Special Issue "Endodontic Microbiology"

A special issue of Dentistry Journal (ISSN 2304-6767).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 October 2018).

Special Issue Editor

Dr. Prasanna Neelakantan
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Discipline of Endodontology, Faculty of Dentistry, The University of Hong Kong, Pok Fu Lam, Hong Kong, China
Interests: oral microbiology; novel antimicrobial materials; smart biomaterials; microbiome engineering
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Arguably, one field of dentistry that is being barged with technological advancements is endodontics. However, the etiology of “endodontic disease” is microbial, and treatments should be biologically driven. We have come to understand that pulpal and periradicular infections are biofilm mediated, and that this biofilm affords extraordinary resistance to microbial flora. This is due to biofilm structure, as well as the dynamics of the interactions between the microbial components of a biofilm. While there has been significant advancement in our understanding of microbial biofilms and their role in pulpal and periradicular diseases, much is still a mystery. The launch of this Special Issue, dedicated to “Endodontic Microbiology”, is thus timely, and aims to bring our readers exemplary work on this subject matter, both from a basic science perspective and from a translational perspective. We invite researchers to submit papers on this subject, which will enhance our understanding of endodontic microbiology.

Dr. Prasanna Neelakantan
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Dentistry Journal is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1400 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • biofilm
  • EPS matrix
  • intracanal medicaments
  • endotoxin/lipopolysaccharide
  • Lipoteichoic acid
  • nanoparticles
  • persistent infection
  • quorum sensing
  • root canal disinfection
  • root canal irrigants
  • reinfection
  • virulence

Published Papers (9 papers)

Order results
Result details
Select all
Export citation of selected articles as:

Editorial

Jump to: Research, Review, Other

Editorial
Endodontic Microbiology—A Special Issue of Dentistry Journal
Dent. J. 2018, 6(2), 14; https://doi.org/10.3390/dj6020014 - 17 May 2018
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1930
Abstract
Understanding microbiology, specifically biofilm biology is an essential component of creating targeted therapeutic modalities that are effective and efficient.[...] Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Endodontic Microbiology)

Research

Jump to: Editorial, Review, Other

Article
Characterization and Antimicrobial Susceptibility of Lactococcus lactis Isolated from Endodontic Infections in Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso
Dent. J. 2018, 6(4), 69; https://doi.org/10.3390/dj6040069 - 10 Dec 2018
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 1871
Abstract
Background: This study aimed to characterize and test the antimicrobial susceptibility of Lactococcus lactis isolated in endodontic infections in Burkina Faso. Material and methods: This was a prospective study conducted at the Municipal Oral Health Center of Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso, from June to [...] Read more.
Background: This study aimed to characterize and test the antimicrobial susceptibility of Lactococcus lactis isolated in endodontic infections in Burkina Faso. Material and methods: This was a prospective study conducted at the Municipal Oral Health Center of Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso, from June to October 2014. Clinical data were collected using a questionnaire form. The method of streaking on selective medium was used to isolate bacteria. Identification was made using the API 20 Strep gallery. Antibiotic susceptibility was performed by the diffusion method on solid medium. Results: One hundred and twenty-five (125) patients were received with a significant proportion from the age group of 19 to 40 years (55.2%). Apical periodontitis accounted for 50.4% and cellulitis for 49.6% of cases. Lactococcus lactis ssp. lactis was identified in five exudate samples. Isolates were 100% resistant to cefixime and metronidazole, 80% to ceftriaxone, cefuroxime, cefotaxime, chloramphenicol and 60% to penicillin G, amoxicillin, amoxicillin clavulanic acid. A multidrug resistance of more than three families of antibiotics was noticed. No strains produced extended spectrum ß-lactamases. Conclusion: Lactococcus lactis is part of endodontic biofilm. The reported strong antibiotic resistance involving endodontic therapy will focus on the effect of the disinfectant solution and the mechanical action of the canal instruments. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Endodontic Microbiology)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Green Tea Polyphenol Epigallocatechin-3-Gallate-Stearate Inhibits the Growth of Streptococcus mutans: A Promising New Approach in Caries Prevention
Dent. J. 2018, 6(3), 38; https://doi.org/10.3390/dj6030038 - 06 Aug 2018
Cited by 16 | Viewed by 3190
Abstract
Streptococcus mutans (S. mutans) is the main etiological bacteria present in the oral cavity that leads to dental caries. All of the S. mutans in the oral cavity form biofilms that adhere to the surfaces of teeth. Dental caries are infections [...] Read more.
Streptococcus mutans (S. mutans) is the main etiological bacteria present in the oral cavity that leads to dental caries. All of the S. mutans in the oral cavity form biofilms that adhere to the surfaces of teeth. Dental caries are infections facilitated by the development of biofilm. An esterified derivative of epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG), epigallocatechin-3-gallate-stearate (EGCG-S), was used in this study to assess its ability to inhibit the growth and biofilm formation of S. mutans. The effect of EGCG-S on bacterial growth was evaluated with colony forming units (CFU) and log reduction; biofilm formation was qualitatively determined by Congo red assay, and quantitatively determined by crystal violet assay, fluorescence-based LIVE/DEAD assays to study the cell viability, and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was used to evaluate the morphological changes. The results indicated that EGCG-S was able to completely inhibit growth and biofilm formation at concentrations of 250 µg/mL. Its effectiveness was also compared with a commonly prescribed mouthwash in the United States, chlorhexidine gluconate. EGCG-S was shown to be equally effective in reducing S. mutans growth as chlorhexidine gluconate. In conclusion, EGCG-S is potentially an anticariogenic agent by reducing bacterial presence in the oral cavity. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Endodontic Microbiology)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Review

