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Beverages, Volume 6, Issue 1 (March 2020) – 19 articles

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Open AccessReview
White Wine Protein Instability: Mechanism, Quality Control and Technological Alternatives for Wine Stabilisation—An Overview
Beverages 2020, 6(1), 19; https://doi.org/10.3390/beverages6010019 - 17 Mar 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 554
Abstract
Wine protein instability depends on several factors, but wine grape proteins are the main haze factors, being mainly caused by pathogenesis-related proteins (thaumatin-like proteins and chitinases) with a molecular weight between 10~40 kDa and an isoelectric point below six. Wine protein stability tests [...] Read more.
Wine protein instability depends on several factors, but wine grape proteins are the main haze factors, being mainly caused by pathogenesis-related proteins (thaumatin-like proteins and chitinases) with a molecular weight between 10~40 kDa and an isoelectric point below six. Wine protein stability tests are needed for the routine control of this wine instability, and to select the best technological approach to remove the unstable proteins. The heat test is the most used, with good correlation with the natural proteins’ precipitations and because high temperatures are the main protein instability factor after wine bottling. Many products and technological solutions have been studied in recent years; however, sodium bentonite is still the most efficient and used treatment to remove unstable proteins from white wines. This overview resumes and discusses the different aspects involved in wine protein instability, from the wine protein instability mechanisms, the protein stability tests used, and technological alternatives available to stabilise wines with protein instability problems. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Wide World of Beverage Research: Reviews of Current Topics)
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Open AccessReview
Membrane-Based Operations in the Fruit Juice Processing Industry: A Review
Beverages 2020, 6(1), 18; https://doi.org/10.3390/beverages6010018 - 16 Mar 2020
Viewed by 413
Abstract
The fruit juice industry is one of the food sectors that has invested the most in the implementation of new technologies, such as non-thermal technologies. Among them, membrane processes are considered today well-established separation techniques to support the production and marketing of innovative [...] Read more.
The fruit juice industry is one of the food sectors that has invested the most in the implementation of new technologies, such as non-thermal technologies. Among them, membrane processes are considered today well-established separation techniques to support the production and marketing of innovative fruit juices designed to exploit the sensory characteristics and nutritional peculiarities of fresh fruits. Pressure-driven membrane operations, membrane distillation, osmotic distillation and pervaporation have been widely investigated in the last few decades to replace conventional technologies used in fruit juice processing industry (i.e., clarification, stabilization, concentration and recovery of aroma compounds). This paper will review the significant progresses on the use of membrane-based operations in fruit juice processing industry in the light of the growing interest towards products with improved safety, quality and nutritional value and sustainable processes characterized by low energy consumption and low environmental impact. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Wide World of Beverage Research: Reviews of Current Topics)
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Open AccessReview
Biogenic Amines in Alcohol-Free Beverages
Beverages 2020, 6(1), 17; https://doi.org/10.3390/beverages6010017 - 09 Mar 2020
Viewed by 424
Abstract
Biogenic amines are ubiquitous bioactive compounds that are synthesized by living organisms and perform essential functions for their metabolism. In the human diet, their excessive intake can cause food poisoning. In food, especially in alcohol-free beverages, biogenic amines can be synthesized by enzymes, [...] Read more.
