy foods do not taste good. This view could have a negative impact on the taste of the food that people eat for health. However, if health-related information is provided to avoid negative aspects, acceptability may improve. [...] Read more.
Most people tend to think that healthy foods do not taste good. This view could have a negative impact on the taste of the food that people eat for health. However, if health-related information is provided to avoid negative aspects, acceptability may improve. Thus, this study investigated changes in consumers’ sensory perception of thickened beverages before and after the provision of dysphagia-related health information. Sixty young (19–39 years old) and middle-aged (40–64 years old) consumers participated in two experiment sessions conducted one week apart. The first session proceeded without any information and the second provided information about dysphagia and the need for dietary modification before evaluation. Three beverages (orange juice, red bean water, and sports drink) were used in nectar-like (51–350 cP) and honey-like (351–1750 cP) forms; original beverage samples (0%) were used as the control. Consumers were asked about acceptability, liking the flavor, intensity, and general health interest (GHI). An analysis of variance was performed to show the change in flavor rating and acceptability between the two sessions. Although there were age-related differences in response to the samples, thickened beverages were rated as more acceptable, in terms of their characteristics (swallowing, viscosity, and mouthfeel) after the information was provided. There were no significant differences for the 0% samples. The mean GHI values were 3.97 ± 0.85 and 4.81 ± 0.68 for the young and middle-aged groups, respectively. High and low GHI groups were analyzed. The high GHI group showed significant differences in acceptability in the informed evaluation, whereas the low GHI group was not influenced by the information. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Featured Papers in Non-Alcoholic Beverages Section)
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Article
Indirect Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) Spectroscopic Determination of Acrylamide in Coffee Using Partial Least Squares (PLS) Regression
Beverages 2021, 7(2), 31; https://doi.org/10.3390/beverages7020031 - 31 May 2021
Viewed by 419
Abstract
Acrylamide is probably carcinogenic to humans (International Agency for Research on Cancer, group 2A) with major occurrence in heated, mainly carbohydrate-rich foods. For roasted coffee, a European Union benchmark level of 400 µg/kg acrylamide is of importance. Regularly, the acrylamide contents are controlled [...] Read more.
Acrylamide is probably carcinogenic to humans (International Agency for Research on Cancer, group 2A) with major occurrence in heated, mainly carbohydrate-rich foods. For roasted coffee, a European Union benchmark level of 400 µg/kg acrylamide is of importance. Regularly, the acrylamide contents are controlled using liquid chromatography combined with tandem mass spectrometry (LC–MS/MS). This reference method is reliable and precise but laborious because of the necessary sample clean-up procedure and instrument requirements. This research investigates the possibility of predicting the acrylamide content from proton nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectra that are already recorded for other purposes of coffee control. In the NMR spectrum acrylamide is not directly quantifiable, so that the aim was to establish a correlation between the reference value and the corresponding NMR spectrum by means of a partial least squares (PLS) regression. Therefore, 40 commercially available coffee samples with already available LC–MS/MS data and NMR spectra were used as calibration data. To test the accuracy and robustness of the model and its limitations, 50 coffee samples with extreme roasting degrees and blends were additionally prepared as the test set. The PLS model shows an applicability for the varieties Coffea arabica and C. canephora, which were medium to very dark roasted using drum or infrared roasters. The root mean square error of prediction (RMSEP) is 79 µg/kg acrylamide (n = 32). The current PLS model is judged as suitable to predict the acrylamide values of commercially available coffee samples. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Coffee and Related Chemical Analysis)
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Article
Wine Fermentation Performance of Indigenous Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Saccharomyces paradoxus Strains Isolated in a Piedmont Vineyard
Beverages 2021, 7(2), 30; https://doi.org/10.3390/beverages7020030 - 28 May 2021
Viewed by 552
Abstract
The role of yeast in wine quality is very important. The use of selected autochthonous yeasts is becoming more and more frequent in enology, not only to obtain a diversification of wines, but also as a link between the wine and its territory [...] Read more.
