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Logistics, Volume 7, Issue 4 (December 2023) – 36 articles

Cover Story (view full-size image): This study introduces novel end-to-end deep learning frameworks that combine Convolutional Neural Networks (CNNs) and Long Short-Term Memory (LSTM) for resolving single-period inventory ordering decisions. We investigate the performance drivers of hybrid CNN-LSTM architectures, coupled with an evolving algorithm for optimizing the network configuration. Empirical evaluation with real-world retail data demonstrates that our proposed models proficiently extract the pertinent features and interpret sequential data characteristics, leading to more accurate and informed ordering decisions, which confirms that understanding the impact of features on demand empowers decision makers to derive tailored, cost-effective ordering decisions for each store or product category. View this paper
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18 pages, 698 KiB  
Article
The Impact of Service Orientation and Airport Service Quality on Passenger Satisfaction and Image: Evidence from Indonesia
Logistics 2023, 7(4), 102; https://doi.org/10.3390/logistics7040102 - 15 Dec 2023
Viewed by 1328
Abstract
Background: Airport service quality and service orientation are important aspects of managing passenger satisfaction and airport image. The aim of this paper is to analyze the influence of service orientation and airport service quality on airport image through passenger satisfaction as an [...] Read more.
Background: Airport service quality and service orientation are important aspects of managing passenger satisfaction and airport image. The aim of this paper is to analyze the influence of service orientation and airport service quality on airport image through passenger satisfaction as an intervention variable. Methods: The survey was conducted on 356 passengers at the departure area and lounge. Samples were taken at five major airports in Indonesia, including Soekarno Hatta International Airport. To test the influence of exogenous variables on endogenous variables through intervening variables, a quantitative testing analysis test was carried out using the structural equation model partial least square (SEM-PLS). Result: The research results show that service orientation has a significant and positive effect on airport service quality, passenger satisfaction, and airport image. Moreover, service quality also has a positive effect on passenger satisfaction and the airport’s image. Empirically, passenger satisfaction has been proven to mediate the influence of service quality and service orientation on airport image. It has been proven that airport operators who focus on passengers through service orientation can increase passenger satisfaction and the airport’s image. Conclusions: Focusing on passengers’ needs while at the airport is an important aspect for airport operators who aim to manage their emotions, which encourages passengers to use paid services while in the waiting room. The use of this paid service will directly increase the airport’s aeronautical revenue. Future research needs to consider the influence of image on purchase intention and return to the airport. Full article
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22 pages, 3918 KiB  
Article
Optimizing Utilization of Transport Capacities in the Cold Chain by Introducing Dynamic Allocation of Semi-Trailers
Logistics 2023, 7(4), 101; https://doi.org/10.3390/logistics7040101 - 14 Dec 2023
Viewed by 1216
Abstract
Background: Road transport companies utilize transport capacities as fixed compositions of tractors and semi-trailers, while the possibility of exchanging semi-trailers is considered ad hoc, after some unforeseen circumstances emerge on the route. Such an approach is a limiting factor in achieving optimal utilization [...] Read more.
Background: Road transport companies utilize transport capacities as fixed compositions of tractors and semi-trailers, while the possibility of exchanging semi-trailers is considered ad hoc, after some unforeseen circumstances emerge on the route. Such an approach is a limiting factor in achieving optimal utilization of transport capacities, and consequently affects profitability. We proposed a new concept of vehicle fleet management where semi-trailers would not be permanently assigned to the tractors, but could be dynamically reassigned, to utilize optimally the vehicle fleet, on considering the planned itinerary, the driver’s working hours, and traffic conditions. Methods: We set the key performance indicators and developed a prototype application based on the concept of dynamic semi-trailer allocation. We simulated the use of the prototype application on the historical data collected in the case study on one of the leading transport companies in the cold chain, and evaluated the benefits that may be achieved thereof. Results: Simulation showed that implementing the proposed concept enabled the reduction of the vehicle workdays spent on-the-route, the reduction of the number of vehicle compositions needed to handle the transport demand, and improved the quality of service. Conclusions: The proposed concept is beneficial for transport companies that operate large vehicle fleets on long-haul routes, with several transport orders per route. The prototype application may be the basis for developing a fully functional application that can be integrated into the fleet management system. Full article
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18 pages, 1605 KiB  
Review
Industry 4.0 Implementation in Small- and Medium-Sized Enterprises: Recommendations Extracted from a Systematic Literature Review with a Focus on Maturity Models
Logistics 2023, 7(4), 99; https://doi.org/10.3390/logistics7040099 - 12 Dec 2023
Viewed by 1291
Abstract
Background: Industry 4.0 signifies a profound global transformation in production and service activities through its novel organizational principles, including digital connectivity, information transparency, technical assistance, and decentralized decision making. This transformation poses significant challenges for businesses, particularly small- and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs). [...] Read more.
Background: Industry 4.0 signifies a profound global transformation in production and service activities through its novel organizational principles, including digital connectivity, information transparency, technical assistance, and decentralized decision making. This transformation poses significant challenges for businesses, particularly small- and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs). In response, maturity models have been developed and adapted to facilitate a transparent and supportive entry into this transformative domain. Method/Aim: This study is dedicated to the comprehensive analysis of Industry 4.0 maturity models through a systematic literature review to identify and evaluate previously published recommendations for the adoption and utilization of Industry 4.0. The aim is to provide valuable insights in this context, with a particular focus on easing entry into this domain for SMEs. Results: Quantitative findings reveal a growing demand for fundamental support when entering this domain, with maturity models capable of meeting the demand for structured guidance. However, these models are currently under-validated, lacking transparency, and are often unsuitable for SMEs. Qualitative results categorize numerous insights and recommendations into ten distinct categories related to Industry 4.0. Conclusions: This paper provides a structured summary to support newcomers, research institutions, and businesses in effectively initiating and optimizing their Industrsy 4.0 activities. Full article
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16 pages, 732 KiB  
Review
The Last-Mile Delivery of Heavy, Bulky, Oversized Products: Literature Review and Research Agenda
Logistics 2023, 7(4), 98; https://doi.org/10.3390/logistics7040098 - 12 Dec 2023
Viewed by 1356
Abstract
Background: Last-mile delivery (LMD) is a challenging and costly supply chain process that involves direct customer interaction. In a recent study by the World Economic Forum, it was emphasized that last-mile logistics is an emerging research area. In particular, the European Commission [...] Read more.