Biogenic amines are ubiquitous bioactive compounds that are synthesized by living organisms and perform essential functions for their metabolism. In the human diet, their excessive intake can cause food poisoning. In food, especially in alcohol-free beverages, biogenic amines can be synthesized by enzymes, naturally present in raw materials, or by microorganisms, which may be naturally present in the matrix or be added during beverage transformation processes. For this reason, in alcohol-free beverages, biogenic amine amount can be considered, above a certain level, as undesired microorganism activity. Therefore, it is important to evaluate the biogenic amine profile of non-alcoholic beverages in order to monitor food quality and safety. Moreover, biogenic amines can be taken into account by industries in order to monitor production processes and products. This review article provides an overview on the biogenic amine profile of alcohol-free beverages (plant milk, nervine drinks, soft drinks, and fruit juices). Furthermore, the clinical and toxicological effects, the biogenic amines legislation, and biogenic amine synthesis have been evaluated in non-alcoholic beverages. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Wide World of Beverage Research: Reviews of Current Topics)
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Open AccessArticle
Determination of Macroelements, Transition Elements, and Anionic Contents of Commercial Roasted Ground Coffee Available in Jordanian Markets
Beverages 2020, 6(1), 16; https://doi.org/10.3390/beverages6010016 - 09 Mar 2020
Viewed by 355
Abstract
Coffee is one of the most common drinks worldwide. Due to the variability of elements composition, coffee is important for human health. The aim of this study is to assess the concentration of certain selected elements of commercial samples of roasted ground coffee [...] Read more.
Coffee is one of the most common drinks worldwide. Due to the variability of elements composition, coffee is important for human health. The aim of this study is to assess the concentration of certain selected elements of commercial samples of roasted ground coffee available in Jordanian markets. The concentrations of macroelement components (sodium, potassium, and calcium), transition elements (lead, cadmium, iron, nickel, and copper), and anion contents (sulfate, nitrate, fluoride, chloride, and phosphate ions) have been determined in nine samples using atomic absorption spectroscopy. Obtained results showed that all tested samples contain macroelementscalcium, sodium, and potassium, in a concentration ranging from 6.18 to 162.6 μg/gram of dry weight (in detail: calcium, 6.96–9.81 μg/g; sodium, 121.54–162.60 μg/g; potassium, 6.18–10.23 μg/g). Regarding transition elements, all samples tested contained variable concentrations of iron and copper (1.26–2.07 and 0.24–0.66 μg/g, respectively), while they lacked lead, cadmium, and nickel (only one sample contained 0.1 μg/g for nickel). In addition, all tested samples contained variable anionic concentrations. The lack of toxic selected elements (lead, cadmium, and nickel) in these samples appears to indicate the significance of these coffee samples as a source of useful selected elements for human health. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Chemical Contaminants and Residues in Beverages)
Open AccessReview
Current Trends in Kombucha: Marketing Perspectives and the Need for Improved Sensory Research
Beverages 2020, 6(1), 15; https://doi.org/10.3390/beverages6010015 - 02 Mar 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 654
Abstract
Kombucha is a fermented functional beverage that started as a homemade beverage and grew into a commercial product in the U.S. by the turn of this century. The number of companies producing kombucha, as well as the variety of kombucha products, is increasing [...] Read more.
Kombucha is a fermented functional beverage that started as a homemade beverage and grew into a commercial product in the U.S. by the turn of this century. The number of companies producing kombucha, as well as the variety of kombucha products, is increasing rapidly. The scientific research on kombucha also got active along with the growth in the market. The topics of kombucha research can be grouped into the substrate used in fermentation, the microbial composition of the cultures, processing methods, chemical composition, the health benefits and health risks associated with consumption, the utilization of symbiotic cultures of bacteria and yeasts (SCOBYs), etc. There are several already published in-depth scientific reviews covering these topics. Even with the sensory characteristics of kombucha being a critical aspect of the beverage, there are not many publications covering the sensory and consumer research on this beverage. This review paper aims to provide the current market status of kombucha and to show a need for scientific sensory and consumer research studies to help the kombucha researchers and industry working on this fast-growing beverage. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Wide World of Beverage Research: Reviews of Current Topics)
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Open AccessArticle
Understanding Australian Wine Consumers’ Preferences for Different Sparkling Wine Styles
Beverages 2020, 6(1), 14; https://doi.org/10.3390/beverages6010014 - 01 Mar 2020
Viewed by 604
Abstract
This study investigated the perceptions and preferences of Australian wine consumers towards different styles of sparkling wine, including French Champagne and Australian sparkling white, red and rosé wine, Moscato and Prosecco. An online survey of 1027 regular sparkling wine consumers captured demographic information, [...] Read more.
