Next Issue
Previous Issue

Table of Contents

Dent. J., Volume 6, Issue 3 (September 2018)

  • Issues are regarded as officially published after their release is announced to the table of contents alert mailing list.
  • You may sign up for e-mail alerts to receive table of contents of newly released issues.
  • PDF is the official format for papers published in both, html and pdf forms. To view the papers in pdf format, click on the "PDF Full-text" link, and use the free Adobe Readerexternal link to open them.
View options order results:
result details:
Displaying articles 1-26
Export citation of selected articles as:
Open AccessArticle Detection of Caries Around Resin-Modified Glass Ionomer and Compomer Restorations Using Four Different Modalities In Vitro
Dent. J. 2018, 6(3), 47; https://doi.org/10.3390/dj6030047
Received: 14 August 2018 / Revised: 9 September 2018 / Accepted: 11 September 2018 / Published: 16 September 2018
Viewed by 852 | PDF Full-text (890 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The aim of this study was to evaluate the ability of visual examination (International Caries Detection and Assessment System—ICDAS II), light-emitting diodes (LED) fluorescence (SPECTRA), laser fluorescence (DIAGNODent, DD), photothermal radiometry and modulated luminescence (PTR-LUM, The Canary System, CS) to detect natural decay
[...] Read more.
The aim of this study was to evaluate the ability of visual examination (International Caries Detection and Assessment System—ICDAS II), light-emitting diodes (LED) fluorescence (SPECTRA), laser fluorescence (DIAGNODent, DD), photothermal radiometry and modulated luminescence (PTR-LUM, The Canary System, CS) to detect natural decay beneath resin-modified glass ionomer (RMGIC) and compomer restorations in vitro. Twenty-seven extracted human molars and premolars, consisting of 2 control teeth, 10 visually healthy/sound and 15 teeth with natural cavitated lesions, were selected. For the carious teeth, caries was removed leaving some carious tissue on one wall of the preparation. For the sound teeth, 3 mm deep cavity preparations were made. All cavities were restored with RMGIC or compomer restorative materials. Sixty-eight sites (4 sites on sound unrestored teeth, 21 sound sites and 43 carious sites with restorations) were selected. CS and DD triplicate measurements were done at 2, 1.5, 0.5, and 0 mm away from the margin of the restoration (MOR). SPECTRA images were taken, and two dentists provided ICDAS II scoring for the restored surfaces. The SPECTRA data and images were inconclusive due to signal interference from the restorations. Visual examinations of the restored tooth surfaces were able to identify 5 of the 15 teeth with caries. In these situations, the teeth were ranked as having ICDAS II 1 or 2 rankings, but they could not identify the location of the caries or depth of the lesion. CS and DD were able to differentiate between sound and carious tissue at the MOR, but larger variation in measurement, and poorer accuracy, was observed for DD. It was concluded that the CS has the potential to detect secondary caries around RMGIC and compomer restorations more accurately than the other modalities used in this study. Full article
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle Assessment of Different Root Canal Preparation Techniques with Rotary Nickel-Titanium Instruments by Novice Students
Dent. J. 2018, 6(3), 46; https://doi.org/10.3390/dj6030046
Received: 5 July 2018 / Revised: 13 August 2018 / Accepted: 31 August 2018 / Published: 4 September 2018
Viewed by 710 | PDF Full-text (878 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
This study investigated which preparation strategy for root canals leads to the best technical preparation quality, and moreover, which is perceived to be performed best by novice students. Sixty-four students were recruited to prepare one simulated root canal with each of the following:
[...] Read more.
This study investigated which preparation strategy for root canals leads to the best technical preparation quality, and moreover, which is perceived to be performed best by novice students. Sixty-four students were recruited to prepare one simulated root canal with each of the following: FlexMaster files (F), Mtwo files (M), and Reciproc files (R). After preparation, the students assessed the different instrument systems through a questionnaire. The technical quality of the root canal preparations was evaluated by the centering ratio of the preparation. A total of 186 prepared root canals were submitted for evaluation. With R, significantly better centered preparations were achieved when compared to M and F (p < 0.001). The students evaluated R faster than M and F, and evaluated F significantly (p < 0.05) slower than R and M. M was rated as the easiest system to learn and to handle, as well as the best at reaching the working length; therefore, it was evaluated as the overall favorite of the students. A difference was found between the students’ perceptions and their achieved technical quality of root canal preparations. Full article
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle Influence of the EndoActivator Irrigation System on Dentinal Tubule Penetration of a Novel Tricalcium Silicate-Based Sealer
Dent. J. 2018, 6(3), 45; https://doi.org/10.3390/dj6030045
Received: 6 August 2018 / Revised: 30 August 2018 / Accepted: 30 August 2018 / Published: 3 September 2018
Viewed by 577 | PDF Full-text (9592 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This study compared the effects of a conventional endodontic needle with an agitation system on a novel tricalcium silicate-based sealer (NTS) in terms of dentinal tubule penetration and interfacial adaptation to a root canal. Fifty single-rooted, recently-extracted human maxillary central incisors were randomly
[...] Read more.
This study compared the effects of a conventional endodontic needle with an agitation system on a novel tricalcium silicate-based sealer (NTS) in terms of dentinal tubule penetration and interfacial adaptation to a root canal. Fifty single-rooted, recently-extracted human maxillary central incisors were randomly distributed into two homogeneous groups characterized by two different final cleansing systems: Conventional endodontic needle, or EndoActivator®. After instrumentation, all the teeth were filled with the gutta-percha single cone technique in conjunction with the novel tricalcium silicate-based sealer. Teeth were horizontally sectioned at 1 and 5 mm from the apex and were observed under a confocal laser scanning microscope (CLSM) at five magnifications. The maximum, mean, and the circumferential percentage of the sealer penetration inside the tubules were measured. Moreover, the gap width was evaluated using Image J software (National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD). EndoActivator® did not result in a significantly higher circumferential percentage of sealer penetration than conventional irrigation (p > 0.05). However, the gap width was significantly lower with EndoActivator®, compared to conventional needles at both 1 mm (p = 0.035) and 5 mm (p = 0.038). The EndoActivator® irrigation system did not significantly improve the NTS penetration, as compared to the conventional endodontic needle irrigation. Activation of the irrigation reduced the gap width significantly. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Dental Materials)
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle Restoration Strategies of Endodontically Treated Teeth among Dental Practitioners in Saudi Arabia. A Nationwide Pilot Survey
Dent. J. 2018, 6(3), 44; https://doi.org/10.3390/dj6030044
Received: 2 June 2018 / Revised: 24 August 2018 / Accepted: 30 August 2018 / Published: 3 September 2018
Viewed by 861 | PDF Full-text (1081 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The purpose of this study was to determine dental practitioners’ opinions, techniques, and materials used for the restoration of endodontically treated teeth (ETT) in Saudi Arabia. A comprehensive nationwide survey regarding treatment strategies of ETT, on the post types and material used for
[...] Read more.