Background: Last-mile delivery (LMD) is a challenging and costly supply chain process that involves direct customer interaction. In a recent study by the World Economic Forum, it was emphasized that last-mile logistics is an emerging research area. In particular, the European Commission Directorate General for Energy and Transport provides guidelines for abnormal road transport, such as heavy, bulky, and oversized (HBO) products. In the last few years, many research articles have been published on the topic of LMD. Several literature review studies from the perspective of different stakeholders have also been published. The delivery of HBO products is more challenging in many ways compared to parcel delivery. Although HBO products yield the most profitable sales, the LMD of HBOs is less studied compared to parcel deliveries. Methods: This research employed a descriptive review method to scan 195 published articles and reports related to LMD and HBOs. Results: Our results identified the challenges in the field and identified the need for separate approaches for different customer segments, such as rural and urban customers, as well as older and younger customers, when formulating delivery strategies. Conclusions: This paper highlights the research gap in this field by using a descriptive literature review methodology and presents academic contributions available so far, as well as challenges for further research. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Last Mile, E-Commerce and Sales Logistics)
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19 pages, 2950 KiB  
Article
Design and Implementation of Integral Ergo-Value Stream Mapping in a Metal-Mechanical Company to Improve Ergonomic and Productive Conditions: A Case Study
Logistics 2023, 7(4), 100; https://doi.org/10.3390/logistics7040100 - 12 Dec 2023
Viewed by 1222
Abstract
The Integral Ergonomic-Value Stream Mapping (Ergo-VSM) methodology is introduced in this study, which is tailored for the metal-mechanic sector and aims to assess the operational and ergonomic conditions of production processes. The methodology is designed to identify ergonomic risks and propose an improvement [...] Read more.
The Integral Ergonomic-Value Stream Mapping (Ergo-VSM) methodology is introduced in this study, which is tailored for the metal-mechanic sector and aims to assess the operational and ergonomic conditions of production processes. The methodology is designed to identify ergonomic risks and propose an improvement plan to increase productivity by integrating ergonomic measurement instruments aligned with official standards and lean manufacturing tools such as VSM and Kaizen. The study, which was conducted in a metal-mechanical MSME (micro, small and medium enterprises), resulted in an 11.8% overall improvement in psychosocial risk factors, a 4.4% increase in productivity with a 1.96-h reduction in cycle time, and a 20% decrease in reported quality rejections. Notably, the study shows that the Integral Ergo-VSM can be implemented in a variety of organizational contexts, ensuring adaptability without jeopardizing the methodology’s core objectives. Full article
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26 pages, 1817 KiB  
Article
An Integrated Methodology for Enhancing Reverse Logistics Flows and Networks in Industry 5.0
Logistics 2023, 7(4), 97; https://doi.org/10.3390/logistics7040097 - 11 Dec 2023
Viewed by 1487
Abstract
Background: This paper explores the potential of Industry 5.0 in driving societal transition to a circular economy. We focus on the strategic role of reverse logistics in this context, underlining its significance in optimizing resource use, reducing waste, and enhancing sustainable production [...] Read more.
Background: This paper explores the potential of Industry 5.0 in driving societal transition to a circular economy. We focus on the strategic role of reverse logistics in this context, underlining its significance in optimizing resource use, reducing waste, and enhancing sustainable production and consumption patterns. Adopting sustainable industrial practices is critical to addressing global environmental challenges. Industry 5.0 offers opportunities for achieving these goals, particularly through the enhancement of reverse logistics processes. Methods: We propose an integrated methodology that combines binary logistic regression and decision trees to predict and optimize reverse logistics flows and networks within the Industry 5.0 framework. Results: The methodology demonstrates effective quantitative modeling of influential predictors in reverse logistics and provides a structured framework for understanding their interrelations. It yields actionable insights that enhance decision-making processes in supply chain management. Conclusions: The methodology supports the integration of advanced technologies and human-centered approaches into industrial reverse logistics, thereby improving resource sustainability, systemic innovation, and contributing to the broader goals of a circular economy. Future research should explore the scalability of this methodology across different industrial sectors and its integration with other Industry 5.0 technologies. Continuous refinement and adaptation of the methodology will be necessary to keep pace with the evolving landscape of industrial sustainability. Full article
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21 pages, 3033 KiB  
Review
Sustainable Supplier Selection through Multi-Criteria Decision Making (MCDM) Approach: A Bibliometric Analysis
Logistics 2023, 7(4), 96; https://doi.org/10.3390/logistics7040096 - 08 Dec 2023
Viewed by 1845
Abstract
Background: The primary objective of this study was to examine the advancements in sustainable supplier selection through multi-criteria decision making (MCDM) from the years 2013 to 2022. In the recent past, researchers have carried out a significant amount of research in this [...] Read more.
Background: The primary objective of this study was to examine the advancements in sustainable supplier selection through multi-criteria decision making (MCDM) from the years 2013 to 2022. In the recent past, researchers have carried out a significant amount of research in this field over the course of several years; Methods: a total of 121 scientific publications sourced from the Scopus database were chosen for analysis, employing the bibliometric method and graphical visualization of the VOS viewer application to visually analyze and map research networks and collaboration patterns, aiding in the evaluation of scientific impact and knowledge dissemination; Results: the findings of this study indicate that the research trend in sustainable supplier selection through MCDM witnessed its most significant growth in the year 2019. Researchers predominantly disseminated their scientific findings through articles, accounting for 81% of the publications, followed by conference papers at 14%, and book chapters at 2.5%; Conclusions: the primary area of focus in these studies pertains to decision-making processes involved in sustainable supplier selection. The implications and theoretical contributions derived from this research, coupled with the latest advancements, serve as a foundation for further exploration and development of sustainable supplier selection research through MCDM. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Supplier, Government and Procurement Logistics)
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34 pages, 3789 KiB  
Article
MARLIN Method: Enhancing Warehouse Resilience in Response to Disruptions
Logistics 2023, 7(4), 95; https://doi.org/10.3390/logistics7040095 - 07 Dec 2023
Viewed by 1128
Abstract
Background: Endogenous and exogenous factors impact the operational characteristics of supply chains, affecting wholesale warehouses. The survival of a warehouse is often threatened by disruptive events that alter infrastructure and performance. The emergence of COVID-19 exemplified the need for adaptability in retail goods [...] Read more.