The role of yeast in wine quality is very important. The use of selected autochthonous yeasts is becoming more and more frequent in enology, not only to obtain a diversification of wines, but also as a link between the wine and its territory of origin. The objectives of this work were to test two indigenous yeasts in a cellar on a pilot scale. The yeasts were a strain of Saccharomyces cerevisiae and a strain of Saccharomyces paradoxus previously isolated in a vineyard in Piedmont (Italy). Studying the oenological characteristics of S. paradoxus is of particular interest, as it is rarely found in the cellar–vineyard environment. Molecular biology methods confirmed the predominance of the strain inoculated in the various fermentation tests. Additionally, products of yeast metabolism, including volatile compounds, were quantified at the end of the alcoholic fermentation and sensory profile of wines was tested by a trained panel of tasters. Our results indicated that both strains have good characteristics to be used as starter in winemaking; S. paradoxus was characterized by a high production of glycerol and the ability to degrade malic acid, together with a lower production of ethanol and a low volatile acidity, while S. cerevisiae conferred to the wine a pleasant smell of rose, as highlighted in the sessions of sensory analysis. Full article
(This article belongs to the Collection Wine and Beverage: Fermentation and Conservation Technologies)
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Article
Aroma and Sensory Profiles of Sauvignon Blanc Wines from Commercially Produced Free Run and Pressed Juices
Beverages 2021, 7(2), 29; https://doi.org/10.3390/beverages7020029 - 25 May 2021
Viewed by 702
Abstract
Sauvignon blanc is the most important grape cultivar within the New Zealand wine industry, and wines from the Marlborough region are renowned for their intense aromas including tropical, passionfruit, and green capsicum. Quality Sauvignon blanc wines are usually made from free run juice, [...] Read more.
Sauvignon blanc is the most important grape cultivar within the New Zealand wine industry, and wines from the Marlborough region are renowned for their intense aromas including tropical, passionfruit, and green capsicum. Quality Sauvignon blanc wines are usually made from free run juice, although press fractions can be included. The chemical aroma composition and sensory profiles of two wine sets made from three press fractions (free run, light press and heavy press) were compared. The compounds 3-mercaptohexan-1-ol and 3-mercaptohexyl acetate were found to decrease between free run and heavily pressed wines while hexyl acetate, hexanol, and benzyl alcohol increased. The accompanying sensory analysis showed that free run wines were marked by aromas of Passionfruit/sweaty, Boxwood and Fresh green capsicum, while the heavy pressed wines were described by French vanilla/bourbon, Floral and Banana lolly attributes, consistent with the aroma chemical composition. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Featured Papers in Wine, Spirits and Oenological Products Section)
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Article
Authentication Using Volatile Composition: A Proof-of-Concept Study on the Volatile Profiles of Fourteen Queensland Ciders
Beverages 2021, 7(2), 28; https://doi.org/10.3390/beverages7020028 - 25 May 2021
Viewed by 746
Abstract
Although relatively small, the Australian cider industry has experienced significant growth in recent years. One of the current challenges in the industry is the lack of research specific to Australian ciders. Establishing baseline volatile organic compound (VOC) profiles of Australian cider is paramount [...] Read more.