The purpose of this study was to determine dental practitioners’ opinions, techniques, and materials used for the restoration of endodontically treated teeth (ETT) in Saudi Arabia. A comprehensive nationwide survey regarding treatment strategies of ETT, on the post types and material used for core foundations were distributed either by email or by hard copies to general dentists in different parts of Saudi Arabia (North, South, West, East, and Center). Descriptive statistics were used to analyze the responses to the questions. A total of 164 participants were included in the survey: 72.6% of them were male, and 27.4% were female. 42.1% of the participants were Saudi dental practitioners, whereas 57.9% were non-Saudi dental practitioners. Out of the surveyed dentists, 52% consider post placement for almost every post-endodontic restoration of ETT. The majority of the dentists (54%) believe that a post strengthens ETT. Cast posts and cores were used by 55% of all the dentists, whereas 34% used prefabricated posts exclusively. Screw posts were the most popular prefabricated post type (47%). Composite resin (51%) was preferred for the core foundation, followed by glass ionomer cements (GICs) (26%). Amalgam was seldom used (0.5%). Posts were placed primarily with zinc phosphate cement (51%), followed by GIC (38%). Within the limitations of this survey-based investigation among dental practitioners in Saudi Arabia, it was concluded that the treatment strategies of ETT are in accordance with the current state of evidence-based knowledge. Full article
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle The Use of Orientation Templates and Free-Hand Implant Insertion in Artificial Mandibles—An Experimental Laboratory Examination in Fifth-Year Dental Students
Dent. J. 2018, 6(3), 43; https://doi.org/10.3390/dj6030043
Received: 15 July 2018 / Revised: 15 August 2018 / Accepted: 29 August 2018 / Published: 1 September 2018
Viewed by 429 | PDF Full-text (1026 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Implant dentistry is a growing field in the education of undergraduate dental students. The present laboratory study evaluates factors which may potentially influence the accuracy of free-hand implant insertion and the use of an orientation template. After three-dimensional planning using coDiagnostiXTM,
[...] Read more.
Implant dentistry is a growing field in the education of undergraduate dental students. The present laboratory study evaluates factors which may potentially influence the accuracy of free-hand implant insertion and the use of an orientation template. After three-dimensional planning using coDiagnostiXTM, orientation templates, including sleeves for the pilot-drill in regions 41 and 45, were manufactured by thermoforming. Sixty-one fifth year dental students inserted one implant using the orientation template and another implant free-hand in an artificial mandible. Information regarding age, sex, handedness, education, and the time required for implant insertion were recorded. Subsequently, the mandibles were scanned using cone-beam-computed tomography and the accuracy of the implant position was assessed, while statistical analysis followed. The free-hand implant insertion resulted in a distal deviation of −1.34 ± 5.15° and a mesial mismatch of 0.06 ± 0.79 mm at the artificial bone level compared to the sleeves. When using the orientation templates, the deviation decreased to −0.67 ± 3.48° and a distal mismatch of −0.22 ± 0.62 mm was achieved. The difference was statistically significant for the mismatch (p < 0.049). Regarding the limitations of our study, it could be said that the accuracy level achieved by dental undergraduates using implant placement with orientation templates is comparable to that in other studies. Full article
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessComment Osteonecrosis of the Jaw in Myeloma Patients Receiving Denosumab or Zoledronic Acid. Comment on Pivotal Trial by Raje et al. Published on Lancet Oncology
Dent. J. 2018, 6(3), 42; https://doi.org/10.3390/dj6030042
Received: 22 July 2018 / Revised: 22 August 2018 / Accepted: 27 August 2018 / Published: 1 September 2018
Viewed by 567 | PDF Full-text (197 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The recent randomized trial, published by Raje et al., on Lancet Oncology is potentially practice changing. It proposes that denosumab is a valid alternative to zoledronic acid in the treatment of myeloma patients. However, several points need further data and more details, such
[...] Read more.
The recent randomized trial, published by Raje et al., on Lancet Oncology is potentially practice changing. It proposes that denosumab is a valid alternative to zoledronic acid in the treatment of myeloma patients. However, several points need further data and more details, such as information on incidence, diagnosis, and follow-up of osteonecrosis of the jaw (ONJ) cases, observed among treated patients. Adopted definition to adjudicate ONJ cases, type of registration of potential ONJ cases, length of observation are possible causes of potential underestimation of ONJ incidence in their study. Future updated evaluations with longer follow-up, and including actuarial estimation, are required for final judgment on ONJ risk in myeloma patients receiving denosumab, and comparison with ONJ risk by zoledronic acid. Full article
Open AccessArticle Wind Instrumentalists and Temporomandibular Disorder: From Diagnosis to Treatment
Dent. J. 2018, 6(3), 41; https://doi.org/10.3390/dj6030041
Received: 20 July 2018 / Revised: 9 August 2018 / Accepted: 16 August 2018 / Published: 23 August 2018
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 754 | PDF Full-text (6763 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Introduction: Temporomandibular disorders (TMD) involve the presence of pain or dysfunction on certain areas of the Cranio-Cervico-Mandibular Complex (CCMC), such as the masticatory muscles, the temporomandibular joint (TMJ) and associated structures like the postural muscles of the cervical region, can be considered as
[...] Read more.