Background: Endogenous and exogenous factors impact the operational characteristics of supply chains, affecting wholesale warehouses. The survival of a warehouse is often threatened by disruptive events that alter infrastructure and performance. The emergence of COVID-19 exemplified the need for adaptability in retail goods supply chains, emphasizing the necessity for responding to external shocks. Methods: The MARLIN (Method wArehouse ResiLience dIstruptioN) method, founded on theories and models of resilience engineering is introduced. MARLIN is a practical tool designed to identify key areas requiring intervention in response to disruptive events. An empirical test was conducted in an Italian warehouse. Results: The conducted test yielded tangible results, demonstrating the efficacy of the method. It successfully pinpointed areas necessitating intervention and identified Key Performance Indicators (KPIs) associated with disruptions. The study not only underscores the importance of data collection but also highlights the often-overlooked significance of warehouse management. Conclusions: The study establishes MARLIN as a valuable asset for stakeholders involved in disruption management. Its application has proven instrumental in recognizing areas of intervention and identifying KPIs related to disruptions. Ongoing research endeavors to broaden its applicability across diverse supply chain scenarios, aiming to enhance situational awareness and enable proactive risk assessment through what-if analysis. Full article
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15 pages, 479 KiB  
Article
Effects of Parcel Delivery Service on Customer Satisfaction in the Saudi Arabian Logistics Industry: Does the National Culture Make a Difference?
Logistics 2023, 7(4), 94; https://doi.org/10.3390/logistics7040094 - 06 Dec 2023
Viewed by 1666
Abstract
Background: The logistics industry is keen to meet customer expectations, which in turn supports trade by enhancing business competitiveness and promoting economic development. Logistics companies realized that fulfillment of customer needs has a significant effect on their business survival, their sales and ultimately [...] Read more.
Background: The logistics industry is keen to meet customer expectations, which in turn supports trade by enhancing business competitiveness and promoting economic development. Logistics companies realized that fulfillment of customer needs has a significant effect on their business survival, their sales and ultimately their profits. This research analyzes the variables that influence customer satisfaction with parcel delivery services in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA), particularly the SERVQUAL dimensions: tangibility, reliability, responsiveness, assurance, and empathy. The research also examined whether national culture affects customer perceptions of parcel delivery services in KSA or not. Methods: The research collected data using a self-administered survey, which was directed at a sample of customers in the KSA, who had recent experience with parcel delivery services. Results: The results of statistical analysis showed that the best predicators of customer satisfaction are reliability, followed by the dimensions of empathy, then tangibility and finally responsiveness. In addition, the results showed significant differences in customers’ overall satisfaction between Saudis and non-Saudis. Saudis were more satisfied with the service than non-Saudis were. Conclusions: This research showed the key role of national culture in perceiving parcel delivery service quality in KSA. The findings provide important messages to the administrators of the logistics services in KSA, which have become crucial for the Saudi Vision 2030. They need to customize their service according to customer needs and provide regular training for their staff to be supportive, reliable and have the credibility to deliver services as promised. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainable Logistics in the New Era)
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24 pages, 3309 KiB  
Article
Modeling Extended Service Quality for Public Transportation in the Post-Pandemic Period: Differentiating between Urban and Rural Areas: A Case Study of Intercity Railway, Thailand
Logistics 2023, 7(4), 93; https://doi.org/10.3390/logistics7040093 - 05 Dec 2023
Viewed by 1283
Abstract
Background: Scholars have indicated differences in the attitudes of urban and non-urban populations, especially after the COVID-19 outbreak, which extend to their needs and expectations regarding rail transport development. The aim of this study is to enhance the quality of train services in [...] Read more.
Background: Scholars have indicated differences in the attitudes of urban and non-urban populations, especially after the COVID-19 outbreak, which extend to their needs and expectations regarding rail transport development. The aim of this study is to enhance the quality of train services in the post-pandemic era, and multigroup analysis will be applied to achieve the difference in area context. Methods: The research data were collected from rail transport users throughout Thailand, consisting of 665 urban and 935 rural users. The questionnaires primarily focused on user expectations regarding rail service quality and travel conditions in the post-pandemic landscape using multigroup confirmatory factor analysis (MCFA). Results: The results unveiled significant variations in user trends and needs across different contexts and areas. In urban settings, there was a notably higher overall service expectation compared to rural areas. Specifically, urban users prioritized factors such as accessibility and service empathy, whereas rural rail users placed greater emphasis on staff quality and reasonable pricing. Conclusions: These findings furnish rail transport service agencies with valuable insights and guidance for comprehending their users’ needs. They can develop appropriate organizational strategies, service quality enhancements, and policy adjustments tailored to the unique demands of urban and rural areas in the post-pandemic era, thereby ensuring sustainability. Additionally, the methodology of multigroup analysis served as a significant scientific contribution; this showed that the statistical analysis of different area contexts in the study should not be ignored. Full article
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15 pages, 1801 KiB  
Article
Truck–Shovel vs. In-Pit Crushing and Conveying Systems in Open Pit Mines: A Technical Evaluation for Selecting the Most Effective Transportation System by System Dynamics Modeling
Logistics 2023, 7(4), 92; https://doi.org/10.3390/logistics7040092 - 05 Dec 2023
Viewed by 1480
Abstract
Backgrounds: The transportation system within any mining project, which is responsible for delivering extracted ore to the crushing units or wastes to the wasting dumps as the destinations, poses a significant challenge in mining processes. On one hand, there are various transportation systems, [...] Read more.