This study investigated the perceptions and preferences of Australian wine consumers towards different styles of sparkling wine, including French Champagne and Australian sparkling white, red and rosé wine, Moscato and Prosecco. An online survey of 1027 regular sparkling wine consumers captured demographic information, sparkling wine perceptions and preferences, and typical spending and consumption patterns. Consumers were segmented into three distinct clusters (‘No Frills’, ‘Aspirants’ and ‘Enthusiasts’) using the Fine Wine Instrument model. The majority of No Frills consumers were female and typically consumed sparkling wine once per month. Almost 55% of Aspirants were male with a household income of more than AU$75,000. Enthusiast consumers were also predominantly male and well educated, and 64% were under the age of 35 years. Sparkling white wine and Champagne were generally the preferred styles for each consumer group, followed by Moscato and sparkling rosé wine. Interestingly, Moscato scored favorably with both No Frills and Enthusiast segments. Almost 25% of respondents indicated that they were not familiar with Prosecco, while sparkling red wine was perceived similarly by male and female consumers. The findings from this study can be used by sparkling wine producers to better target their products and marketing to the specific needs and expectations of consumers within different segments of the Australian domestic market. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sparkling Wine)
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Open AccessArticle
Functional Efficacy of Probiotic Lactobacillus sanfranciscensis in Apple, Orange and Tomato Juices with Special Reference to Storage Stability and In Vitro Gastrointestinal Survival
Beverages 2020, 6(1), 13; https://doi.org/10.3390/beverages6010013 - 25 Feb 2020
Viewed by 417
Abstract
There is an increasing demand for non-dairy probiotic carriers such as fruit and vegetable juices. Probiotic Lactobacillus sanfranciscensis is predominantly used in the bakery industry, and its efficacy in fruit juices has not been studied sufficiently. Additionally, support from the carrier matrices for [...] Read more.
There is an increasing demand for non-dairy probiotic carriers such as fruit and vegetable juices. Probiotic Lactobacillus sanfranciscensis is predominantly used in the bakery industry, and its efficacy in fruit juices has not been studied sufficiently. Additionally, support from the carrier matrices for maintaining probiotic viability and gastrointestinal tolerance is important in selecting suitable vehicles for probiotic delivery. Three different non-dairy carrier juices (apple, orange and tomato) were tested for their ability to maintain L. sanfranciscensis viable during four weeks of refrigerated storage (4 °C). Their potential protection of L. sanfranciscensis against in vitro gastrointestinal digestion was also evaluated. Results indicated that the probiotics viability in all three juice samples met the recommended level for probiotic food (>106–107 cfu/mL) at the end of storage. However, all three juice samples showed a comparatively lower protective effect (p < 0.05) on the viability of L. sanfranciscensis when exposed to simulated gastric juice (pH = 2) at the end of 60 min and simulated intestinal juice with 0.3% (w/v) bile salt (pH = 8) at the end of 240 min exposure. In general, the three tested juices can be regarded as the potential non-dairy based carriers for L. sanfranciscensis. The future research is needed to improve the modification of the probiotic carriers in order to prolong the viability of L. sanfranciscensis during the gastrointestinal digestion. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Fruit Juices: Technology, Chemistry, and Nutrition)
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Open AccessReview
An Approach of the Madeira Wine Chemistry
Beverages 2020, 6(1), 12; https://doi.org/10.3390/beverages6010012 - 25 Feb 2020
Viewed by 518
Abstract
Madeira wine is a fortified Portuguese wine, which has a crucial impact on the Madeira Island economy. The particular properties of Madeira wine result from the unique and specific winemaking and ageing processes that promote the occurrence of chemical reactions among acids, sugars, [...] Read more.