Although relatively small, the Australian cider industry has experienced significant growth in recent years. One of the current challenges in the industry is the lack of research specific to Australian ciders. Establishing baseline volatile organic compound (VOC) profiles of Australian cider is paramount to developing a better understanding of the industry. This understanding may ultimately be utilized for both the categorization and authentication of existing ciders, and the targeted modification of cider volatiles for the development and improvement of cider quality. This study utilized gas chromatography, coupled with mass spectrometry, to identify key VOCs present in 14 ciders sourced from four different manufacturers in Queensland, Australia. A total of 40 VOCs were identified across the ciders, with significant variation depending on the flavor and manufacturer. Principal component analysis indicated that the ciders were well-separated based on the manufacturer, supporting the prospect of using the volatile composition to discriminate between cider manufacturers. Furthermore, hierarchical cluster analysis highlighted the commonalities and differences in cider composition between different manufacturers, which may be indicative of the varying ingredients and manufacturing processes used to create the ciders. Future studies profiling the volatile composition of larger numbers of Australian ciders are recommended to support the use of this analytical technique for authentication purposes. Likewise, exploration of the relationship between specific processes and VOCs is recommended to fortify an understanding of how to optimize cider production to improve consumer satisfaction. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Uniqueness, Diversity and Quality of Cider)
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Oenological Potential of Autochthonous Saccharomyces cerevisiae Yeast Strains from the Greek Varieties of Agiorgitiko and Moschofilero
Beverages 2021, 7(2), 27; https://doi.org/10.3390/beverages7020027 - 24 May 2021
Viewed by 363
Abstract
Nemea and Mantinia are famous wine regions in Greece known for two indigenous grape varieties, Agiorgitiko and Moschofilero, which produce high quality PDO wines. In the present study, indigenous Saccharomyces cerevisiae yeast strains were isolated and identified from spontaneous alcoholic fermentation of Agiorgitiko [...] Read more.
Nemea and Mantinia are famous wine regions in Greece known for two indigenous grape varieties, Agiorgitiko and Moschofilero, which produce high quality PDO wines. In the present study, indigenous Saccharomyces cerevisiae yeast strains were isolated and identified from spontaneous alcoholic fermentation of Agiorgitiko and Moschofilero musts in order to evaluate their oenological potential. Random amplified polymorphic DNA-polymerase chain reaction (RAPD-PCR) recovered the presence of five distinct profiles from a total of 430 yeast isolates. The five obtained strains were evaluated at microvinifications trials and tested for basic oenological and biochemical parameters including sulphur dioxide and ethanol tolerance as well as H2S production in sterile grape must. The selected autochthonous yeast strains named, Soi2 (Agiorgitiko wine) and L2M (Moschofilero wine), were evaluated also in industrial (4000L) fermentations to assess their sensorial and oenological characteristics. The volatile compounds of the produced wines were determined by GC-FID. Our results demonstrated the feasibility of using Soi2 and L2M strains in industrial fermentations for Agiorgitiko and Moschofilero grape musts, respectively. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Beverage Technology Fermentation and Microbiology)
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An Assessment of the Competitive Position of the Emergent Uruguayan Wine Industry: A Preliminary Netnographic Baseline Study
Beverages 2021, 7(2), 26; https://doi.org/10.3390/beverages7020026 - 20 May 2021
Viewed by 500
Abstract
This study investigates the competitive position of the Uruguayan wine industry and its potential to become a player in the global wine trade. The study adopts an exploratory, holistic, and qualitative research design, applying desk research, cyberethnography, and electronic correspondence with stakeholders. The [...] Read more.
This study investigates the competitive position of the Uruguayan wine industry and its potential to become a player in the global wine trade. The study adopts an exploratory, holistic, and qualitative research design, applying desk research, cyberethnography, and electronic correspondence with stakeholders. The research, based on the theory of global business competitiveness, aims to determine the opportunities Uruguay’s wine industry could exploit, based on its competencies, to become a player in the worldwide wine business landscape. The results show that Uruguay is a young wine-producing country; however, it has the potential to become a global competitor. Critical factors identified in the study are geographic location, favorable climate, terrain, hydropower and the high density of the hydrographic network, available agricultural land, the available and well-educated workforce, unique land infrastructure, and the newness of the grape varietal (Tannat) being introduced to the world market with promising results. The paper contributes to the body of knowledge of competitive strategy in wine business research and adds to the scarce literature on the Uruguayan wine industry. Finally, it assesses Uruguay’s current positioning of wine production and competitiveness. The results will benefit stakeholders in the Uruguayan wine industry, researchers, and practitioners in the field. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Featured Papers in Wine, Spirits and Oenological Products Section)
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The Implications of Post-Harvest Storage Time and Temperature on the Phytochemical Composition and Quality of Japanese-Styled Green Tea Grown in Australia: A Food Loss and Waste Recovery Opportunity
Beverages 2021, 7(2), 25; https://doi.org/10.3390/beverages7020025 - 20 May 2021
Viewed by 484
Abstract
The increases in consumer awareness of the potential health benefits of green tea have driven global demand for green tea products. This study investigated the effect of post-harvest processing and storage of Japanese-styled green tea (Camellia sinensis var. sinensis) grown in NSW, [...] Read more.