Introduction: Temporomandibular disorders (TMD) involve the presence of pain or dysfunction on certain areas of the Cranio-Cervico-Mandibular Complex (CCMC), such as the masticatory muscles, the temporomandibular joint (TMJ) and associated structures like the postural muscles of the cervical region, can be considered as a sub-group of musculoskeletal disorders. Wind instrument players, as a consequence of their musical performance and its relation with the CCMC, can develop a TMD associated to muscle hyperactivity of certain elevator muscles, or even an increase of the intra-articular pressure in the functioning of the TMJ throughout musical activity. Aim: The objective of this paper is to describe the necessary and elementary steps in the diagnoses and treatment of a wind instrumentalist with a temporomandibular disorder, with the introduction of infrared thermography during this procedure. This case study also has the purpose of presenting the usefulness of piezoresistive sensors in the analysis of the clarinettists’ embouchure. Methodology: A Caucasian, 30-year-old female clarinettist was assessed through a clinical examination following the Diagnostic Criteria for TMD (RDC/TMD), as a complementary tool of diagnosis, a thermal imaging infrared camera, Flir E60 (Wilsonville, OR, USA), was used in order to analyse the above referred articular and muscular regions. The complementary examination protocol implemented with this clarinet player also involved the analyses of the embouchure with the support of piezoresistive sensors. Results: The clinical outcomes resulting from this work were based on the RDC/TMD diagnoses indicated that the clarinet player had an internal derangement on both TMJ, with an osteoarthritis on the left TMJ and an anterior disc displacement with reduction on the right TMJ. The infrared thermograms that were analysed, verified the existence of a temperature differential of the anterior temporal muscle (0.1 °C), the TMJ (0.1 °C) and the masseter muscle (0.7 °C), and after the occlusal splint therapy the asymmetry related to the master muscle reduced to 0.3 °C. The high pitches can reach values of 379 g of force induced to the tooth 21 comparing to the 88 g of force applied on tooth 11. The embouchure force measurements consistently presented greater forces during the higher notes, followed by the medium notes and finally the low notes and this happened with higher pressures being transmitted always to tooth 21. Conclusion: Performing arts medicine should understand the major importance of the dentistry field in the daily life of a professional musician, and the significance of implementing routine screening procedures of dental examinations, with infrared thermograms examination of distinct areas of the CCMC, as well as the use of sensors on the analyses of an eventual asymmetrical embouchure. Employing these techniques in dentistry will create the chance of preventing the overuse of some anatomical structures, with an early diagnosis and the correct monitoring of these areas. Full article
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle Evaluating the Mechanical Properties, and Calcium and Fluoride Release of Glass-Ionomer Cement Modified with Chicken Eggshell Powder
Dent. J. 2018, 6(3), 40; https://doi.org/10.3390/dj6030040
Received: 5 July 2018 / Revised: 13 August 2018 / Accepted: 15 August 2018 / Published: 18 August 2018
Viewed by 631 | PDF Full-text (698 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The aim of this study was to test the effect of adding chicken eggshell powder (CESP) to conventional glass-ionomer cement (GIC) on its mechanical properties, and fluoride and calcium release. CESP was added with proportions of 3% and 5% by weight to the
[...] Read more.
The aim of this study was to test the effect of adding chicken eggshell powder (CESP) to conventional glass-ionomer cement (GIC) on its mechanical properties, and fluoride and calcium release. CESP was added with proportions of 3% and 5% by weight to the powder component of conventional glass-ionomer cement. The specimens were categorized into group A: GIC without CESP; group B: GIC with 3% wt. CESP; and group C: GIC with 5% wt. CESP; there were 12 specimens in each group. Groups B and C showed higher compressive strength values compared to group A. However, microhardness scores were higher in group C compared to groups A and B. As for ion-release results, group B displayed the highest values of fluoride release followed by group C at both 7 and 30 days. Group C showed the highest amount of calcium release followed by both groups B and C at 7 days, while at 30 days, groups A and B showed higher calcium release compared to group C. The mechanical properties of conventional glass-ionomer restorative material were enhanced by the addition of CESP. Moreover, fluoride and calcium release were not compromised by adding CESP. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Restorative and Esthetic Dentistry)
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle Enamel Roughness Changes after Removal of Orthodontic Adhesive
Dent. J. 2018, 6(3), 39; https://doi.org/10.3390/dj6030039
Received: 28 June 2018 / Revised: 31 July 2018 / Accepted: 1 August 2018 / Published: 6 August 2018
Viewed by 628 | PDF Full-text (1520 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The aim of this study was to evaluate enamel roughness, quality of the enamel surfaces and time duration comparing different orthodontic adhesive removal protocols. Premolars were used to test three adhesive removal methods (n = 20): five-blade carbide bur, 30-blade carbide bur,
[...] Read more.
The aim of this study was to evaluate enamel roughness, quality of the enamel surfaces and time duration comparing different orthodontic adhesive removal protocols. Premolars were used to test three adhesive removal methods (n = 20): five-blade carbide bur, 30-blade carbide bur, and ultrasonic diamond bur. Bracket was bonded using TransbondTM XT adhesive. Roughness with different parameters was measured before bracket bonding and after adhesive remnants removal. Micromorphological analysis of enamel surface (n = 5) was performed by SEM images and categorized in enamel damage index—“perfect”; “satisfying”; “imperfect”; and “unacceptable”. Time was measured in seconds. All removal methods caused increased roughness in relation to Ra, Rq, and Rz parameters (X axis) comparing to healthy enamel surface. Enamel surface resulted from removal using five-blade burs was scored as satisfactory. Carbide bur groups decreased the roughness values of Ra, Rq, and Rz parameters on the Y axis and enamel surface was considered unacceptable. The 30-blade group increased symmetry (Rsk) and flattening (Rku) parameters of roughness and surface was scored as unsatisfactory. Diamond bur removed adhesive in 54.8 s, faster than five-blade carbide bur. The five-blade bur group resulted in less enamel roughness than the 30-blade and diamond groups. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dental Hygiene and Epidemiology)
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessFeature PaperArticle Green Tea Polyphenol Epigallocatechin-3-Gallate-Stearate Inhibits the Growth of Streptococcus mutans: A Promising New Approach in Caries Prevention
Dent. J. 2018, 6(3), 38; https://doi.org/10.3390/dj6030038
Received: 7 July 2018 / Revised: 30 July 2018 / Accepted: 1 August 2018 / Published: 6 August 2018
Viewed by 802 | PDF Full-text (2810 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Streptococcus mutans (S. mutans) is the main etiological bacteria present in the oral cavity that leads to dental caries. All of the S. mutans in the oral cavity form biofilms that adhere to the surfaces of teeth. Dental caries are infections
[...] Read more.