Backgrounds: The transportation system within any mining project, which is responsible for delivering extracted ore to the crushing units or wastes to the wasting dumps as the destinations, poses a significant challenge in mining processes. On one hand, there are various transportation systems, notably the Truck–Shovel, the traditional method, and relatively newer and less common In-Pit Crushing and Conveying (IPCC) systems. On the other hand, choosing the most suitable system for a specific mining project depends on various factors, with technical aspects being one of the most critical. While there is extensive research on the Truck–Shovel system from a technical perspective, there is relatively limited research on IPCC systems. Methods: This research aims to carry out a comparative analysis of different transportation systems, encompassing Truck–Shovel, Fixed In-Pit Crushing and Conveying (FIPCC), Semi-Fixed In-Pit Crushing and Conveying (SFIPCC), Semi-Mobile In-Pit Crushing and Conveying (SMIPCC), and Fully Mobile In-Pit Crushing and Conveying (FMIPCC) systems. To achieve this goal, a technical index is introduced, which is based on three elements: the availability and the utilization of the system, as well as the consumption of power. This index will be developed as a system dynamics model, enabling the observation of each system’s performance throughout the operational lifespan of the mine. Results: Ultimately, based on the proposed method, the most effective transportation system based on the defined technical index can be identified at any time of the project. In this research, the Truck–Shovel system generally selected as the most preferred transportation system, except for two different periods. Conclusions: This study could successfully perform the selection among different transportation systems. Nevertheless, it was modeled and performed in a deterministic environment, but still the stochastic nature of the processes can be another topic of research. Full article
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19 pages, 1733 KiB  
Article
Exploring Applications and Practical Examples by Streamlining Material Requirements Planning (MRP) with Python
Logistics 2023, 7(4), 91; https://doi.org/10.3390/logistics7040091 - 01 Dec 2023
Viewed by 1684
Abstract
Background: Material Requirements Planning (MRP) is critical in Supply Chain Management (SCM), facilitating effective inventory management and meeting production demands in the manufacturing sector. Despite the potential benefits of automating the MRP tasks to meet the demand for expedited and efficient management, [...] Read more.
Background: Material Requirements Planning (MRP) is critical in Supply Chain Management (SCM), facilitating effective inventory management and meeting production demands in the manufacturing sector. Despite the potential benefits of automating the MRP tasks to meet the demand for expedited and efficient management, the field appears to be lagging behind in harnessing the advancements offered by Artificial Intelligence (AI) and sophisticated programming languages. Consequently, this study aims to address this gap by exploring the applications of Python in simplifying the MRP processes. Methods: This article offers a twofold approach: firstly, it conducts research to uncover the potential applications of the Python code in streamlining the MRP operations, and the practical examples serve as evidence of Python’s efficacy in simplifying the MRP tasks; secondly, this article introduces a conceptual framework that showcases the Python ecosystem, highlighting libraries and structures that enable efficient data manipulation, analysis, and optimization techniques. Results: This study presents a versatile framework that integrates a variety of Python tools, including but not limited to Pandas, Matplotlib, and Plotly, to streamline and actualize an 8-step MRP process. Additionally, it offers preliminary insights into the integration of the Python-based MRP solution (MRP.py) with Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP) systems. Conclusions: While the article focuses on demonstrating the practicality of Python in MRP, future endeavors will entail empirically integrating MRP.py with the ERP systems in small- and medium-sized companies. This integration will establish real-time data synchronization between the Python and ERP systems, leading to accurate MRP calculations and enhanced decision-making processes. Full article
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15 pages, 1185 KiB  
Article
Can We Do More with Less? Analyzing the Organization of Flexibility of Space and Infrastructure at UDCs: A Case Study for Food Center Amsterdam
Logistics 2023, 7(4), 90; https://doi.org/10.3390/logistics7040090 - 01 Dec 2023
Viewed by 1127
Abstract
Background: How can flexible applications of the space and infrastructure of urban distribution centers (UDCs) be organized to help lower demands on space and infrastructure in cities? The application of flexible use of space and infrastructure can improve the efficiency of a [...] Read more.
Background: How can flexible applications of the space and infrastructure of urban distribution centers (UDCs) be organized to help lower demands on space and infrastructure in cities? The application of flexible use of space and infrastructure can improve the efficiency of a UDC, but the challenge lies in the organization of the application of flexibility. Methods: The goal of this research was to identify how flexibility can be organized to impact overall societal benefits for the stakeholders in UDCs. This explorative and qualitative research was applied to the case of Food Center Amsterdam. Results: The results show that stakeholders have a limited understanding of the potential that flexibility can offer; that there is a need for an independent organizing capability and responsibility for collaboration on flexibility; and that a clear way to divide costs, benefits, risks, and opportunities in relation to stakeholder interests is required. Conclusions: Overall, flexibility shows potential to improve the efficient use of infrastructure and space. Further research avenues include the initiation of an organizing capability and distribution method for costs, benefits, risks, and opportunities between stakeholders. The remaining question is, can we get this organized in order to do more with less? Full article
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32 pages, 2503 KiB  
Article
Do We Perform Systematic Literature Review Right? A Scientific Mapping and Methodological Assessment
Logistics 2023, 7(4), 89; https://doi.org/10.3390/logistics7040089 - 27 Nov 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2040
Abstract
Background: Systematic literature review (SLR) is increasingly utilized to maximize the element of rigor and minimize the individual bias of research synthesis. An analysis of the Web of Science (WoS) database indicates that 90% of the literature review studies using SLR have [...] Read more.
Background: Systematic literature review (SLR) is increasingly utilized to maximize the element of rigor and minimize the individual bias of research synthesis. An analysis of the Web of Science (WoS) database indicates that 90% of the literature review studies using SLR have been published between 2012 and 2022. However, this progressive agenda is impaired by the lack of methodological consistency and rigorousness. To fill this gap, this paper aims at mapping the theoretical comprehension and practices of SLR and providing a stepwise approach to employing such a framework. Methods: A comprehensive narrative review is used in this paper to analyze the studies concerning the literature review typology and the structural assessment of the SLR. Furthermore, the methodological approach of the literature review studies that adopted the SLR and were published in the Logistics journal is assessed across a set of vital criteria associated with conducting an SLR. Results: There is a concrete link between the purpose of a review, i.e., to describe, test, extend, or critique, and the literature review type. There are 17 distinct literature review types, e.g., a narrative review, a bibliometric analysis, etc., which must be justified meticulously regardless of the SLR. The ambiguity in conceiving the SLR either as a toolkit or a review type, the lack of justification regarding the review purpose and type, and vague conceptual distinguishment between the bibliometric analysis, as a distinct review type, and the SLR framework, are only a few of the shortcomings observed in the analyzed papers. Conclusions: Given the significant role of SLR in elevating the element of rigor within the literature review studies, it is deemed essential to employ this framework by paying attention to two holistic factors: (1) theoretical distinction between the literature review purpose, the literature review type, and the SLR; (2) strict adherence to the SLR procedure with a high degree of accuracy and explicitness. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainable Logistics in the New Era)
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42 pages, 3038 KiB  
Article
A Conceptual Framework for Logistics Management and Project Planning in the Clinical Trials Industry
Logistics 2023, 7(4), 88; https://doi.org/10.3390/logistics7040088 - 24 Nov 2023
Viewed by 1422
Abstract
Background: Logistics management in the clinical trials industry is a very challenging undertaking because it involves multiple stakeholders, complex processes, diverse software applications, intensive white-collar jobs, and onerous quality standards. Current business practices are inefficient and difficult to automate technologies. Methods: [...] Read more.