The increases in consumer awareness of the potential health benefits of green tea have driven global demand for green tea products. This study investigated the effect of post-harvest processing and storage of Japanese-styled green tea (Camellia sinensis var. sinensis) grown in NSW, Australia. Harvested material underwent a processing delay of 6, 12, 18 or 24 h at temperatures of 0, 5 and 25 °C. Targeted green tea constituents: theanine, caffeine and catechins were determined using HPLC with UV detection. Product quality and commercial value were determined using the Quality Index (QI) Tool. Reductions in constituent levels were evident within all storage delays, with nominal quality preservation achieved by reducing the temperature. The green tea material stored at 25 °C for 24 h created the most commercially valued product, despite it having visual characteristics more akin to a semi-fermented tea. These visual characteristics are traditionally considered markers of green tea damage and are discarded; however, QI-Tool scoring suggests that this raw material presents as a commercially favourable source of food loss and waste (FLW). The findings of this study extend our understanding of post-harvest processing delays and storage on green tea quality and suggest the viability of a commercially valuable semi-fermented produced from FLW. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Teas and Herbal Teas: Bioactive Compounds and Functionalisations)
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The Use of Temporal Check-All-That-Apply and Category Scaling by Experienced Panellists to Evaluate Sweet and Dry Ciders
Beverages 2021, 7(2), 24; https://doi.org/10.3390/beverages7020024 - 17 May 2021
Viewed by 502
Abstract
Cider is a growing market in North America, but more studies need to be completed to fully understand ciders’ sensory properties. The primary objective of this study was to identify the differences in the sensory properties of ciders described as “sweet” or “dry” [...] Read more.
Cider is a growing market in North America, but more studies need to be completed to fully understand ciders’ sensory properties. The primary objective of this study was to identify the differences in the sensory properties of ciders described as “sweet” or “dry” using both static (category scales) and dynamic (temporal check-all-that-apply, TCATA) sensory methodologies. The secondary objective was to evaluate experienced panellists with a familiar methodology (category scales) and an unfamiliar methodology (TCATA). The sweet ciders were characterized by sweet, floral, cooked apple, and fresh apple attributes, and they had a sour aftertaste. The dry ciders were found to be bitter, sour, earthy, and mouldy, and they had a sour and bitter aftertaste. The experienced panellists produced reproducible results using both methodologies; however, they did not find small differences between the cider samples. Future research should investigate a wider range of cider and investigate ciders’ aftertaste. More studies need to be completed on experienced panellists and on when researchers and the food industry should use them. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Uniqueness, Diversity and Quality of Cider)
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Article
Perception of Aqueous Ethanol Binary Mixtures Containing Alcohol-Relevant Taste and Chemesthetic Stimuli
Beverages 2021, 7(2), 23; https://doi.org/10.3390/beverages7020023 - 29 Apr 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 762
Abstract
Ethanol is a complex stimulus that elicits multiple gustatory and chemesthetic sensations. Alcoholic beverages also contain other tastants that impact flavour. Here, we sought to characterize the binary interactions between ethanol and four stimuli representing the dominant orosensations elicited in alcoholic beverages: fructose [...] Read more.