Streptococcus mutans (S. mutans) is the main etiological bacteria present in the oral cavity that leads to dental caries. All of the S. mutans in the oral cavity form biofilms that adhere to the surfaces of teeth. Dental caries are infections facilitated by the development of biofilm. An esterified derivative of epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG), epigallocatechin-3-gallate-stearate (EGCG-S), was used in this study to assess its ability to inhibit the growth and biofilm formation of S. mutans. The effect of EGCG-S on bacterial growth was evaluated with colony forming units (CFU) and log reduction; biofilm formation was qualitatively determined by Congo red assay, and quantitatively determined by crystal violet assay, fluorescence-based LIVE/DEAD assays to study the cell viability, and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was used to evaluate the morphological changes. The results indicated that EGCG-S was able to completely inhibit growth and biofilm formation at concentrations of 250 µg/mL. Its effectiveness was also compared with a commonly prescribed mouthwash in the United States, chlorhexidine gluconate. EGCG-S was shown to be equally effective in reducing S. mutans growth as chlorhexidine gluconate. In conclusion, EGCG-S is potentially an anticariogenic agent by reducing bacterial presence in the oral cavity. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Endodontic Microbiology)
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle Analysis of Chemical Composition of Different Irreversible Hydrocolloids
Dent. J. 2018, 6(3), 37; https://doi.org/10.3390/dj6030037
Received: 4 July 2018 / Revised: 29 July 2018 / Accepted: 31 July 2018 / Published: 2 August 2018
Viewed by 748 | PDF Full-text (232 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Irreversible hydrocolloids (IR) is a dental impression material commonly used in Brazilian and European dental practice because it is inexpensive, easy to handle, has good reproductive detail and is comfortable for the patient. This research aimed to analyze the chemical composition of eight
[...] Read more.
Irreversible hydrocolloids (IR) is a dental impression material commonly used in Brazilian and European dental practice because it is inexpensive, easy to handle, has good reproductive detail and is comfortable for the patient. This research aimed to analyze the chemical composition of eight different IRs for dental use. A sample of 0.2 g was weighed and transferred to a Teflon beaker moistened with drops of distilled or deionized water; 5 mL of nitric acid was added until total solubility of the sample; the solution was transferred to a 100 mL volumetric flask, the volume was filled with distilled or deionized water and homogenized. Thirty-five chemical elements were found: Lithium, Beryllium, Boron, Sodium, Magnesium, Aluminum, Silicon, Phosphorus, Potassium, Titanium, Manganese, Cobalt, Nickel, Vanadium, Zinc, Rubidium, Arsenic, Iron, Copper, Strontium, Yttrium, Zirconium, Niobium, Molybdenum, Ruthenium, Cadmium, Tin, Antimony, Barium, Lanthanum, Cerium, Mercury, Lead, Thorium and Uranium. Only one of the samples contained no Nickel, Antimony and Lead; and Arsenic and Uranium were found in 2 samples. This study provided evidence of high toxicity of the IR brands, pointing out the need for better quality control of this product, in order to prevent health damage in dentists, prosthesis technicians and patients. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Dental Materials)
Open AccessCase Report Successful Regenerative Endodontic Procedure of a Nonvital Immature Permanent Central Incisor Using Amniotic Membrane as a Novel Scaffold
Dent. J. 2018, 6(3), 36; https://doi.org/10.3390/dj6030036
Received: 20 June 2018 / Revised: 14 July 2018 / Accepted: 17 July 2018 / Published: 2 August 2018
Viewed by 780 | PDF Full-text (578 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Successful regenerative endodontic procedure was performed in nonvital immature permanent central incisor (Stage-4 root development) using human amniotic membrane (HAM) as a novel scaffold. The treatment was performed according to the American Association of Endodontics guidelines with minimal canal instrumentation, 1% Sodium hypochlorite
[...] Read more.
Successful regenerative endodontic procedure was performed in nonvital immature permanent central incisor (Stage-4 root development) using human amniotic membrane (HAM) as a novel scaffold. The treatment was performed according to the American Association of Endodontics guidelines with minimal canal instrumentation, 1% Sodium hypochlorite as irrigant and calcium hydroxide as intracanal medicament. During the second appointment, HAM was placed as a scaffold and Biodentine™ was layered over the HAM with glass ionomer cement and resin composite as coronal seal. Preoperative and post-operative cone beam computed tomography (at three years) was taken to assess the treatment outcome. The resolution of disease process and increase in canal width, as well as positive response to pulp sensitivity tests, were observed by the end of three years. There was approximately 78–86% reduction in the volume of periapical lesion size. This case report confirms that HAM can be used as a scaffold material for successful regenerative endodontic procedure (REP). Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Endodontic Microbiology)
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle In Vitro Fracture Strength of Teeth Restored with Lithium Disilicate Onlays with and without Fiber Post Build-Up
Dent. J. 2018, 6(3), 35; https://doi.org/10.3390/dj6030035
Received: 1 July 2018 / Revised: 11 July 2018 / Accepted: 17 July 2018 / Published: 23 July 2018
Viewed by 740 | PDF Full-text (2458 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
To our knowledge there is no data about the mechanical performance of indirect restoration adhesively cemented on teeth without an adequate build-up to provide the correct geometrical configuration. The aim of this study was to compare the fracture strength of human teeth restored
[...] Read more.