Madeira wine is a fortified Portuguese wine, which has a crucial impact on the Madeira Island economy. The particular properties of Madeira wine result from the unique and specific winemaking and ageing processes that promote the occurrence of chemical reactions among acids, sugars, alcohols, and polyphenols, which are important to the extraordinary quality of the wine. These chemical reactions contribute to the appearance of novel compounds and/or the transformation of others, consequently promoting changes in qualitative and quantitative volatile and non-volatile composition. The current review comprises an overview of Madeira wines related to volatile (e.g., terpenes, norisoprenoids, alcohols, esters, fatty acids) and non-volatile composition (e.g., polyphenols, organic acids, amino acids, biogenic amines, and metals). Moreover, types of aroma compounds, the contribution of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) to the overall Madeira wine aroma, the change of their content during the ageing process, as well as the establishment of the potential ageing markers will also be reviewed. The viability of several analytical methods (e.g., gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), two-dimensional gas chromatography and time-of-flight mass spectrometry (GC×GC-ToFMS)) combined with chemometrics tools (e.g., partial least squares regression (PLS-R), partial least squares discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) was investigated to establish potential ageing markers to guarantee the Madeira wine authenticity. Acetals, furanic compounds, and lactones are the chemical families most commonly related with the ageing process. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Wide World of Beverage Research: Reviews of Current Topics)
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Open AccessReview
The Physiological Effects of Amino Acids Arginine and Citrulline: Is There a Basis for Development of a Beverage to Promote Endurance Performance? A Narrative Review of Orally Administered Supplements
Beverages 2020, 6(1), 11; https://doi.org/10.3390/beverages6010011 - 21 Feb 2020
Viewed by 514
Abstract
Nutritional and ergogenic aid supplementation is prevalent within athletic or general fitness populations, and is only continuing to gain momentum. Taken in isolation or as a combination, amino acid (AA) supplementation has the potential to increase endurance performance among other benefits. L-Arginine (L-Arg) [...] Read more.
Nutritional and ergogenic aid supplementation is prevalent within athletic or general fitness populations, and is only continuing to gain momentum. Taken in isolation or as a combination, amino acid (AA) supplementation has the potential to increase endurance performance among other benefits. L-Arginine (L-Arg) and L-Citrulline (L-Cit) are two AAs proposed to increase endothelial nitric oxide (NO) synthesis, with potential additional physiological benefits, and therefore may contribute to enhanced performance outcomes such as increased power output, or time to exhaustion. However, the appropriate dose for promoting physiological and performance benefits of these AAs, and their potential synergistic effects remains to be determined. Therefore, the aim of this review was to evaluate the varied concentrations used in the current literature, assess the effects of L-Arg and L-Cit in combination on physiological responses and endurance performance, and consider if there is a fundamental basis for providing these supplements in the form of a beverage. A total of six studies were considered eligible for the review which utilized a range of 3–8 g of the AA constituents. The findings support the notion that supplementing with a combination of L-Arg and L-Cit may increase NO production, enhance vasodilation, and therefore increase performance capacity in athletes. A beverage as a carrier for the two AAs is worth considering; however, there remains limited research assessing these outcomes across a consistent range of concentrations in order to see their full potential. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Wide World of Beverage Research: Reviews of Current Topics)
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Open AccessArticle
Nutrient Addition to Low pH Base Wines (L. cv. Riesling) during Yeast Acclimatization for Sparkling Wine: Its Influence on Yeast Cell Growth, Sugar Consumption and Nitrogen Usage
Beverages 2020, 6(1), 10; https://doi.org/10.3390/beverages6010010 - 17 Feb 2020
Viewed by 389
Abstract
In traditional method sparkling wine production, to carry out a successful second alcoholic fermentation, yeast are acclimatized to stressful base wine conditions. Base wines typically have low pH, low nutrient concentrations, high acid concentrations, contain sulfur dioxide (SO2), and high ethanol [...] Read more.