Ethanol is a complex stimulus that elicits multiple gustatory and chemesthetic sensations. Alcoholic beverages also contain other tastants that impact flavour. Here, we sought to characterize the binary interactions between ethanol and four stimuli representing the dominant orosensations elicited in alcoholic beverages: fructose (sweet), quinine (bitter), tartaric acid (sour) and aluminium sulphate (astringent). Female participants were screened for thermal taste status to determine whether the heightened orosensory responsiveness of thermal tasters (n = 21–22) compared to thermal non-tasters (n = 13–15) extends to these binary mixtures. Participants rated the intensity of five orosensations in binary solutions of ethanol (5%, 13%, 23%) and a tastant (low, medium, high). For each tastant, 3-way ANOVAs determined which factors impacted orosensory ratings. Burning/tingling increased as ethanol concentration increased in all four binary mixture types and was not impacted by the concentration of other stimuli. In contrast, bitterness increased with ethanol concentration, and decreased with increasing fructose concentration. Sourness tended to be reduced as ethanol concentration increased, although astringency intensity decreased with increasing concentration of fructose. Overall, thermal tasters tended to be more responsive than thermal non-tasters. These results provide insights into how the taste and chemesthetic profiles of alcoholic beverages across a wide range of ethanol concentrations can be manipulated by changing their composition. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers in Sensory Analysis of Beverages Section)
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Article
USA Mid-Atlantic Consumer Preferences for Front Label Attributes for Local Wine
Beverages 2021, 7(2), 22; https://doi.org/10.3390/beverages7020022 - 23 Apr 2021
Viewed by 553
Abstract
The purpose of this research was to investigate Mid-Atlantic USA wine consumers’ preferences for front wine label attributes for a lesser-known/unknown local wine variety. The wine consumer base in this part of the USA exceeds that of California. Although the mid-Atlantic is experiencing [...] Read more.
The purpose of this research was to investigate Mid-Atlantic USA wine consumers’ preferences for front wine label attributes for a lesser-known/unknown local wine variety. The wine consumer base in this part of the USA exceeds that of California. Although the mid-Atlantic is experiencing an increase in the number of wineries, there is a lack of region-specific consumer research that could be the basis for marketing strategies that may differ from those in more established wine regions, such as CA. We recruited 1011 mid-Atlantic consumers who drank wine (at least 1×/month) to view variations of a wine label, differing in wine tag, location description, font types, and images in a choice-based conjoint experiment. A greater percentage of consumers selected the “White Wine” tag and scripted fonts than the other options, with a generalized county text (“Proudly produced in Lehigh County, PA”) being selected by more participants than the American Viticultural Area (AVA) (“Lehigh Valley AVA”) or state (“Pennsylvania”) texts; however, the location text had a lower importance than the wine tag variable. This study implies that a generalized county text that describes a more specific location where the grapes were grown may be more favorable to mid-Atlantic consumers in comparison to AVA or state texts, and that traditional images and generic wine labels are more preferable than wine labels they have not seen before and more contemporary label styles. Wineries in the mid-Atlantic region may want to add generalized county texts to their labels to appeal to the regional audience. As AVAs are used to promote specific wine regions in the USA, and only some consumers choose wines based on these designations, governments and marketing organizations may want to increase education on local AVAs to increase consumer awareness and interest. In addition, consumer differences in variety-seeking behavior and subjective as well as objective wine knowledge, but not attitudes toward locally produced foods, affected wine label choice: Consumers scoring higher in variety-seeking and wine knowledge preferred the specific wine varietal over the generic wine tag; similarly, consumers that indicated familiarity with the wine varietal also preferred the specific wine tag over the generic label. Differences in consumer psychographics appear to modulate front wine label preferences. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers in Sensory Analysis of Beverages Section)
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Article
Absorbance Spectroscopy of Heads, Hearts and Tails Fractions in Fruit Spirits
Beverages 2021, 7(2), 21; https://doi.org/10.3390/beverages7020021 - 21 Apr 2021
Viewed by 518
Abstract
There is a large economic interest to characterize heads, hearts and tails fractions during fruit spirit distillation by simple, fast, low-volume and low-cost analytical methods. This study evaluated the potential of ultraviolet (UV)-visible-infrared spectroscopy (230–1000 nm) to characterize and differentiate these distillate fractions. [...] Read more.