Background: Logistics management in the clinical trials industry is a very challenging undertaking because it involves multiple stakeholders, complex processes, diverse software applications, intensive white-collar jobs, and onerous quality standards. Current business practices are inefficient and difficult to automate technologies. Methods: This paper reviews the theories and concepts of clinical trials logistics management. The inefficiencies in current logistics management industry are then addressed by building a conceptual framework based on contemporary software tools and architectures, such as web portals, software agents, business process management system, project cards, and resource cards, all interacting with specialized software applications such as accounting, inventory, and label design software. The framework supports data analysis at multiple levels of decision making. To this end, a project planning tool for facilitating and optimizing the operational planning in this industry is designed and presented. Results: The planning tool also contributes to the literature by contrasting several different resource scenarios such as the shared pool, dedicated resources for each project, and the creation of several work groups with dedicated resources. These are Pareto trade-offs. Conclusions: A framework employing a business process management is proposed for clinical trials logistics management. Different managerial scenarios with shared, dedicated, and work group resources are investigated using a case study. Full article
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23 pages, 3077 KiB  
Article
A Multi-Stage Approach for External Trucks and Yard Cranes Scheduling with CO2 Emissions Considerations in Container Terminals
Logistics 2023, 7(4), 87; https://doi.org/10.3390/logistics7040087 - 22 Nov 2023
Viewed by 1179
Abstract
Background: In container terminals, optimizing the scheduling of external trucks and yard cranes is crucial as it directly impacts the truck turnaround time, which is one of the most critical performance measures. Furthermore, proper scheduling of external trucks contributes to reducing [...] Read more.
Background: In container terminals, optimizing the scheduling of external trucks and yard cranes is crucial as it directly impacts the truck turnaround time, which is one of the most critical performance measures. Furthermore, proper scheduling of external trucks contributes to reducing CO2 emissions. Methods: This paper proposes a new approach based on a mixed integer programming model to schedule external trucks and yard cranes with the objective of minimizing CO2 emissions and reducing truck turnaround time, the gap between trucking companies’ preferred arrival time and appointed time, and the energy consumption of yard cranes. The proposed approach combines data analysis and operations research techniques. Specifically, it employs a K-means clustering algorithm to reduce the number of necessary truck trips for container handling. Additionally, a two-stage mathematical model is applied. The first stage employs a bi-objective mathematical model to plan the arrival of external trucks at the terminal gates. The second stage involves a mathematical model that schedules yard cranes’ movements between different yard blocks. Results: The results show that implementing this methodology in a hypothetical case study may lead to a substantial daily reduction of approximately 31% in CO2 emissions. Additionally, the results provide valuable insights into the trade-off between satisfying the trucking companies’ preferred arrival time and the total turnaround time. Conclusions: The integration of data clustering with mathematical modeling demonstrates a notable reduction in emissions, underscoring the viability of this strategy in promoting sustainability in port-related activities. Full article
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19 pages, 3163 KiB  
Article
Deep Learning and Statistical Models for Forecasting Transportation Demand: A Case Study of Multiple Distribution Centers
Logistics 2023, 7(4), 86; https://doi.org/10.3390/logistics7040086 - 22 Nov 2023
Viewed by 1387
Abstract
Background: Transportation demand forecasting is an essential activity for logistics operators and carriers. It leverages business operation decisions, infrastructure, management, and resource planning activities. Since 2015, there has been an increase in the use of deep learning models in this domain. However, [...] Read more.
Background: Transportation demand forecasting is an essential activity for logistics operators and carriers. It leverages business operation decisions, infrastructure, management, and resource planning activities. Since 2015, there has been an increase in the use of deep learning models in this domain. However, there is a gap in works comparing traditional statistics and deep learning models for transportation demand forecasts. This work aimed to perform a case study of aggregated transportation demand forecasts in 54 distribution centers of a Brazilian carrier. Methods: A computational simulation and case study methods were applied, exploring the characteristics of the datasets through autoregressive integrated moving average (ARIMA) and its variations, in addition to a deep neural network, long short-term memory, known as LSTM. Eight scenarios were explored while considering different data preprocessing methods and evaluating how outliers, training and testing dataset splits during cross-validation, and the relevant hyperparameters of each model can affect the demand forecast. Results: The long short-term memory networks were observed to outperform the statistical methods in ninety-four percent of the dispatching units over the evaluated scenarios, while the autoregressive integrated moving average modeled the remaining five percent. Conclusions: This work found that forecasting transportation demands can address practical issues in supply chains, specially resource planning management. Full article
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21 pages, 4978 KiB  
Article
Modeling Hospital Operating Theater Services: A System Dynamics Approach
Logistics 2023, 7(4), 85; https://doi.org/10.3390/logistics7040085 - 17 Nov 2023
Viewed by 1238
Abstract
Background: A hospital’s operating theater service system is a large-scale, complicated system that must be carefully managed to offer the best possible results for its patients. Unlike other industries such as manufacturing and logistics, system dynamics (SD) methodologies are not extensively applied [...] Read more.
Background: A hospital’s operating theater service system is a large-scale, complicated system that must be carefully managed to offer the best possible results for its patients. Unlike other industries such as manufacturing and logistics, system dynamics (SD) methodologies are not extensively applied in hospital operating theaters. This study deals with the future development and possible future scenarios for hospital operating rooms in Bangladesh. Methods: Due to demographic dynamics and demographic processes, increased pressures on hospital care are expected in Bangladesh. The SD model anticipates possible future scenarios, reconciles service capacities and the variability of patient demand, and reduces patient congestion and waiting times in the hospital area. This study introduces a causal loop diagram to show a causal link between the hospital operating theater system variables. It also introduces a stock flow diagram to understand the dynamic behavior of the system. Results: The model validation testing reports that in extreme conditions, such as a 50% reduction in the patient arrival rate, the model is valid and runs as usual. Conclusions: This first work of SD modeling for hospital operating theater systems can help healthcare managers, decision makers, or researchers of any responsibility level make better predictions in order to reduce patient waiting times and backlogs and make appropriate decisions. Full article
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16 pages, 295 KiB  
Article
Adopting Technological Innovations in the Air Cargo Logistics Industry in South Africa
Logistics 2023, 7(4), 84; https://doi.org/10.3390/logistics7040084 - 16 Nov 2023
Viewed by 1452
Abstract
Background: The air cargo logistics industry has been deemed reluctant to adopt new technologies for their business operations. So, this study aims to examine the adoption of technological innovations in the air cargo logistics industry in South Africa. The specific objective is to [...] Read more.