Jump to: Editorial, Research, Other

Review
Antibacterial Additives in Epoxy Resin-Based Root Canal Sealers: A Focused Review
Dent. J. 2019, 7(3), 72; https://doi.org/10.3390/dj7030072 - 01 Jul 2019
Cited by 11 | Viewed by 2823
Abstract
Dental materials used in root canal treatment have undergone substantial improvements over the past decade. However, one area that still remains to be addressed is the ability of root canal fillings to effectively entomb, kill bacteria, and prevent the formation of a biofilm, [...] Read more.
Dental materials used in root canal treatment have undergone substantial improvements over the past decade. However, one area that still remains to be addressed is the ability of root canal fillings to effectively entomb, kill bacteria, and prevent the formation of a biofilm, all of which will prevent reinfection of the root canal system. Thus far, no published review has analysed the literature on antimicrobial additives to root canal sealers and their influence on physicochemical properties. The aim of this paper was to systematically review the current literature on antimicrobial additives in root canal sealers, their anti-fouling effects, and influence on physicochemical properties. A systematic search was performed in two databases (PubMed and Scopus) to identify studies that investigated the effect of antimicrobial additives in epoxy resin-based root canal sealers. The nature of additives, their antimicrobial effects, methods of antimicrobial testing are critically discussed. The effects on sealer properties have also been reviewed. A total of 31 research papers were reviewed in this work. A variety of antimicrobial agents have been evaluated as additives to epoxy resin-based sealers, including quaternary ammonium compounds, chlorhexidine, calcium hydroxide, iodoform, natural extracts, antibiotics, antifungal drugs, and antimicrobial agent-functionalised nanoparticles. Antimicrobial additives generally improved the antimicrobial effect of epoxy resin-based sealers mainly without deteriorating the physicochemical properties, which mostly remained in accordance with ISO and ANSI/ADA specifications. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Endodontic Microbiology)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Review
Inspection of the Microbiota in Endodontic Lesions
Dent. J. 2019, 7(2), 47; https://doi.org/10.3390/dj7020047 - 01 May 2019
Cited by 19 | Viewed by 2577
Abstract
The primary objective of endodontic therapy is to create a biologically acceptable environment within the root canal system that allows for the healing and maintenance of the health of the peri-radicular tissue. Bacteria are one of the main causes of pulp problems, and [...] Read more.
The primary objective of endodontic therapy is to create a biologically acceptable environment within the root canal system that allows for the healing and maintenance of the health of the peri-radicular tissue. Bacteria are one of the main causes of pulp problems, and they have different methods of penetrating and invading the endodontic space such as through carious lesions, traumatic pulp exposures, and fractures. The types of bacteria found range from facultative anaerobes to aerobes, up to the most resistant species able to survive in nutrient-free environments; the bacterial species Enterococcus faecalis belongs to this last group. Enterococcus faecalis is considered one of the main causes of recurring apical periodontal lesions following endodontic treatment, with persistent lesions occurring even after re-treatment. The review presented in this paper was performed in accordance with the PRISMA protocol and covers articles from the related scientific literature that were sourced from PubMed, Scopus, and Google Scholar using the following terms as keywords: “endodontic treatment”, “endodontic bacteria”, “microbial endodontic”, and “endodontic failure”. Only the articles considered most relevant for the purposes of this paper were read in full and taken into consideration for the following review. The results show that Enterococcus faecalis, Actinomycetes, and Propionibacterium propionicum are the species most frequently involved in persistent radicular and extra-radicular infections. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Endodontic Microbiology)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Review
Bacteriophages in Dentistry—State of the Art and Perspectives
Dent. J. 2019, 7(1), 6; https://doi.org/10.3390/dj7010006 - 09 Jan 2019
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 3789
Abstract
Bacteriophages, viruses capable of killing bacteria, were discovered in 1915, but the interest in their study has been limited since the advent of antibiotics. Their use in dentistry is still very limited. The authors reviewed studies about bacteriophage structure, mode of action, uses [...] Read more.
Bacteriophages, viruses capable of killing bacteria, were discovered in 1915, but the interest in their study has been limited since the advent of antibiotics. Their use in dentistry is still very limited. The authors reviewed studies about bacteriophage structure, mode of action, uses in oral health, and possible future uses in dentistry associated with their possible action over biofilm, as well as the advantages and limitations of phage therapy. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Endodontic Microbiology)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Review
Historical and Contemporary Perspectives on the Microbiological Aspects of Endodontics
Dent. J. 2018, 6(4), 49; https://doi.org/10.3390/dj6040049 - 22 Sep 2018
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 3238
Abstract
The microbiota of the oral cavity plays a significant role in pulpal and periapical diseases. Historically, 100 years ago little was known on microbiota, but after a century of investigations, only now can many of the intimate secrets of microbial growth, expansion, persistence, [...] Read more.
The microbiota of the oral cavity plays a significant role in pulpal and periapical diseases. Historically, 100 years ago little was known on microbiota, but after a century of investigations, only now can many of the intimate secrets of microbial growth, expansion, persistence, communal activities, and virulence be revealed. However, with the capabilities of the microbiota for mutation, quorum sensing, and information transference, researchers are hard-pressed to keep up with both the changes and challenges that an amazingly wide range of bacterial species pose for both the scientist and clinician. Fortunately, the development and expansion of a vast array of molecular biological investigative techniques have enabled dentistry and its associated medical fields to attempt to keep pace with the wide and fascinating world of oral microbiology. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Endodontic Microbiology)
Review
Light Activated Disinfection in Root Canal Treatment—A Focused Review
Dent. J. 2018, 6(3), 31; https://doi.org/10.3390/dj6030031 - 10 Jul 2018
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 2786
Abstract
Light activated disinfection (LAD) is a strategy for optimizing root canal disinfection by using a highly-selective, targeted killing of bacteria using a combination of photosensitizers and light. Over the past decade, numerous in vitro and clinical studies have been performed to demonstrate the [...] Read more.
Light activated disinfection (LAD) is a strategy for optimizing root canal disinfection by using a highly-selective, targeted killing of bacteria using a combination of photosensitizers and light. Over the past decade, numerous in vitro and clinical studies have been performed to demonstrate the effectiveness of this mode of root canal disinfection. While most studies offer an important understanding of the effectiveness of LAD on monospecies biofilms, few have offered credence to the fact that infections of the root canal system are mediated by polymicrobial biofilms. Hence, it is imperative to understand the effect of LAD on polymicrobial biofilms both in terms of microbial killing and the changes in the biofilm architecture. The aim of this review was to systematically review the literature to evaluate the effect of LAD on dual and multispecies biofilms and demonstrate the antibiofilm effect of LAD. Two databases (PubMed and Scopus) were searched to identify eligible studies using a combination of key words. These studies were reviewed to draw conclusions on the effect of LAD on dual and multi species biofilm and the antibiofilm effect of LAD. It was found that LAD alone may be unable to eradicate dual and multispecies biofilms, but it may enhance the effect of conventional canal debridement strategies. Novel formulations of photosensitizers with nanoparticles showed the potential to inhibit biofilm formation and/or disrupt the biofilm architecture. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Endodontic Microbiology)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Other