To our knowledge there is no data about the mechanical performance of indirect restoration adhesively cemented on teeth without an adequate build-up to provide the correct geometrical configuration. The aim of this study was to compare the fracture strength of human teeth restored with lithium disilicate onlays, with and without fiber post build-up. Methods: Twenty human mandibular molars were horizontally sectioned and divided into two groups (n = 10). No treatment was applied in group A. Teeth in group B were endodontically treated, built-up using fiber post and composite core and prepared with a circumferential chamfer providing a 1 mm circumferential ferrule. Lithium disilicate onlays were pressed and luted on teeth using dual-curing luting composite. Teeth were tested under static load. Failures were classified as restorable or not restorable. Failure loads were analyzed with one-way analysis of variance. Failure modes were compared using Pearson’s Chi-square tests. Results: The mean fracture loads were 1383.5 N for group A and 1286.3 N for group B. No difference was found (p = 0.6). Ninety per cent of fractures were classified as not restorable in both groups, with no difference (p = 0.8). Conclusions: For teeth restored with adhesive procedures and lithium disilicate onlays, the presence of build-up with fiber post to provide retention and resistance form does not influence the fracture strength. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Restorative Dentistry and Traumatology)
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessReview Furcation Involvement Classification: A Comprehensive Review and a New System Proposal
Dent. J. 2018, 6(3), 34; https://doi.org/10.3390/dj6030034
Received: 2 July 2018 / Revised: 14 July 2018 / Accepted: 17 July 2018 / Published: 23 July 2018
Viewed by 1257 | PDF Full-text (4576 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Various classification systems have been proposed to describe furcation lesions and Glickman’s classification for many years seems to have been the most widely utilized in the sole clinical diagnosis with no reference to the prognostic value of the lesion itself. This article reviews
[...] Read more.
Various classification systems have been proposed to describe furcation lesions and Glickman’s classification for many years seems to have been the most widely utilized in the sole clinical diagnosis with no reference to the prognostic value of the lesion itself. This article reviews the previous classification systems and proposes a new method to classify furcation lesions based on the position of the gingival margin and its relationship with the furcation area (clinically exposed/non-exposed furcation area) providing significant aid for a better understanding of furcation involvements and increases the prognostic value of treatments in the long term. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Oral Hygiene, Periodontology and Peri-implant Diseases)
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle A Prosthodontic Treatment Plan for a Saxophone Player: A Conceptual Approach
Dent. J. 2018, 6(3), 33; https://doi.org/10.3390/dj6030033
Received: 9 June 2018 / Revised: 9 July 2018 / Accepted: 10 July 2018 / Published: 18 July 2018
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 680 | PDF Full-text (634 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Introduction: A wind instrumentalist was diagnosed with a periapical lesion on tooth 21. The prosthetic rehabilitation options were considered with respect to the embouchure mechanism of the saxophonist. The underlying mechanism associated with the embouchure of the saxophone player was observed in this
[...] Read more.
Introduction: A wind instrumentalist was diagnosed with a periapical lesion on tooth 21. The prosthetic rehabilitation options were considered with respect to the embouchure mechanism of the saxophonist. The underlying mechanism associated with the embouchure of the saxophone player was observed in this particular case in order to understand if asymmetrical forces were transmitted to the upper central incisors. Periapical lesions can be harmful to the oral health of musicians. The treatment options thus have to be taken into consideration with special focus on the need for oral rehabilitation on the anterior maxilla. Material and Methods: The patient underwent a radiographic examination with a panoramic X-ray. Subsequently, two piezoresistive sensors (FlexiForce™) were placed on the upper surface of the mouthpiece in order to quantify the pressure applied to the central incisors during the embouchure. In order to understand the values involved during this procedure, the saxophone player was required to play three different notes at different pitches: high, medium, and low. This procedure was repeated three times for each pitch in order to obtain a medium value for each note. Signal acquisition was obtained within software developed for this purpose, with the voltage output observed in LabView 2011®. Results: The panoramic X-ray showed a periapical lesion with the characteristics of a radicular cyst on tooth 21. The FlexiForce™ piezoresistive sensors allowed us to find that greater force (kg) was being applied to tooth 11 in comparison to tooth 21 during the embouchure mechanism. Conclusions: The sensors used in this research are acceptable for identifying the tooth where the greatest pressure is applied during the mouthpiece stabilization. In the case of executing an oral rehabilitation procedure for wind instrumentalists, a clinical examination can be complemented with the aid of bioengineering and the inherent development of sensor technology in order to better understand the embouchure mechanism. Likewise, the prosthetic rehabilitation should be taken into consideration in order to provide minimal changes to the musician’s performance. Full article
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle Effects of High Frequency Acceleration Device on Aligner Treatment—A Pilot Study
Dent. J. 2018, 6(3), 32; https://doi.org/10.3390/dj6030032
Received: 23 March 2018 / Revised: 13 June 2018 / Accepted: 22 June 2018 / Published: 12 July 2018
Viewed by 897 | PDF Full-text (1027 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Evaluation of the effect of a high frequency acceleration device (HFA) on clear aligner exchange intervals and treatment time required to achieve prescribed tooth movements. Sixteen subjects with similar Class I malocclusions, ≤5 mm crowding, and treated with aligner orthodontic therapy (Invisalign) were
[...] Read more.