Background: The air cargo logistics industry has been deemed reluctant to adopt new technologies for their business operations. So, this study aims to examine the adoption of technological innovations in the air cargo logistics industry in South Africa. The specific objective is to emphasise the effects of technologies on air cargo logistics operations to address the reluctance to adopt technological innovations in the industry. Methods: A questionnaire survey was conducted randomly on three hundred and seventy-three (373) cargo agents at the OR Tambo International Airport. The data were subjected to a nonparametric test with Kruskal–Wallis, exploratory factor analysis and regression analysis to explore the effects of technologies for prompt adoption and implementation of emerging innovations that enhance quality service delivery. Results: The study found that promptly adopting emerging technological innovations in the air cargo logistics industry promotes efficient operations, improves warehousing, and enhances cargo delivery services for customer satisfaction. Also, the study established that technologically driven operations and warehousing are significant determinants of quality service delivery in the air cargo logistics industry. Conclusions: This study encourages the prompt adoption and implementation of technological innovations for improved quality service delivery, customer satisfaction, and loyalty in the air cargo logistics industry. Full article
9 pages, 389 KiB  
Editorial
Current State and Future of International Logistics Networks—The Role of Digitalization and Sustainability in a Globalized World
Logistics 2023, 7(4), 83; https://doi.org/10.3390/logistics7040083 - 11 Nov 2023
Viewed by 1579
Abstract
The management of international logistics networks poses major challenges for companies [...] Full article
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13 pages, 1448 KiB  
Article
An Innovative Framework for Quality Assurance in Logistics Packaging
Logistics 2023, 7(4), 82; https://doi.org/10.3390/logistics7040082 - 07 Nov 2023
Viewed by 1990
Abstract
Background: As a result of the effort to satisfy unique customer needs, the complexity of production and service processes is constantly increasing. In this context, the requirements for packaging systems, essential for carrying out logistic tasks, are also diversifying, and various quality [...] Read more.
Background: As a result of the effort to satisfy unique customer needs, the complexity of production and service processes is constantly increasing. In this context, the requirements for packaging systems, essential for carrying out logistic tasks, are also diversifying, and various quality defects and problems are appearing more and more frequently. Methods: The research used an inductive method. While practical problems were being solved, the need for developing the concept of a packaging inspection framework arose, the lack of which was also supported by a systematic literature review. Results: During the concept’s development, packaging errors found in the literature were identified and methods for detection and solution were systematized. A general framework was developed to identify and eliminate these errors. The applicability of the developed method was demonstrated through a complex case study, and its accuracy was verified. Conclusions: This research is important because, instead of using “island” solutions, in the future, companies will have a general framework available to them for handling all packaging-related errors according to a predefined methodology. This can reduce the time required for problem-solving and increase efficiency, which is a significant competitive factor. Full article
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12 pages, 288 KiB  
Article
Dynamic Capabilities and Digital Transformation in the COVID-19 Era: Implications from Driving Schools
Logistics 2023, 7(4), 81; https://doi.org/10.3390/logistics7040081 - 06 Nov 2023
Viewed by 1189
Abstract
Background: The COVID-19 pandemic is a worldwide threat that has positioned micro-enterprises under enormous tension to persevere. As a result, these businesses are obligated to respond to the epidemic in an efficacious manner. In order to weather this economic storm, micro-enterprises have implemented [...] Read more.
Background: The COVID-19 pandemic is a worldwide threat that has positioned micro-enterprises under enormous tension to persevere. As a result, these businesses are obligated to respond to the epidemic in an efficacious manner. In order to weather this economic storm, micro-enterprises have implemented a variety of digital technologies. Methods: The research investigates the connection between the communications technology of driving schools and the public crisis responses of those driving schools using a data set obtained from a survey administered to those schools. Results: The quantitative findings demonstrate that digitalization has made it possible for driving schools to efficiently and successfully respond to the public dilemma by utilizing their resilient functionality. In addition, digitalization can greatly enhance driving schools’ performance. Conclusions: This paper provides drawings for digitalization and crisis responses for driving schools. Full article
17 pages, 694 KiB  
Review
A Systematic Literature Review on the Application of Automation in Logistics
Logistics 2023, 7(4), 80; https://doi.org/10.3390/logistics7040080 - 03 Nov 2023
Viewed by 1787
Abstract
Background: in recent years, automation has emerged as a hot topic, showcasing its capacity to perform tasks independently, without constant supervision. While automation has witnessed substantial growth in various sectors like engineering and medicine, the logistics industry has yet to witness an [...] Read more.
Background: in recent years, automation has emerged as a hot topic, showcasing its capacity to perform tasks independently, without constant supervision. While automation has witnessed substantial growth in various sectors like engineering and medicine, the logistics industry has yet to witness an equivalent surge in research and implementation. Therefore, it becomes imperative to explore the application of automation in logistics. Methods: this article aims to provide a systematic analysis of the scientific literature concerning artificial intelligence (AI) and automation in logistics, laying the groundwork for robust and relevant advancements in the field. Results: the foundation of automation lies in cutting-edge technologies such as AI, machine learning, and deep learning, enabling self-problem resolution and autonomous task execution, reducing the reliance on human labor. Consequently, the implementation of smart logistics through automation has the potential to enhance competitiveness and minimize the margin of error. The impact of AI and robot-driven logistics on automation in logistics is profound. Through collaborative efforts in human–robot integration (HRI), there emerges an opportunity to develop social service robots that coexist harmoniously with humans. This integration can lead to a revolutionary transformation in logistics operations. By exploring the scientific literature on AI and automation in logistics, this article seeks to unravel critical insights into the practical application of automation, thus bridging the existing research gap in the logistics industry. Conclusions: the findings underscore the impact of artificial intelligence and robot-driven logistics on improving operational efficiency, reducing errors, and enhancing competitiveness. The research also provided valuable insights into the applications of various automation techniques, including machine learning and deep learning, in the logistics domain. Hence, the study’s insights can guide practitioners and decision makers in implementing effective automation strategies, thereby improving overall performance and adaptability in the dynamic logistics landscape. Understanding these foundations can pave the way for a future where automation and human expertise work hand in hand to drive logistics toward unparalleled efficiency and success. Full article
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18 pages, 3669 KiB  
Article
Evolving Hybrid Deep Neural Network Models for End-to-End Inventory Ordering Decisions
Logistics 2023, 7(4), 79; https://doi.org/10.3390/logistics7040079 - 02 Nov 2023
Viewed by 1198
Abstract
Background: Over the past decade, the potential advantages of employing deep learning models and leveraging auxiliary data in data-driven end-to-end (E2E) frameworks to enhance inventory decision-making have gained recognition. However, current approaches predominantly rely on feed-forward networks, which may have difficulty capturing temporal [...] Read more.