In traditional method sparkling wine production, to carry out a successful second alcoholic fermentation, yeast are acclimatized to stressful base wine conditions. Base wines typically have low pH, low nutrient concentrations, high acid concentrations, contain sulfur dioxide (SO2), and high ethanol concentrations. Supplementing yeast during the acclimatization stages prior to second alcoholic fermentation with different nutrient sources was assessed to determine the impact on yeast growth, sugar consumption and nitrogen usage. Four treatments were tested with Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain EC1118: the control (T1) with no additives; addition of diammonium phosphate (DAP) during acclimatization, (T2); Go-Ferm® inclusion during yeast rehydration (GF), (T3); and DAP + GF (T4). Results (n = 4) indicated that supplementing with DAP, GF or DAP + GF increased both the rate of sugar consumption and the concentration of viable cells during the yeast acclimatization phase in comparison to the control. Treatments supplemented with DAP + GF or DAP alone resulted in yeast consuming 228 and 220 mg N/L during the acclimatization phase, respectively. Yeast treated only with GF consumed 94 mg N/L in comparison to the control, which consumed 23 mg N/L. The time required to reach the target specific gravity (1.010) during acclimatization was significantly reduced to 57 h for yeast treated with DAP and GF, 69 h for yeast treated with DAP only and 81 h for yeast rehydrated with GF in comparison to 105 h for the control. Our results suggest that nutrients used during yeast acclimatization could have an important impact on the kinetics of second alcoholic fermentation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sparkling Wine)
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Open AccessArticle
Colonization of Wild Saccharomyces cerevisiae Strains in a New Winery
Beverages 2020, 6(1), 9; https://doi.org/10.3390/beverages6010009 - 12 Feb 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 518
Abstract
The aim of this work was to study the fungal colonization of a new winery over time, specifically for Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Therefore, we analyzed the flora present before the arrival of the first harvest on the floor, the walls and the equipment [...] Read more.
The aim of this work was to study the fungal colonization of a new winery over time, specifically for Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Therefore, we analyzed the flora present before the arrival of the first harvest on the floor, the walls and the equipment of this new winery by Illumina MiSeq. The genus Saccharomyces (≤0.3%) was detected on floor and equipment but the presence of S. cerevisiae species was not reported. Wild S. cerevisiae strains were isolated from a ‘Pied de Cuve’ used during the first vintage to ensure the alcoholic fermentation (AF). Among 25 isolates belonging to this species, 17 different strains were identified highlighting a great intraspecific diversity. S. cerevisiae strains were also isolated from different vats throughout the spontaneous fermentations during the first vintage. The following year, some of these strains were isolated again during AF. Some of them (four) were found in the winery equipment before the arrival of the third harvest suggesting a potential colonization by these strains. To better understand what promotes the yeast colonization of the winery’s environment, the ability to form a biofilm on solid surfaces for eight colonizing or non-colonizing strains was studied. This capacity, different according to the strains, could partly explain the colonization observed for certain strains. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Fermentation Process and Microbial Safety of Beverages)
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Open AccessReview
Lactic Fermented Fruit or Vegetable Juices: Past, Present and Future
Beverages 2020, 6(1), 8; https://doi.org/10.3390/beverages6010008 - 11 Feb 2020
Viewed by 558
Abstract
Numerous traditional low-alcohol fermented beverages produced from fruit or vegetables are described around the world. Fruit and vegetables and lactic fermented products both present nutritional benefits, which give reasons for the recent expansion of non-dairy lactic fermented juices on the market. In addition, [...] Read more.