Evaluation of the effect of a high frequency acceleration device (HFA) on clear aligner exchange intervals and treatment time required to achieve prescribed tooth movements. Sixteen subjects with similar Class I malocclusions, ≤5 mm crowding, and treated with aligner orthodontic therapy (Invisalign) were divided into two groups. Group 1 (experimental; n = 8) underwent aligner treatment in conjunction with daily use of the HFA device and exchanged aligners every five days. Group 2 (controls; n = 8) underwent aligner treatment without use of the device and exchanged aligners every 14 days according to the manufacturer’s recommended interval. All subjects were treated by one investigator, and results—total number of aligners used, and number of refinements required—were evaluated by both prior to final mobile retention (Vivera) scan. A significant decrease in both treatment time and number of aligners required to complete treatment was observed by HFA subjects vs. controls. In addition, no refinements were required by HFA subjects, whereas six of eight control subjects required one or more refinements. The results of the present preliminary report showed that the use of the HFA device in conjunction with aligner orthodontic treatment resulted in a significant decrease in the length of treatment. Moreover, the number of patients requiring refining treatment was significantly lower. Full article
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessReview Light Activated Disinfection in Root Canal Treatment—A Focused Review
Dent. J. 2018, 6(3), 31; https://doi.org/10.3390/dj6030031
Received: 13 June 2018 / Revised: 28 June 2018 / Accepted: 5 July 2018 / Published: 10 July 2018
Viewed by 773 | PDF Full-text (588 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Light activated disinfection (LAD) is a strategy for optimizing root canal disinfection by using a highly-selective, targeted killing of bacteria using a combination of photosensitizers and light. Over the past decade, numerous in vitro and clinical studies have been performed to demonstrate the
[...] Read more.
Light activated disinfection (LAD) is a strategy for optimizing root canal disinfection by using a highly-selective, targeted killing of bacteria using a combination of photosensitizers and light. Over the past decade, numerous in vitro and clinical studies have been performed to demonstrate the effectiveness of this mode of root canal disinfection. While most studies offer an important understanding of the effectiveness of LAD on monospecies biofilms, few have offered credence to the fact that infections of the root canal system are mediated by polymicrobial biofilms. Hence, it is imperative to understand the effect of LAD on polymicrobial biofilms both in terms of microbial killing and the changes in the biofilm architecture. The aim of this review was to systematically review the literature to evaluate the effect of LAD on dual and multispecies biofilms and demonstrate the antibiofilm effect of LAD. Two databases (PubMed and Scopus) were searched to identify eligible studies using a combination of key words. These studies were reviewed to draw conclusions on the effect of LAD on dual and multi species biofilm and the antibiofilm effect of LAD. It was found that LAD alone may be unable to eradicate dual and multispecies biofilms, but it may enhance the effect of conventional canal debridement strategies. Novel formulations of photosensitizers with nanoparticles showed the potential to inhibit biofilm formation and/or disrupt the biofilm architecture. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Endodontic Microbiology)
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessReview Videoscope-Assisted Minimally Invasive Surgery (VMIS) for Bone Regeneration around Teeth and Implants: A Literature Review and Technique Update
Dent. J. 2018, 6(3), 30; https://doi.org/10.3390/dj6030030
Received: 14 June 2018 / Revised: 2 July 2018 / Accepted: 3 July 2018 / Published: 6 July 2018
Viewed by 692 | PDF Full-text (3686 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Background—The literature related to minimally invasive periodontal surgery is reviewed. This includes the original minimally invasive surgery (MIS) procedure for bone regeneration, the modification of MIS for the minimally invasive surgery technique (MIST) and modified MIST (M-MIST) procedures, and the introduction of the
[...] Read more.
Background—The literature related to minimally invasive periodontal surgery is reviewed. This includes the original minimally invasive surgery (MIS) procedure for bone regeneration, the modification of MIS for the minimally invasive surgery technique (MIST) and modified MIST (M-MIST) procedures, and the introduction of the videoscope for oral surgical procedures and the ability to perform videoscope-assisted minimally invasive surgery (VMIS). The evolution from MIS through MIST to the current VMIS is reviewed. The results from studies of each of these methods are reported. Conclusion—The use of small incisions that produce minimal trauma and preserve most of the blood supply to the periodontal and peri-implant tissues results in improved regenerative outcomes, minimal to absent negative esthetic outcomes, and little or no patient discomfort. Minimally invasive procedures are a reliable method to regenerate periodontal tissues. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Soft and Hard Tissue Regeneration)
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle Palatal Protective Stents Prevent Oro-Nasal Fistulas after Surgery for Velopharyngeal Insufficiency: A Preliminary Report
Dent. J. 2018, 6(3), 29; https://doi.org/10.3390/dj6030029
Received: 15 May 2018 / Revised: 20 June 2018 / Accepted: 29 June 2018 / Published: 4 July 2018
Viewed by 554 | PDF Full-text (1266 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Background: One of the potential complications of surgery for velopharyngeal insufficiency (VPI) is postoperative oral-nasal fistula (ONF). Reported rates vary from 0 to 60%. Several factors are on account of these disproportionate rates. Objective: The purpose of this study was to describe the
[...] Read more.
Background: One of the potential complications of surgery for velopharyngeal insufficiency (VPI) is postoperative oral-nasal fistula (ONF). Reported rates vary from 0 to 60%. Several factors are on account of these disproportionate rates. Objective: The purpose of this study was to describe the use of a palatal protective stent (PPS) to preserve the VPI repair surgical site and to study its effectiveness for decreasing the incidence of postoperative ONF. Materials and Methods: A retrospective study was carried out. All patients undergoing surgery for VPI with complete preoperative and postoperative evaluations including at least one year follow up after surgery from 2012 to 2016 were studied. Some of the patients were operated on using a pre-molded palatal protective stent (PPS). Twenty-seven patients were included in the study group. Most of the patients underwent a customized pharyngeal flap according to findings of imaging procedures. The remaining cases underwent a Furlow palatoplasty. Twelve patients were operated on using PPS. Results: There were no surgical complications during the procedures. ONF was detected in four of the patients operated on without PPS. None of the patients undergoing surgery using PPS demonstrated ONF. All fistulas were located at the soft/hard palate junction. VPI was corrected in 92% of the cases. Conclusion: Although only a reduced number of cases were studied, these preliminary results suggest that using PPS during surgical procedures for correcting VPI is a safe and reliable tool for preventing ONF. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Restorative Dentistry and Traumatology)
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle Survey on Nursing Home Caregivers’ Basic Knowledge of Oral Health Management: Dental Terminology
Dent. J. 2018, 6(3), 28; https://doi.org/10.3390/dj6030028
Received: 25 May 2018 / Revised: 22 June 2018 / Accepted: 29 June 2018 / Published: 2 July 2018
Viewed by 674 | PDF Full-text (1021 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
With the increasing numbers of the elderly requiring care in Japan, the management of their oral health care will require cooperation between medical and dental professionals, and we need to transfer dental knowledge from dental professionals to caregivers. With the help of a
[...] Read more.