There is a large economic interest to characterize heads, hearts and tails fractions during fruit spirit distillation by simple, fast, low-volume and low-cost analytical methods. This study evaluated the potential of ultraviolet (UV)-visible-infrared spectroscopy (230–1000 nm) to characterize and differentiate these distillate fractions. Heads, hearts and tails fractions of 10 different fruit spirits were separated by sensory evaluation and investigated by absorbance spectroscopy. Principal component analysis indicated that UV spectroscopy at a wavelength range from 230 to 310 nm had the highest potential to differentiate all three distillate fractions. While all tails fractions showed significantly different UV spectra, a clear differentiation between heads and hearts fractions was limited. However, an additional UV spectroscopy of 100 mL subfractions sampled during the shift from heads to hearts in three additional distillations did reveal significant differences. The calculated integrals of the according best-fit trendline functions of the spectra indicated a trend towards reduced area-under-the-curve and zero-point values during the shift. This could be a new lead to implement an analytical method for in-line process control during fruit spirit production. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers in Sensory Analysis of Beverages Section)
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Article
A Syrup–Water Mixture Increases Performance in the Yo-Yo Intermittent Recovery Test after a Soccer-Specific Preload in the Hoff Test: A Double-Blind Crossover Study
Beverages 2021, 7(2), 20; https://doi.org/10.3390/beverages7020020 - 20 Apr 2021
Viewed by 436
Abstract
Background: The positive effect of carbohydrates from commercial beverages on soccer-specific exercise has been clearly demonstrated. However, no study is available that uses a home-mixed beverage in a test where technical skills were required. Methods: Nine subjects participated voluntarily in this double-blind, randomized, [...] Read more.
Background: The positive effect of carbohydrates from commercial beverages on soccer-specific exercise has been clearly demonstrated. However, no study is available that uses a home-mixed beverage in a test where technical skills were required. Methods: Nine subjects participated voluntarily in this double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled crossover study. On three testing days, the subjects performed six Hoff tests with a 3-min active break as a preload and then the Yo-Yo Intermittent Running Test Level 1 (Yo-Yo IR1) until exhaustion. On test days 2 and 3, the subjects received either a 69 g carbohydrate-containing drink (syrup–water mixture) or a carbohydrate-free drink (aromatic water). Beverages were given in several doses of 250 mL each: 30 min before and immediately before the exercise and after 18 and 39 min of exercise. The primary target parameters were the running performance in the Hoff test and Yo-Yo IR1, body mass and heart rate. Statistical differences between the variables of both conditions were analyzed using paired samples t-tests. Results: The maximum heart rate in Yo-Yo IR1 showed significant differences (syrup: 191.1 ± 6.2 bpm; placebo: 188.0 ± 6.89 bpm; t(6) = −2.556; p = 0.043; dz = 0.97). The running performance in Yo-Yo IR1 under the condition syrup significantly increased by 93.33 ± 84.85 m (0–240 m) on average (p = 0.011). Conclusions: The intake of a syrup–water mixture with a total of 69 g carbohydrates leads to an increase in high-intensive running performance after soccer specific loads. Therefore, the intake of carbohydrate solutions is recommended for intermittent loads and should be increasingly considered by coaches and players. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Functional Beverages, from Idea to Functionality)
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Editorial
Improving Wine Quality and Safety
Beverages 2021, 7(2), 19; https://doi.org/10.3390/beverages7020019 - 16 Apr 2021
Viewed by 598
Abstract
Wine is a product that can be characterized both as a commodity but also as a luxury, depending on its price [...] Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Improving Wine Quality and Safety)
Article
Application of Microwaves as an Advanced Technique for the Development of Sherry Vinegar Macerated with Pineapple
Beverages 2021, 7(2), 18; https://doi.org/10.3390/beverages7020018 - 08 Apr 2021
Viewed by 504
Abstract
This work proposes the elaboration of a product based on the maceration of Sherry Vinegar together with pineapple in order to extract certain volatile compounds that can be found in pineapples, giving a final product with new organoleptic properties and increased polyphenolic content. [...] Read more.