Numerous traditional low-alcohol fermented beverages produced from fruit or vegetables are described around the world. Fruit and vegetables and lactic fermented products both present nutritional benefits, which give reasons for the recent expansion of non-dairy lactic fermented juices on the market. In addition, fruit and vegetable juices are new carriers for probiotic bacteria. Specific phenotypic traits of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) are required so that LAB can effectively grow in fruit or vegetable juices, increase their safety and improve their sensory and nutritional quality. From the diversity of microbiota of spontaneous fermentations, autochthonous starters can be selected, and their higher performance than allochthonous LAB was demonstrated. Achieving long-term storage and constant high quality of these beverages requires additional processing steps, such as heat treatment. Alternatives to conventional treatments are investigated as they can better preserve nutritional properties, extract bioactive compounds and promote the growth and metabolism of LAB. Specific processing approaches were shown to increase probiotic viability of fruit and vegetable juices. More knowledge on the metabolic activity of lactic acid bacterium consortium in fruit or vegetable juices has become a bottleneck for the understanding and the prediction of changes in bioactive compounds for functional beverages development. Hopefully, the recent developments of metabolomics and methods to describe enzymatic machinery can result in the reconstruction of fermentative pathways. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Wide World of Beverage Research: Reviews of Current Topics)
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Open AccessArticle
The Influence of Partial Substitution of Malt with Unmalted Wheat in Grist on Quality Parameters of Lager Beer
Beverages 2020, 6(1), 7; https://doi.org/10.3390/beverages6010007 - 06 Feb 2020
Viewed by 303
Abstract
The aim of this research was to assess whether the grist mixture (50% malt, 34% maize grits, and 16% unmalted wheat) used for the production of beer 1 could be appropriate for lager to retain the declared quality and colloidal stability during the [...] Read more.
The aim of this research was to assess whether the grist mixture (50% malt, 34% maize grits, and 16% unmalted wheat) used for the production of beer 1 could be appropriate for lager to retain the declared quality and colloidal stability during the commercial shelf life (6 months) in regards to beer 2 produced completely out of barley malt. Raw materials, worts, and beers were analyzed before and after production and over the period of 6-month storage. All analyses were done in accordance with the European Brewery Convention methods. Beer 1 resulted in a more desirable wort composition considering the total, high molecular weight (HMW) proteins, and viscosity. Beer 1 had less total proteins and polyphenols, lower viscosity and color, and higher starting clarity than beer 2. Haze measurements showed that even though beer 1 had lower starting haze, it resulted in significantly less colloidal stability during the storage of 6 months, in comparison to beer 2. The results indicate that the production of light lager beer using unmalted wheat in grist could be acceptable for colloidal stability only if such beer is to be stabilized by operations that ensure the removal of haze inducers (primarily haze active proteins). Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Stability and Shelf Life of Beverages)
Open AccessEditorial
Acknowledgement to Reviewers of Beverages in 2019
Beverages 2020, 6(1), 6; https://doi.org/10.3390/beverages6010006 - 16 Jan 2020
Viewed by 378
Open AccessArticle
Understanding 21st Century Bordeaux Wines from Wine Reviews Using Naïve Bayes Classifier
Beverages 2020, 6(1), 5; https://doi.org/10.3390/beverages6010005 - 14 Jan 2020
Viewed by 558
Abstract
Wine has been popular with the public for centuries; in the market, there are a variety of wines to choose from. Among all, Bordeaux, France, is considered as the most famous wine region in the world. In this paper, we try to understand [...] Read more.
Wine has been popular with the public for centuries; in the market, there are a variety of wines to choose from. Among all, Bordeaux, France, is considered as the most famous wine region in the world. In this paper, we try to understand Bordeaux wines made in the 21st century through Wineinformatics study. We developed and studied two datasets: the first dataset is all the Bordeaux wine from 2000 to 2016; and the second one is all wines listed in a famous collection of Bordeaux wines, 1855 Bordeaux Wine Official Classification, from 2000 to 2016. A total of 14,349 wine reviews are collected in the first dataset, and 1359 wine reviews in the second dataset. In order to understand the relation between wine quality and characteristics, Naïve Bayes classifier is applied to predict the qualities (90+/89−) of wines. Support Vector Machine (SVM) classifier is also applied as a comparison. In the first dataset, SVM classifier achieves the best accuracy of 86.97%; in the second dataset, Naïve Bayes classifier achieves the best accuracy of 84.62%. Precision, recall, and f-score are also used as our measures to describe the performance of our models. Meaningful features associate with high quality 21 century Bordeaux wines are able to be presented through this research paper. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Determination of Anthocyanin and Volatile Profile of Wines from Varieties Yiannoudi and Maratheftiko from the Island of Cyprus
Beverages 2020, 6(1), 4; https://doi.org/10.3390/beverages6010004 - 13 Jan 2020
Viewed by 375
Abstract
Anthocyanins and volatile aromas may contribute to the identity of a wine varietal. Various parameters such as terroir (including vineyard altitude), viticultural management, vinification techniques and ageing conditions can influence the physiochemical pathways of the compounds. This work evaluated the anthocyanins and volatile [...] Read more.