With the increasing numbers of the elderly requiring care in Japan, the management of their oral health care will require cooperation between medical and dental professionals, and we need to transfer dental knowledge from dental professionals to caregivers. With the help of a questionnaire, we examined 181 caregivers’ depth of understanding regarding 20 typical dental terms with a view to improving the educational instruction provided to them. It was found that except for “clasp”, popular dental terms have largely been accepted. The differences in their degrees of understanding could be owing to the lack of systematic education for caregivers. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dental Hygiene and Epidemiology)
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessFeature PaperArticle Evaluation of an In Situ Hardening β-Tricalcium Phosphate Graft Material for Alveolar Ridge Preservation. A Histomorphometric Animal Study in Pigs
Dent. J. 2018, 6(3), 27; https://doi.org/10.3390/dj6030027
Received: 21 April 2018 / Revised: 1 June 2018 / Accepted: 6 June 2018 / Published: 2 July 2018
Viewed by 944 | PDF Full-text (2124 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
The purpose of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of a resorbable alloplastic in situ hardening bone grafting material for alveolar ridge preservation in a swine model. Seven Landrace pigs were used. In each animal, the maxillary left and right deciduous second
[...] Read more.
The purpose of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of a resorbable alloplastic in situ hardening bone grafting material for alveolar ridge preservation in a swine model. Seven Landrace pigs were used. In each animal, the maxillary left and right deciduous second molars were extracted, and extraction sites were either grafted with a resorbable alloplastic in situ hardening bone substitute, composed of beta-tricalcium phosphate (β-TCP) granules coated with poly(lactic-co-glycolic) acid (PLGA), or left unfilled to heal spontaneously. Animals were euthanized after 12 weeks, and the bone tissue was analyzed histologically and histomorphometrically. Linear changes of ridge width were also clinically measured and analyzed. Pronounced bone regeneration was found in both experimental and control sites, with no statistically significant differences. At the experimental sites, most of the alloplastic grafting material was resorbed and remnants of the graft particles were severely decreased in size. Moreover, experimental sites showed, in a statistically nonsignificant way, less mean horizontal dimensional reduction of the alveolar ridge (7.69%) compared to the control sites (8.86%). In conclusion, the β-TCP/PLGA biomaterial performed well as a biocompatible resorbable in situ hardening bone substitute when placed in intact extraction sockets in this animal model. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Soft and Hard Tissue Regeneration)
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessReview Foreign-Trained Dentists in the United States: Challenges and Opportunities
Dent. J. 2018, 6(3), 26; https://doi.org/10.3390/dj6030026
Received: 8 May 2018 / Revised: 6 June 2018 / Accepted: 20 June 2018 / Published: 1 July 2018
Viewed by 1080 | PDF Full-text (365 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The aim of the present study is to review the licensing process and challenges faced by foreign-trained dentists in United States (U.S.), and how incorporating foreign-trained dentists in the dental workforce in the U.S. impacts the population’s dental care. Foreign-trained dentists must complete
[...] Read more.
The aim of the present study is to review the licensing process and challenges faced by foreign-trained dentists in United States (U.S.), and how incorporating foreign-trained dentists in the dental workforce in the U.S. impacts the population’s dental care. Foreign-trained dentists must complete additional training in a Commission of Dental Accreditation recognized program offered by a U.S. dental school in order to be eligible for licensing. Foreign-trained dentists interested in seeking employment in the U.S. face numerous challenges, including stringent admission processes, high tuition costs, immigration barriers and cultural differences. Opening the U.S. dental profession to foreign-trained dentists provides several advantages, such as increasing the diversity of dentists in the U.S., expanding access to underrepresented communities, and enhancing the expertise of the profession. Foreign-trained dentists are an important resource for a U.S. government seeking to build the human capital base and make the most of global trade opportunities through a “brain gain”. Increasing the diversity in the dental profession to match the general U.S. population might improve access to dental care for minorities and poor Americans, reducing disparities in dental care. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Oral Health Disparities Due to Race, Ethnicity, and Class)
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle Failure Rate of Pediatric Dental Treatment under General Anesthesia
Dent. J. 2018, 6(3), 25; https://doi.org/10.3390/dj6030025
Received: 20 April 2018 / Revised: 29 May 2018 / Accepted: 20 June 2018 / Published: 22 June 2018
Viewed by 864 | PDF Full-text (554 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Aim: To assess the failure rates of various pediatric dental treatments performed under general anesthesia (GA) after six months to five years of follow-up. Design: This multicenter retrospective cohort study was performed on patients treated by five pedodontists in two private hospitals located
[...] Read more.
Aim: To assess the failure rates of various pediatric dental treatments performed under general anesthesia (GA) after six months to five years of follow-up. Design: This multicenter retrospective cohort study was performed on patients treated by five pedodontists in two private hospitals located in northern Iran during 2010–2013 and comprised 155 patients. The patients were recalled and clinically examined. During the clinical examination of the primary teeth, oral hygiene, dmft index, and failure of previous treatments was evaluated. The data were analyzed using the Chi square and regression analyses with a significance level of 0.05. Results: 114 patients (74 males and 40 females, mean age: 37.17 ± 10.75 months) with 1155 primary teeth treated under GA participated in the follow-up. The overall failure rate was 6.59%. The failure rates of pulpectomy, pulopotomy, fissure sealant, stainless steel crown (SSC), amalgam, and composite fillings were 2.90%, 3.03%, 4.83%, 5.26%, 5.33%, and 9.63%, respectively. Among the confounding factors, only gender had a significant effect on the anterior composite failure rate (p = 0.029) and age had a significant effect on the failure rate of fissure sealant therapy (p = 0.015) and SSC (p = 0.018). Conclusion: The overall rate of treatment failure in pediatric patients, treated under GA, was 6.59%. Full article
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle An In Vitro Study on the Effect of Amorphous Calcium Phosphate and Fluoride Solutions on Color Improvement of White Spot Lesions
Dent. J. 2018, 6(3), 24; https://doi.org/10.3390/dj6030024
Received: 24 April 2018 / Revised: 5 June 2018 / Accepted: 12 June 2018 / Published: 22 June 2018
Viewed by 616 | PDF Full-text (205 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The ability of remineralizing agents to improve the color of white spot lesions (WSL) is an important aspect that should be investigated. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of 0.05% amorphous calcium phosphate (ACP), 0.5% ACP, and 0.05% fluoride
[...] Read more.