Background: Over the past decade, the potential advantages of employing deep learning models and leveraging auxiliary data in data-driven end-to-end (E2E) frameworks to enhance inventory decision-making have gained recognition. However, current approaches predominantly rely on feed-forward networks, which may have difficulty capturing temporal correlations in time series data and identifying relevant features, resulting in less accurate predictions. Methods: Addressing this gap, we introduce novel E2E deep learning frameworks that combine Convolutional Neural Networks (CNN) and Long Short-Term Memory (LSTM) for resolving single-period inventory ordering decisions, also termed the Newsvendor Problem (NVP). This study investigates the performance drivers of hybrid CNN-LSTM architectures, coupled with an evolving algorithm for optimizing network configuration. Results: Empirical evaluation of real-world retail data demonstrates that our proposed models proficiently extract pertinent features and interpret sequential data characteristics, leading to more accurate and informed ordering decisions. Notably, results showcase substantial benefits, yielding up to an 85% reduction in costs compared to a univariate benchmark and up to 40% savings compared to a feed-forward E2E deep learning architecture. Conclusions: This confirms that, in practical scenarios, understanding the impact of features on demand empowers decision-makers to derive tailored, cost-effective ordering decisions for each store or product category. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Artificial Intelligence, Logistics Analytics, and Automation)
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18 pages, 881 KiB  
Article
Climate Justice Implications of Banning Air-Freighted Fresh Produce
Logistics 2023, 7(4), 78; https://doi.org/10.3390/logistics7040078 - 02 Nov 2023
Viewed by 1389
Abstract
Background: Airfreight transport refers to the shipment of goods by air from one location to another and is often perceived as a contributor to global carbon emissions. The environmental impacts associated with airfreight are of notable and genuine concern. Such concerns have [...] Read more.
Background: Airfreight transport refers to the shipment of goods by air from one location to another and is often perceived as a contributor to global carbon emissions. The environmental impacts associated with airfreight are of notable and genuine concern. Such concerns have often led to calls for measures to ban or limit air freight as a mode of transportation for goods. Whilst the majority of these calls are perceived to be well placed, it is nevertheless essential to acknowledge the climate justice implications associated with such measures, particularly in the context of perishable products like fresh produce. Methods: The aim of this study is to thoroughly examine the socioeconomic implications of banning air-freighted fresh produce and to recommend practices that can minimize the environmental impacts. Utilizing Blue Skies Holdings Ltd., Pitsford, UK as a case study, this paper undertakes a comprehensive analysis of the potential climate justice ramifications associated with the prohibition of air-freighted fresh produce. Results: The analysis highlights the intricate interplay between the environmental and socioeconomic dimensions of the issue. By investigating the carbon emissions attributed to aviation and air logistics in particular and meticulously scrutinizing the possible consequences of an airfreight ban in relation to vulnerable communities within developing economies that are heavily reliant on fresh produce exports, the study contributes insights to guide policy discourse and the decision-making processes within commercial entities with respect to their carbon emissions reduction strategies. Conclusions: Accordingly, this study provides a number of recommendations for various actors, particularly commercial stakeholders, who deal with air-freighted fresh produce. Full article
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25 pages, 3442 KiB  
Article
A Two-Storage Inventory Model with Trade Credit Policy and Time-Varying Holding Cost under Quantity Discounts
Logistics 2023, 7(4), 77; https://doi.org/10.3390/logistics7040077 - 27 Oct 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1472
Abstract
Background: What are the cumulative influences of pricing, promotions of commodities, order size-based discount opportunities, and alternative warehousing scenarios on effective decision-making concerning inventory management? It is observed that the prices and promotion of products influence the demand rate. The shortage can be [...] Read more.
Background: What are the cumulative influences of pricing, promotions of commodities, order size-based discount opportunities, and alternative warehousing scenarios on effective decision-making concerning inventory management? It is observed that the prices and promotion of products influence the demand rate. The shortage can be partially backlogged, and the backlogging rate depends on the waiting time. Also, discount and trade credit facilities may be available when purchasing items. This paper describes a novel inventory control model regarding optimal warehousing decision-making scenarios. Methods: This paper includes the facts in its hypothesis and examines the overall impact of the mentioned issues on profitability. The inventory carrying scheme associated with the proposed model consists of both rented and owned warehouse facilities in which the cost increases linearly with time. The numerical and visual simulation succeeds the mathematical approach to analyze the proposed inventory model in Mathematica software. Results: The results show that a price hike enhances profit despite the negative impact on demand creation. Also, promotion frequency favors profitability, suppressing the corresponding costs. Another managerial intuition is revealed through the numerical result that the stock should be held in a rented warehouse when deterioration in the owned warehouse increases, despite the cost of a rented warehouse. Conclusions: Besides several mentioned management insights, this study includes several existing models as particular cases and tackles challenges in the analytical optimization approach. This study leads toward the consequences of future research scopes with industry-based raw data. Full article
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23 pages, 1328 KiB  
Article
Cruising to Success: Unveiling the Financial Harmony of Container Shipping Firms through Total Quality Management and Service Excellence
Logistics 2023, 7(4), 76; https://doi.org/10.3390/logistics7040076 - 26 Oct 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1413
Abstract
Background: This paper revolves around a meticulous exploration aimed at discerning the impact of total quality management (TQM) and service quality (SQ) practices upon the financial performance (FP) of firms within the container shipping industry. Our pursuit extends further, delving into the intricacies [...] Read more.