Anthocyanins and volatile aromas may contribute to the identity of a wine varietal. Various parameters such as terroir (including vineyard altitude), viticultural management, vinification techniques and ageing conditions can influence the physiochemical pathways of the compounds. This work evaluated the anthocyanins and volatile compounds of two monovarietal wines from indigenous varieties, Yiannoudi and Maratheftiko, grown in the island of Cyprus from the vintages 2014, 2015 and 2016. The experimental analysis comprised the determination of anthocyanin’s profile (high-performance liquid chromatography-diode array detection chromatography-electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry, HPLC-DAD-ESI/MS) and fermentation derived volatiles (gas chromatography-flame ionization detector, GC-FID) and a blind wine testing sensory evaluation. Both the analytical results and the blind wine tasting showed that wines, at their early stage, were easily differentiated by variety, especially in terms of anthocyanins composition, while, in aged wines, the differences among samples were influenced in time by the winemaking procedures and it was not possible to differentiate varieties in such conditions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Fermentation Process and Microbial Safety of Beverages)
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Open AccessReview
Designing New Yeasts for Craft Brewing: When Natural Biodiversity Meets Biotechnology
Beverages 2020, 6(1), 3; https://doi.org/10.3390/beverages6010003 - 09 Jan 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 775
Abstract
Beer is a fermented beverage with a history as old as human civilization. Ales and lagers are by far the most common beers; however, diversification is becoming increasingly important in the brewing market and the brewers are continuously interested in improving and extending [...] Read more.
Beer is a fermented beverage with a history as old as human civilization. Ales and lagers are by far the most common beers; however, diversification is becoming increasingly important in the brewing market and the brewers are continuously interested in improving and extending the range of products, especially in the craft brewery sector. Fermentation is one of the widest spaces for innovation in the brewing process. Besides Saccharomyces cerevisiae ale and Saccharomyces pastorianus lager strains conventionally used in macro-breweries, there is an increasing demand for novel yeast starter cultures tailored for producing beer styles with diversified aroma profiles. Recently, four genetic engineering-free approaches expanded the genetic background and the phenotypic biodiversity of brewing yeasts and allowed novel costumed-designed starter cultures to be developed: (1) the research for new performant S. cerevisiae yeasts from fermented foods alternative to beer; (2) the creation of synthetic hybrids between S. cerevisiae and Saccharomyces non-cerevisiae in order to mimic lager yeasts; (3) the exploitation of evolutionary engineering approaches; (4) the usage of non-Saccharomyces yeasts. Here, we summarized the pro and contra of these approaches and provided an overview on the most recent advances on how brewing yeast genome evolved and domestication took place. The resulting correlation maps between genotypes and relevant brewing phenotypes can assist and further improve the search for novel craft beer starter yeasts, enhancing the portfolio of diversified products offered to the final customer. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Wide World of Beverage Research: Reviews of Current Topics)
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Open AccessArticle
Processing of Herbal Tea from Roselle (Hibiscus sabdariffa L.): Effects of Drying Temperature and Brewing Conditions on Total Soluble Solid, Phenolic Content, Antioxidant Capacity and Sensory Quality
Beverages 2020, 6(1), 2; https://doi.org/10.3390/beverages6010002 - 02 Jan 2020
Viewed by 538
Abstract
Roselle (Hibiscus sabdariffa L.) is an annual shrub popularly grown in tropical and subtropical areas. Although Roselle fruit has been used for a long time as a herbal tea due to its high content of bioactive compounds like phenolic acids and anthocyanins, [...] Read more.