The ability of remineralizing agents to improve the color of white spot lesions (WSL) is an important aspect that should be investigated. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of 0.05% amorphous calcium phosphate (ACP), 0.5% ACP, and 0.05% fluoride solutions, as well as artificial saliva on the color improvement of white spot lesions (WSLs). In this in vitro study, 50 human premolar teeth were randomly classified into five groups. At baseline, all the samples were assessed by using a colorimeter (E0). Then, white spot lesions were induced on the surface of the teeth by means of a pH-cycling model, and the colorimeter was used again (E1). Afterwards, samples of the 1st and 2nd groups were kept in 0.05% ACP and 0.5% ACP solutions for 1 min/day, respectively. The 3rd group specimens were placed in 0.05% fluoride solution for 1 min/day. The other two groups were kept in artificial saliva and distilled in water separately. All the samples were assessed by the colorimeter for a third time (E2). We found no significant difference between the groups in ∆E1. There was also no significant difference among 0.05% ACP solution, 0.5% ACP solution, 0.05% fluoride solution, and artificial saliva considering ∆E2. However, a significant difference was noted between the above-mentioned solutions and distilled water in ∆E2. With respect to ∆E3, there were considerable differences between ACP solution and artificial saliva. The same results were obtained for the difference between fluoride solution and artificial saliva. However, no significant difference was found among 0.05% ACP, 0.5% ACP, and 0.05% fluoride solutions in terms of ∆E3. In Conclusion, ACP is as effective as fluoride in the color improvement of WSLs and the recommended treatment for this purpose is daily use of 0.05% ACP, 0.5% ACP or 0.05% fluoride solutions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dental Hygiene and Epidemiology)
Open AccessReview Flipping the Dental Anatomy Classroom
Dent. J. 2018, 6(3), 23; https://doi.org/10.3390/dj6030023
Received: 9 May 2018 / Revised: 18 June 2018 / Accepted: 20 June 2018 / Published: 21 June 2018
Viewed by 615 | PDF Full-text (192 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The development of cognitive knowledge, motor skills, and artistic sense in order to restore lost tooth structure is fundamental for dental professionals. The course of dental anatomy is taught in the initial years of dental school, and is a component of the basic
[...] Read more.
The development of cognitive knowledge, motor skills, and artistic sense in order to restore lost tooth structure is fundamental for dental professionals. The course of dental anatomy is taught in the initial years of dental school, and is a component of the basic core sciences program in the faculties of dentistry. The learning objectives of the dental anatomy course include identifying anatomical and morphological characteristics of human primary and permanent teeth; identifying and reproducing tooth surface details in order to recognize and diagnose anatomical changes; and developing student’s psychomotor skills for restoring teeth with proper form and function. The majority of dental schools rely on traditional methods to teach dental anatomy, using lectures to convey the theoretical component; whereas the practical component uses two-dimensional drawing of teeth, identification of anatomical features in samples of preserved teeth, and carving of teeth. The aim of the present literature review is to summarize different educational strategies proposed or implemented to challenge the traditional approaches of teaching dental anatomy, specifically the flipped classroom educational model. The goal is to promote this approach as a promising strategy to teaching dental anatomy, in order to foster active learning, critical thinking, and engagement among dental students. Full article
Open AccessArticle The Effect of Immediate Obturator Reconstruction after Radical Maxillary Resections on Speech and other Functions
Dent. J. 2018, 6(3), 22; https://doi.org/10.3390/dj6030022
Received: 21 March 2018 / Revised: 18 May 2018 / Accepted: 24 May 2018 / Published: 21 June 2018
Viewed by 744 | PDF Full-text (3219 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Objective: Maxillectomy often results in a high level of morbidity with significant psychological and functional implications for patients. The aims of the present study were to assess the effectiveness of the maxillary obturator as a speech rehabilitation aid, to examine the influence of
[...] Read more.
Objective: Maxillectomy often results in a high level of morbidity with significant psychological and functional implications for patients. The aims of the present study were to assess the effectiveness of the maxillary obturator as a speech rehabilitation aid, to examine the influence of dentition on speech intelligibility, to restore patients’ regular daily activity as soon as possible, and to maintain patients’ psychological well-being throughout the treatment. Patients and Methods: Forty-one palatomaxillary immediate obturator and definitive reconstruction patient treatments were reviewed at a clinic (Ankara, Turkey). Patients aged between 20 and 73 years with surgically acquired partial maxillary defects were included in this study. All patients were rehabilitated with immediate and definitive obturators. The patients were given immediate surgical obturators which were adjusted to the defect area with a tissue conditioner. By employing this procedure and relining with the tissue conditioner weekly, immediate obturators were used in the interim stage of the treatment. As interim obturators, prostheses were used for two to three months until healing and resorption were found satisfactory, after which the definitive obturators were fabricated. Results: The speech intelligibility test (SIT) was employed for the evaluation of the speech ability. Significant improvements were found in the mean speech intelligibility test score (SITS), from 0.02% in patients without prosthetic obturation to 94.10% in patients with immediate obturation on the second day, 95.60% in patients with immediate obturation on the 20th day, and 95.97% in patients with definitive obturation. Full article
Figures

Figure 1

Back to Top