This work proposes the elaboration of a product based on the maceration of Sherry Vinegar together with pineapple in order to extract certain volatile compounds that can be found in pineapples, giving a final product with new organoleptic properties and increased polyphenolic content. Maceration trials were carried out with the application of microwaves and ultrasound, which reduced the maceration time from the traditional three-day solid-liquid maceration to just a few minutes. In addition, through maceration, the total polyphenol index increased significantly with respect to unmacerated vinegar, and the volatile profile of the vinegars was significantly modified. The tasting scores placed the pineapple macerated vinegar sample obtained by traditional maceration in the first place with respect to pineapple aroma; however, the microwave extraction samples were better rated in terms of overall quality. It can be concluded that the application of extracting energies, such as microwaves, can be a viable alternative for the production of sherry vinegar macerated with pineapple. Full article
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Editorial
Wide World of Beverage Research: Reviews of Current Topics
Beverages 2021, 7(2), 17; https://doi.org/10.3390/beverages7020017 - 01 Apr 2021
Viewed by 465
Abstract
In 2015, the journal Beverages (ISSN 2306-5710) was launched to provide insight into the beverage industry [...] Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Wide World of Beverage Research: Reviews of Current Topics)
Article
Refining Citrus Wastes: From Discarded Oranges to Efficient Brewing Biocatalyst, Aromatic Beer, and Alternative Yeast Extract Production
Beverages 2021, 7(2), 16; https://doi.org/10.3390/beverages7020016 - 31 Mar 2021
Viewed by 606
Abstract
Agro-industrial wastes can be valorized as biorefinery raw materials through innovative, environmentally friendly bioprocessing for added value products. In this study, a process for citrus waste valorization within the biorefinery concept is proposed, including the development of an effective biocatalyst, based on immobilized [...] Read more.
Agro-industrial wastes can be valorized as biorefinery raw materials through innovative, environmentally friendly bioprocessing for added value products. In this study, a process for citrus waste valorization within the biorefinery concept is proposed, including the development of an effective biocatalyst, based on immobilized cells, for aromatic beer production, and an alternative yeast extract (AYE) production in the same unit. Specifically, orange pulp from discarded oranges was applied as an immobilization carrier of the alcohol-resistant and cryotolerant yeast strain S. cerevisiae AXAZ-1. The yeast culture was produced by minor nutrient supplementation using diluted molasses as substrate. An effective Citrus Waste Brewing Biocatalyst (CWBB) was produced and applied for beer fermentation. The aroma-related compounds in beer produced with free yeast cells or the CWBB were evaluated by solid-phase micro-extraction (SPME) gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC–MS). The analysis showed that the beers produced by the CWBB had a more complex volatile profile compared with beer fermented by the free cells. More specifically, the CWBB enhanced the formation of esters and terpenes by 5- and 27-fold, respectively. In the frame of the proposed multiprocessing biorefinery concept, the spent CWBB, after it has completed its cycle of brewing batches, was used as substrate for AYE production through autolysis. The produced AYE significantly affected the yeast growth when compared to commercial yeast extract (CYE). More specifically, it promoted the biomass productivity and biomass yield factor by 60–150% and 110–170%, respectively. Thus, AYE could be successfully used for industrial cell growth as an efficient and cheaper substitute of CYE. Within a circular economy framework, the present study highlights the potential use of citrus waste to produce aromatic beer combined with AYE production as an alternative way to valorize these wastes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Beer Quality and Flavour)
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