Background: This paper revolves around a meticulous exploration aimed at discerning the impact of total quality management (TQM) and service quality (SQ) practices upon the financial performance (FP) of firms within the container shipping industry. Our pursuit extends further, delving into the intricacies of SQ as a potential mediating factor in the TQM–FP relationship. This distinctive study investigated six TQM practices in conjunction with five SQ factors, analyzing their impact on firm FP. Methods: This study used a quantitative research approach. Data were collected through a structured questionnaire from logistics specialists and experts in the shipping field. Results: The findings were interesting and showed that two TQM practices—managerial leadership and employee involvement—have a significant positive effect on SQ levels, and one SQ dimension, namely responsiveness, has the biggest and most significant effect on the FP of container shipping companies. Furthermore, SQ mediates the relationship between TQM and FP. Conclusions: This study provides a theoretical contribution by developing a conceptual model that elucidates the correlation between TQM practices and the degree of SQ on the FP of container shipping firms. Moreover, this study provides managers with a tool for identifying, prioritizing, and improving key TQM and SQ practices that contribute significantly to financial success. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Maritime and Transport Logistics)
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20 pages, 3354 KiB  
Article
Analyzing Key Performance Indicators for Mobility Logistics in Smart and Sustainable Cities: A Case Study Centered on Barcelona
Logistics 2023, 7(4), 75; https://doi.org/10.3390/logistics7040075 - 16 Oct 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1878
Abstract
Background: This article identifies and examines key performance indicators (KPIs) related to citizen mobility logistics in smart and sustainable urban areas. It begins with a comprehensive literature review to identify essential KPIs, offering valuable insights for both public and private stakeholders, including [...] Read more.
Background: This article identifies and examines key performance indicators (KPIs) related to citizen mobility logistics in smart and sustainable urban areas. It begins with a comprehensive literature review to identify essential KPIs, offering valuable insights for both public and private stakeholders, including policymakers and mobility service providers. Drawing from various mobility projects in smart cities, the study extracts common KPIs and best practices. The focus of the paper then turns to Barcelona, Spain, where KPIs that matter most are analyzed. Methods: Using open data from the city council spanning from 2017 onwards, the study provides insights into the evolving mobility logistics landscape. KPIs from other European cities are also considered by utilizing similar open data sources. This comparative analysis provides valuable benchmarks and reveals disparities in mobility logistics. Throughout this investigation, the paper emphasizes the role of data quality in KPI selection. Results: Reliable open data significantly influence indicator choices and present challenges when comparing cities. Remarkably, the findings consistently highlight environmental data as an area requiring attention in sustainable mobility logistics. Conclusions: This paper makes contributions by identifying and examining KPIs relevant to citizen mobility logistics in smart and sustainable urban areas. It offers insights by applying these KPIs to Barcelona and conducting comparative analyses with other European cities. These findings serve as a valuable resource for policymakers, city planners, and mobility experts. Full article
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16 pages, 380 KiB  
Article
E-Waste Management: An Analysis under the Perspective of Conflicts and Shared Responsibility
Logistics 2023, 7(4), 74; https://doi.org/10.3390/logistics7040074 - 12 Oct 2023
Viewed by 1565
Abstract
Background: The Brazilian National Solid Waste Policy establishes the shared responsibility of all actors involved in e-waste generation and management; however, some conflicts of interest need interventions and approaches for preventing them. Objective: This paper proposes using a graph model for [...] Read more.
Background: The Brazilian National Solid Waste Policy establishes the shared responsibility of all actors involved in e-waste generation and management; however, some conflicts of interest need interventions and approaches for preventing them. Objective: This paper proposes using a graph model for conflict resolution (GMCR) decision support system to simulate the analysis and resolution of realistic e-waste management conflicts. Method: A systematic literature review focused on e-waste management, shared responsibility and conflict management was conducted, and a graph model for conflict resolution (GMCR) decision support system was applied to generate a framework to address this context. Results: The need for commitment agreements promoted by government institutions in partnerships with companies involved in the process is essential since the principle of shared responsibility requires educational actions, favoring efficiency in the reverse logistics recovery procedures for e-waste. Understanding the interconnected causes of conflicts and their facets is crucial for effective resolution and prevention, aiding comprehension, focused interventions, and evidence-based decision-making for transformative change amidst conflicting stakeholder objectives in the case of WEEE management. These results can be helpful for academics and practitioners working in this area. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Sustainability and Reverse Logistics)
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21 pages, 5596 KiB  
Article
Determining Factors for Supply Chain Services Provider Selection and Long-Term Relationship Maintenance: Evidence from Greece
Logistics 2023, 7(4), 73; https://doi.org/10.3390/logistics7040073 - 09 Oct 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1449
Abstract
Background: Due to increased globalization and its subsequent rise in competitiveness, the role of supply chain services (3PL) in managing logistics, reducing operational and non-operational costs, and managing customer and supplier relationships, have become of utmost importance. Customer-centric production has led to the [...] Read more.
Background: Due to increased globalization and its subsequent rise in competitiveness, the role of supply chain services (3PL) in managing logistics, reducing operational and non-operational costs, and managing customer and supplier relationships, have become of utmost importance. Customer-centric production has led to the development of a close relationship between production processes. Amidst all this, the demand for logistic services has dramatically increased, thus putting more pressure on firms for enhanced operational results, and leading to the outsourcing of their internal and external logistic activities. On the other hand, supply chain firms that provide 3PL services seek to enhance their sustainability and predict their customers’ demand. Methods: The authors collected quantitative data from 81 firms that operate in various industrial sectors in Greece. A questionnaire was sent for completion, in which firms could rate and evaluate various aspects that were discerned as important for deciding to cooperate with a 3PL service provider and maintain this cooperation in the long run. To extract the required outcomes, statistical analyses like categorical regression (CATREG) and MANOVA were utilized. Results: The demand for 3PL services was affected by 3PL service providers’ operational performance based on accuracy, reputation, and IT capabilities, while the customer firms’ intention for maintaining cooperation with 3PL service providers was affected by their reliability level, improved service efficiency, and trustworthiness. Conclusions: 3PL service providers should seek to improve the reputation, IT infrastructure, and accuracy of their firm's operations to have a continuous demand for their services. Apart from that, 3PL service providers to maintain the cooperation with their customers, need to enhance the levels of their services reliability and efficiency, while also creating a bond of trust with their existing customers. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainable Logistics in the New Era)
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