Case Report
Successful Regenerative Endodontic Procedure of a Nonvital Immature Permanent Central Incisor Using Amniotic Membrane as a Novel Scaffold
Dent. J. 2018, 6(3), 36; https://doi.org/10.3390/dj6030036 - 02 Aug 2018
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 2735
Abstract
Successful regenerative endodontic procedure was performed in nonvital immature permanent central incisor (Stage-4 root development) using human amniotic membrane (HAM) as a novel scaffold. The treatment was performed according to the American Association of Endodontics guidelines with minimal canal instrumentation, 1% Sodium hypochlorite [...] Read more.
Successful regenerative endodontic procedure was performed in nonvital immature permanent central incisor (Stage-4 root development) using human amniotic membrane (HAM) as a novel scaffold. The treatment was performed according to the American Association of Endodontics guidelines with minimal canal instrumentation, 1% Sodium hypochlorite as irrigant and calcium hydroxide as intracanal medicament. During the second appointment, HAM was placed as a scaffold and Biodentine™ was layered over the HAM with glass ionomer cement and resin composite as coronal seal. Preoperative and post-operative cone beam computed tomography (at three years) was taken to assess the treatment outcome. The resolution of disease process and increase in canal width, as well as positive response to pulp sensitivity tests, were observed by the end of three years. There was approximately 78–86% reduction in the volume of periapical lesion size. This case report confirms that HAM can be used as a scaffold material for successful regenerative endodontic procedure (REP). Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Endodontic Microbiology)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Back to TopTop