Roselle (Hibiscus sabdariffa L.) is an annual shrub popularly grown in tropical and subtropical areas. Although Roselle fruit has been used for a long time as a herbal tea due to its high content of bioactive compounds like phenolic acids and anthocyanins, the studies on the effects of the drying process and brewing conditions on the content of beneficial components and bioactivities of Roselle tea is limited. In this study, the influence of drying temperature on the retention of total phenolic content (TPC) and antioxidant capacity (AC) of the dried Roselle and the effects of brewing conditions including water temperature, liquid-solid ratio and brewing time on total soluble solid (TSS) content, total phenolic content, and antioxidant capacity of Roselle tea were investigated. The drying at 80 °C produced the dried Roselle with the highest retention of TPC (25.196 mg GAE/g) and AC (IC50 of 2.2 mg/mL for 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) inhibition) and the highest sensory quality compared to the drying at other temperatures. The brewing process using hot water at 90 °C with the solid-liquid ratio of 1:10 (g/mL) for 30 min resulted in the highest TSS content (5.4 oBx), TPC (12.7 mg GAE/g dried Roselle) and AC (73.3% DPPH inhibition) of the Roselle tea. Thus, the drying at 80 °C combined with the brewing of dried Roselle for 30 min using 90 °C hot water with the solid-liquid ratio of 1:10 (g/mL) are recommended to produce Roselle tea with the highest content of beneficial ingredients. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Phenolic Compounds and Functional Beverages)
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Open AccessCase Report
Compound Analysis of Jing Liqueur and nrf2 Activation by Jing Liqueur—One of the Most Popular Beverages in China
Beverages 2020, 6(1), 1; https://doi.org/10.3390/beverages6010001 - 31 Dec 2019
Viewed by 616
Abstract
The aim of this study is to identify the minor compounds in Jing liqueur, determine the concentration of metals, amino acids, and polysaccharides, and evaluate their Nrf2 activity and cytotoxicity. Jing liqueur that contains Chinese medicine is one of the best-selling liqueurs in [...] Read more.
The aim of this study is to identify the minor compounds in Jing liqueur, determine the concentration of metals, amino acids, and polysaccharides, and evaluate their Nrf2 activity and cytotoxicity. Jing liqueur that contains Chinese medicine is one of the best-selling liqueurs in China, which is also marketed in the United States. Totally, we have isolated 189 minor compounds including one new molecule (7) from a concentrated Jing liqueur, with the concentrations of most isolated compounds at micromolar levels. The structures of all these compounds were determined by using MS and NMR (1D and 2D) or by comparison of their chemical and physical data with reported values in the literatures. Besides, the concentrations of iron (0.52 mg/L), zinc (0.21 mg/L), calcium (11.0 mg/L), L-proline (2.33 mg/L), L-arginine (1.73 mg/L), total amino acids (9.84 mg/L), and total polysaccharides (337.4 mg/L) were determined. Jing liqueur, the five fractions and most of the compounds isolated from Jing liqueur were screened for their activities in the Nrf2-ARE and MTT assays. At 5.2 mg/mL the crude enhanced the Nrf2 activity. At 80 μg/mL, fraction IV weakly but fraction V strongly activated Nrf2. Among the compounds screened in the Nrf2 assay, eighteen activated Nrf2 at 40 μg/mL and compounds 51 and 126 from fraction V were the most active. The crude, all the five fractions, and Nrf2 activators were not cytotoxic toward HepG2 cells. In conclusion, Jing liqueur contains different classes of compounds including flavonoids, terpenoids, alkaloids, coumarins, cinnamic acid or coumaric acid, and phenyl ethanol (or acetic acid) derivatives, benzoquinone, naphthoquinone, anthraquinones or phenanphrene derivatives, xanthones, chromone, and γ-pyrone derivatives, lignans, other aromatic compounds, and others. Jing liqueur and the eighteen compounds, which were isolated from Jing liqueur, could activate Nrf2 without any cytotoxicity. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Chemical Contaminants and Residues in Beverages)
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